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C. A. SMI 

JJ HANOVER ST., 



MRS. CLEMENTS ART HANDBOOKS. 



A Handbook of Legendary and Mythological Art. 
By Clara ErsKaNE Clement. A new edition, revised and 
enlarged. Fully illustrated, and with complete index. Crown 
8vo, $3.25 ; half calf, or morocco, $5.00 ; full morocco, or 
tree calf, $7.00. 

A perfect storehouse of facts relative to symbolism in art, and the leg- 
ends, stories, and myths associated with them. The wonderful and touch- 
ing histories of the Christian saints and martyrs are told with a freshness 
and fullness which give to the book an intrinsic value quite distinct from 
its ulterior design. — Christian Union. 

Painters, Sculptors, Architects, Engravers, and their 
Works. By Clara Erskine Clement. With illustra- 
tions and monograms. Fifth edition, revised. Crown 8vo, 
$3.25 ; half calf, or morocco, $5.00 ; tree calf, or full morocco, 
$7.00. 

Indispensable to every person interested in pictures and artists. It gives 
not only the biography of artists, but lists of engravings from their works, 
and by means of cross-references and copious indexes is a complete hand- 
book. It is liberally illustrated by representations of standard works of 
art, and the curious monograms of painters are given with the biographies. 

Artists of the Nineteenth Century and their Works. 
A Handbook containing 2,050 Biographical Sketches. By 
Clara Erskine Clement and Laurence Hutton. With 
indexes. 2 vols, crown 8vo, $5.00. 

These two volumes include biographical sketches of 2,050 artists, of all 
nations in which there exists sufficient intellectual and aasthetic develop- 
ment to foster productive art. Of these artists the best attainable infor- 
mation is given, with an account of their works, the departments to which 
they belong, their characteristic styles, and the opinions entertained of 
them by competent critics. 

The Introduction comprises a concise but comprehensive account of the 
academies and schools of art of all countries, describing their various 
systems of study and instruction. 

HOUGHTON, OSGOOD & CO., Publishers, Boston. 



ARTISTS 

OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 
AND THEIR WORKS. 

CONTAINING TWO THOUSAND AND FIFTY BIOGRAPHICAL 
SKETCHES. 



CLARA EESKINE CLEMENT 

AND 

LAURENCE HUTTON. 
VOL. II. 




BOSTON: 

HOUGHTON, OSGOOD AND COMPANY. 

CTbe Rtoerstoe Jprfgfi, (kamfcrifcffe. 

1879. 



71 HAKQ 



Copyright, 1879. 
Br CLARA ERSKINE CLEMENT. 



All rights reserved. 



ELECTROTYPED AND PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 
CAMBRIDGE. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

NAMES OF ARTISTS vii-lvi 

AUTHORITIES CONSULTED lvii-lviii 

ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 1-373 

INDEX TO AUTHORITIES QUOTED 1-8 

INDEX OF PLACES 9-22 

GENERAL INDEX 23-43 






NAMES OF ARTISTS. 



ABBEY, EDWIN A Vol. I. Page 

ABEL DE PUJOL, ALEXANDRE D 

>LON, JOHN 

ACHARD, ALEXIS JEAN 

ACHENBACH, ANDREAS 

ACHENBACH, OSWALD 

ACHTERMANN, GUILLAUME 

ADAM. ALBRECHT 

ADAM, JEAN VICTOR 

ADAM, FRANZ 

ADAM-SALOMON, ANTHONY S 

ADAMS-ACTON, JOHN 

ADAN, LOUIS £MILE 

AFINGER, BERNARD 

AGNENI, EUGENE 

AGRASOT, JOAQUIN 

AGRICOLA, FILIPPO 

AI1LBORN, AUGUST WILHELM JULIUS 

AINMULLER, MAXIMILIAN EMMANUEL 

AKERS, PAUL 

AKERS, CHARLES 

ALBANO, SALVATORE 

ALBERT-LEFEUVRE, LOUIS & M 

ALCOTT, MISS MAY 

ALEXANDER, FRANCIS 

ALEXANDER, MISS 

ALIGNY, CLAUDE F. T. CARUELLE D' 

ALLAN, SIR WILLIAM 

ALLEN, JAMES BAYLIS 

ALLINGHAM, HELEN PATERSON 

ALLONGE, AUGUSTE 

ALLSTON, WASHINGTON 

ALMA-TADfiMA, LAUBENZ 

ALMA-TADEMA, LAURA 



Till 



NAMES OF ARTISTS. 



ALVAREZ Y ESPINO, GONZALO Vol.I. 

AMAURY-DUVAL, EUGENE E 

AMBERG, WILHELM 

AMERLING, FREDERIC 

AMES, JOSEPH 

ANASTASI, AUGUSTE 

ANDERSON, ALEXANDER 

ANDERSON, A. A 

ANDRE, JULES 

ANDREWS, JOSEPH 

ANDREWS, E. F 

ANGELI, HEINRICH VON 

ANKER, ALBERT 

ANSDELL, RICHARD 

ANTHONY, MARK 

ANTHONY, ANDREW VARICK STOUT 

ANTIGNA, JEAN-PIERRE-ALEXANDRE 

ANTIGNA, MME. HELENE-MARIE 

APPERT, EUGENE 

APPIANI, ANDREA 

APPLETON, THOMAS G 

ARCHER, WYKEHAM 

ARCHER, JAMES 

ARGENTI, GIOSUE 

ARIENTI, CARLO 

ARMAND-DUMARESQ, C. E" 

ARMITAGE, EDWARD 

ARMSTEAD, HENRY HUGH 

ARMSTRONG, THOMAS 

ARMSTRONG, D. MAITLAND 

ARTARIA, MATHIAS 

ARTZ, ADOLPH 

AUBE\ JEAN-PAUL 

AUBERT, JEAN-ERNEST 

AUDUBON, JOHN JAMES 

AUGUR, HEZEKIAH 

AYVASOWSKY, JOHN . 

AZEGLIO, MASSIMO D' 



BAADER, LOUIS MARIE 

BACON, HENRY 

BADIN, JULES 

BAIL, JEAN-ANTOINE ... 



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NAMES OF ARTISTS. ix 

BULLY. ANTOINE NICOLAS Vol. I. Pnge 28 

BAILLY, JOSEPH A " " 28 

BAILY. EDWARD II " 

BAKER, GEORGE A 

BAKER, WILLIAM H 

BAKER, MISS M. K 

BAKKER-KORFF, ALEXANDRE-HUGO 

BALL, THOMAS 

BALLU, THEODORE 

BALTARD, VICTOR 

BALZE, JEAN-ETIENNE-PAUL 

BALZE. JEAN-ANTOINE-RAYMOND 

BAMBERGER, FRITZ 

BANDEL, ERNEST DE 

BANNING. WILLIAM J 

BANNISTER, E. M 

BARABAS, NICOLAS 

BARABINO, NICCOLO 

BARATTA, FRANQOIS 

BARATTA, EUMENE 

BARBEE, HERBERT 

BARBEE, WILLIAM R 

BARBETTI, ANGELO 

BARBIER, NICOLAS-ALEXANDRE 

BARCAGLIA, DONATO 

BARCLAY, J. M 

BARKER, THOMAS JONES 

BARLOW, THOMAS OLDHAM 

BARON, HENRI-CHARLES-ANTOINE 

BARRE, JEAN-AUGUSTE 

BARRIAS, FELIX-JOSEPH 

BARRIAS, LOUIS ERNEST 

BARRY, EDWARD M 

BARTHOLDI, FREDERIC AUGUSTE 

BARTHOLOMEW, VALENTINE 

BARTHOLOMEW, ANNE 

BARTHOLOMEW, EDWARD S 

BARTLETT, TRUMAN H 

BARTOLINI, LORENZO 

BARYE, ANTOINE LOUIS 

BARYE, ALFRED 

BARZAGHI, FRANCESCO 

BASTIANINI, GIOVANNI 



NAMES OF ARTISTS. 



BASTIEN-LEPAGE, JULES Vol.1. 

BATES, DEWEY 

BAUDRY, PAUL-JACQUES-AIME" 

BAUGNIET, CHARLES 

BAUR, ALBERT 

BAXTER, CHARLES 

BAXTER, ELIJAH, JR 

BAYARD, EMILE 

BEARD, JAMES H 

BEARD, WILLIAM H 

BEARD, HARRY 

BEAUME, JOSEPH 

BEAUMONT, CHARLES-EDOUARD DE 

BEAUVERIE, CHARLES JOSEPH 

BEAVIS, RICHARD 

BECKER, JAKOB 

BECKER, CARL 

BECKER, LUDWIG HUGO 

BECKER, GEORGES 

BECKMANN, KARL 

BECKMANN, WILHELM H. R. A 

BECKWITH, J. CARROLL 

BEDFORD, J. B 

BEGAS, KARL 

BEGAS, OSKAR 

BEGAS, REINHOLD 

BEGAS, ADELBERT-FRANZ-EUGEN 

BEHNES, WILLIAM 

BELL, ROBERT CHARLES 

BELL, JOHN 

BELLANGE, JOSEPH-LOUIS-HIPPOLYTE 

BELLANGER, CAMILLE-FELIX 

BELLAY, PAUL-ALPHONSE 

BELLEL, JEAN-JOSEPH 

BELLOC, JEAN HILAIRE 

BELLOWS, ALBERT F 

BELLUNI, GIUSEPPE 

BELLY, LEON-AUGUSTE-ADOLPHE 

BENCZUR, JULIUS 

BENDEMANN, EDUARD 

BENDEMANN, RUDOLPH CHRISTIAN E 

BENEDETTI, TOMMASO ...., 

BENJAMIN, SAMUEL GREEN WHEELER 



ol. I. Pag 


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NAMES OF ARTISTS. xi 

BEXOUVILLE, ACHTLLE-JEAN Vol.1. Page 55 

BEXOUVILLE, FRANCOIS LEON " " 55 

BENSON, EUGENE " " 55 

BENVENUTI, LORENZO " " 56 

BERCHERE, NARCISSE " " 57 

BERGERET, DENIS-PIERRE " " 57 

BERGH, EDWARD " " 57 

BERGMAXN, IGNACE " " 57 

BERNARDELLI, A " " 57 

BERNE-BELLECOUR, F^TIENNE-PROSPER " " 57 

BERNHARDT, SARAH " " 58 

BERNIER, CAMILLE " " 58 

BERTIN, FRANgOIS-fiDOUARD " " 58 

BERTRAND, JACQUES " " 59 

BESNARD, PAUL-ALBERT " " 59 

BETSELLERE, PIERRE-EMILE " " 59 

BEVERLY, WILLIAM R " " 59 

BEWER, CLEMENT " " 59 

BEWICK, WILLIAM " " 59 

BEYLARD, LOUIS CHARLES " " 59 

BEZZUOLI, GIUSEPPE " " 60 

BIARD, FRANCOIS " " 60 

BIDA, ALEXANDRE " " 60 

BIEFYE, EDOUARD DE « " 60 

BIERCIIER, MATHIEU " " 61 

BIERMANN, CHARLES FJDOUARD " " 61 

BIERSTADT, ALBERT " " 61 

BILDERS, J. W " « 62 

BILLET, PIERRE " « 62 

BILLINGS, HAMMATT " « 63 

BING, YALENTIN " « 63 

BIRCH, THOMAS " " 63 

BISI, GIUSEPPE " » 63 

BISI, LUIGI « « 63 

BISPHAM, HENRY C " " 64 

BISSCHOP, CHRISTOPHE '.... " " 64 

BLAAS, KARL " « 64 

BLAAS, EUGEN " « 64 

BLACKMAN, WALTER " " 65 

BLANC, LOUIS AMMY " " 65 

BLANC, PAUL JOSEPH " « 65 

BLANCFIARD, HENRI P. L. P " " 65 

BLANCHARD, AUGUSTE-THOMAS-MARIE " " 65 



Xll 



NAMES OF ARTISTS. 



BLANCH ARD, EDOUARD THEOPHILE Vol.1. Page 66 

BLANCHARD, JULES 

BLASER, GUSTAV 

BLASHFIELD, EDWIN H 

BLAUVELT, CHARLES F 

BLEIBTREU, GEORG 

BLERY, EUGENE 

BLOCK, EUGENE FRANgOIS DE 

BLONDEL, JACOB D 

BLOOMER, H. REYNOLDS 

BOCKLIN, ARNOLD 

BODMER, KARL 

BOE, FRANCOIS DIDIER 

BOEHM, JOSEPH EDGAR 

BOENISCH, GUSTAV ADOLF 

BOESWILLWALD, EMILE 

BOGLE, JAMES 

BOGOLIOOBOFF, ALEXIS 

BOIT, EDWARD D 

BOLDINI, G 

BONHEUR, MARIE-ROSA 

BONHEUR, FRANCOIS-AUGUSTE 

BONHEUR, JULES ISIDORE 

BONHEUR, JULIETTE (MME. PEYROL) 

BONNASSIEUX, JEAN MARIE 

BONNAT, LEON-JOSEPH-FLORENTIN 

BONNEGRACE, CHARLES-ADOLPHE 

BONVIN, FRANQOIS-SAINT 

BOOTT, ELIZABETH 

BORJESEN, J 

BORSATO, GIUSEPPE 

BOSBOOM, JOHANNES 

BOSIO, ASTYANAX SCEVOLA 

BOTTINELLI, ANTONIO 

BOUCHER, ALFRED 

BOUGH, SAMUEL 

BOUGHTON, GEORGE H... 

BOUGUEREAU, WILLIAM ADOLPHE 

BOULANGER, LOUIS 

BOULANGER, GUSTAVE-RODOLPHE-CLARENCE. . . 

BOURCE, HENRI 

BOURGEOIS, LEON-PIERRE-URBAIN 

BOURRE, ANTOINE-FELIX v " " 82 



NAMES OF ARTISTS. 

BOUTEL, L. M. DE. See MONVEL Vol. IT. 

BOUTELLE, DE WITT C Vol.1. 

BOUVIER, ARTHUR 

BOVY, JEAN-FRANQOIS-ANTOINE 

BOXALL, SIR WILLIAM 

BOYCE, GEORGE P 

BOYS, THOMAS S 

KRACKETT, EDWIN E 

BRACKETT, WALTER M 

BRACQUEMOXD, FF^LIX 

BRACQUEMOXD, MME. MARIE 

BRADFORD, WILLIAM 

BRADLEY, JOHN HENRY 

BRADLEY, BASIL 

BRAEKELEER, FERDINAND DE 

BRANDARD, ROBERT 

BRANDON, E 

BRANDT, JOSEF 

BRANDT, CARL 

BRANWHITE, CHARLES 

BRASCASSAT, JACQUES RAYMOND 

BRENDEL, HEINRICH ALBERT 

BRETON, JULES ADOLPHE 

BRETON, EMILE ADELARD 

BREVOORT, JAMES RENWICK 

BRICHER, ALBERT T 

BRIDEL, FREDERICK L 

BBIDGEMAN, FREDERICK A 

BRIDGES, MISS FIDELIA 

BRIDOUX, FRANQOIS-EUGENE-AUGUSTIN 

BRIERLY, OSWALD W 

BRIGHT, HENRY 

BRILLOUIN, LOUIS-GEORGES 

BRION, GUSTAVE 

BRISSET, PIERRE-NICOLAS 

BRISTOL, EDMUND 

BRISTOL, JOHN BUNYAN 

BRODIE, WILLIAM 

BRODWOLF, LUDWIG GUSTAV EDUARD 

BROMEIS, AUGUST 

BROMLKY, WILLIAM 

BROMLEY, VALENTINE W 

BROOKS, THOMAS 



xi 11 

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xiv NAMES OF ARTISTS. 

BROWN, HENRY KIRKE Vol.1. Page 99 

BROWN, J. HENRY « « 100 

BROWN, FORD MADOX « 

BROWN, J. G « 

BROWN, HENRY B « 

BROWN, GEORGE L « 

BROWN, J. APPLETON " 

BROWN, MRS. AGNES « 

BROWN, CHARLES V « 

BROWN, WILLIAM BEATTIE " 

BROWN, JOHN LEWIS " 

BROWNE, MME. HENRIETTE « 

BROWNE, HABLOT KNIGHT « 

BROWNELL, CHARLES D. W « 

BROWNING, ROBERT BARRETT " 

BROWNSCOMBE, JENNIE " 

BROZIK, VACSLAV " 

BRULOW, ALEXANDRE " 

BRUNET-HOUARD, PIERRE AUGUSTE " 

BRUNNOW, LUDWIG " 

BRUSH, MRS. See CHAPLIN, MISS " 

BRUYCKER, FRANCOIS ANTOINE " 

BRYANT, HENRY " 

BUNCE, W. GEDNEY " 

BUONINSEGNA, MICHELE " 

BURCHETT, RICHARD " 

BURDICK, HORACE R " 

BURGER, ADOLF AUGUST FERDINAND " 

BURGESS, JOHN BAGNOLD " 

BURKEL, HENRI " 

BURLING, GILBERT " 

BURNE-JONES, EDWARD " 

BURNET, JOHN " 

BURR, JOHN " 

BURR, ALEXANDER H " 

BUSH, NORTON " 

BUSS, ROBERT WILLIAM " 

BUTIN, ULYSSE-LOUIS-AUGUSTE " 

BUTLER, GEORGE B., Jk " 

BUTLER, MRS. See THOMPSON, E Vol. II. Page 292 

CABANEL, ALEXANDRE Vol. I. Page 111 

CABANEL, PIERRE v " " 112 



NAMES OF ARTISTS. xv 

CABAT, XICOLAS-LOUIS Vol. I. 

CABKT. JEAN BAPTISTS-PAUL M 

CAFFERTY, JAMES H " 

CAFFI, HIPPOLYTE " 

CAILLK. JOSEPH MICHEL " 

CALAM VITA, LUIGI " 

CALAMATTA, MME. JOSEPHINE " 

CALAME, ALEXANDRE " 

CALANDRELLI, ALEXANDER " 

CALDEROX, PHILIP II " 

CALYERLEY, CHARLES " 

GALVI, PIETRO " 

CAMBI, ULISSE " 

CAMBON, ARMAND " 

CAM BOS, JULES " 

CAMERON, HUGH " 

CAMMERANO, MICHELE " 

CAMPHAUSEN, GUILLAUME " 

CAMUCCINI, YIXCEXZO " 

CAXELLA, GIUSEPPE " 

CARAUI), JOSEPH '. " 

CARLIN, JOHN u 

CARON, ADOLPHE-ALEX ANDRE-JOSEPH " 

CARONI, PROF. EMMANUELE " 

CARPEAUX, JEAN BAPTISTE " 

CARPENTER, FRANCIS BICKNELL " 

CARPEXTER, MARGARET " 

CARPEXTER, MISS E. M " 

CARRIER,- JOSEPH-AUGUSTE " 

CARRIE R-BELLEUSE, ALBERT ERNEST " 

CARTER, D. M " 

CARTEROX, EUGEXE " 

CASILEAR, JOHX W " 

3S, GEORGE X " 

CASS, MRS. GEORGE X " 

CASSAGXE, ARMAXD TIIEOPHILE " 

CASSATT, MARY " 

CASSIE, JAMES " 

CASSIOLI, AMOS " 

1 ELLAXO, MANUEL " 

lIGLIONE, GIUSEPPE " 

PRES, fiDOUARD " 

CATEL, FRANZ LOUIS " 



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XVI 



NAMES OF ARTISTS. 



CATLIN, GEORGE Vol.1. 

CATTERMOLE, GEORGE 

CATTERMOLE, CHARLES 

CAVELIER, JULES PIERRE 

CAZES, ROMAIN 

CELEBRANO, FRANCESCO 

CERMAK, JAROSLAV 

CHABAL-DUSSURGEY, PIERRE-ADRIEN 

CHALMERS, G. PAUL 

CHALON, JOHN JAMES 

CHALON, ALFRED EDWARD 

CHAMPNEY, J. WELLS ("Champ") 

CHAPLET, ERNEST 

CHAPLIN, CHARLES 

CHAPLIN, CHRISTINE (MRS. BRUSH) 

CHAPMAN, JOHN GADSBY 

CHAPU, HENRI-MICHEL-ANTOINE 

CHARDIN, PAUL-LOUIS-LEGER 

CHARNAY, ARMA.ND 

CHARRETIE, ANNA MARIA 

CHARTRAN, THEOBALD 

CHASE, JOHN 

CHASE, WILLIAM M 

CHASE, HENRY 

CHATROUSSE, EMILE 

CHAUVEL, THEOPHILE 

CHAVET, J. VICTOR 

CHENAVARD, PAUL 

CHENEY, SETH 

CHENU, FLEURY 

CHEVALIER, N 

CHEVALIER. See GAVARNI 

CHIERCI, GAETANO 

CHINTREUIL, ANTOINE 

CHRISTIE, ALEXANDER 

CHURCH, FREDERICK E 

CHURCH, F. S •• 

CIBOT, FRANQOIS-BARTHELEMY-MICHEL-EDOUARD 

CLAES, CONSTANT 

CLARK, THOMAS 

CLARK, JOSEPH 

CLAUDE, JEAN-MAXIME 

CLAYS, PIERRE-JEAN 



Page 125 
" 125 



NAMES OF ARTISTS. xvii 

CLE*SINGER, JEAN BAPTISTE-AUGUSTE Vol.1. Page 140 

CLIFFORD, E " " 140 

CLINT, GEORGE " " 140 

CLINT, ALFRED " " 141 

CLODT JURGENSBOURG, BARON PETER " u 141 

COBB, CYRUS " " 141 

COBB, DARIUS " " 141 

COBBETT, EDWARD J " " 142 

CODEZO, THOMAS " " 142 

COGHETTT, FRANCESCO " " 143 

COGNIET, LfiON M " 143 

COL, DAVID " " 143 

COLE, THOMAS " " 143 

COLE, GEORGE " " 144 

COLE, VICAT " " 145 

COLE, J. FOXCROFT " " 145 

COLEMAN, CHARLES C " " 146 

COLIN, ALEXANDRE MARIE " " 140 

COLIN, PAUL " " 146 

COLLINGWOOD, WILLIAM " " 146 

COLLINS, CHARLES ALLSTON " " 147 

COLLINSON, ROBERT " " 147 

COLMAN, SAMUEL " " 147 

COLYER, VINCENT " - 148 

COMAN, MISS CHARLOTTE B " " 149 

COMERRE, LfiON FRANCOIS " " 149 

COMPTE-CALIX, FRANQOIS CLAUDIUS " " 149 

COMTE, PIERRE-CHARLES " ,c 150 

• •'ONI, MAUR " " 150 

CONNELLY, PIERCE FRANCTS " " 150 

CONSTANT, BENJAMIN " " 151 

CONTI, TITO " " 152 

COOKE, EDWARD WILLIAM " " 152 

COOMANS, PIERRE-OLIVIER-JOSEPH " " 153 

COOPER, ABRAHAM " " 153 

COOPER, THOMAS S " " 154 

COPE, CHARLES WEST " " 151 

COPELAND, ALFRED BRYANT " " 155 

CORBOULD, EDWARD II " " 155 

CORDIER, HENRI-JOSEPH-CHARLES " " 156 

CORDONNIER, ALPIIONSE " " 156 

CORMON, FERNAND " " 156 

CORNELIUS, PETER YON " " 156 



xviii NAMES OF ARTISTS. 

CORNU, SEBASTIAN-MELCHIOR Vol. I. Pagel58 

COROENNE, HENRI « « 153 

COROT, JEAN-BAPTISTE-CAMILLE « 

CORTI, COSTANTINO " 

COSTA, PIETRO " 

COSTOLI, ARISTODEME « 

COT, PIERRE-AUGUSTE " 

COUDER, LOUIS CHARLES AUGUSTE " 

COUDER, JEAN-BAPTISTE-AMEDEE " 

COUDER, ALEXANDRE-JEAN-REMY " 

COURBET, GUSTAVE « 

COURDOUAN, VINCENT-JOSEPH-FRANQOIS " 

COURTAT, LOUIS " 

COURTOIS, GUSTAVE " 

COUSINS, SAMUEL " 

COUTURE, THOMAS " 

COX, DAVID - 

COX, DAVID, Jr " 

CRAIG, ISAAC EUGENE " 

CRAIG, WILLIAM " 

CRANCH, CHRISTOPHER P " 

CRANCH, JOHN " 

CRANCH, MISS CAROLINE A " 

CRANE, WALTER " 

CRAUK, GUSTAVE-ADOLPHE-DESIRE " 

CRAWFORD, THOMAS " 

CRAWFORD, WILLIAM " 

CRESWICK, THOMAS " 

CRETIUS, CONSTANTINE JOHANN FRANZ " 

CROFTS, ERNEST " 

CROMEK, THOMAS HARTLEY " 

CROPSEY, JASPER F " 

CROSS, JOHN " 

CROWE, EYRE " 

CROWNINSHIELD, FREDERIC " 

CROWQUILL. See FORRESTER " 

CRUIKSHANK, GEORGE , " 

CUGNOT, LOUIS-L^ON " 

CUMMINGS, THOMAS SEIR " 

CURNOCK, J. JACKSON " 

CURRIER, J. FRANK " 

CURTIS, CALVIN ( " 

CURZON, PAUL ALFRED DE ' " 



NAMES OF ARTISTS. xix 

DABOUR, JOHN Vol.1. Page 178 

DA"EGE, EDUARD " " 178 

DAKL, .TAX FRANZ VAN " H 178 

DAGXAX, ISIDORE " " 178 

DAGXAX-BOUYERET, PASCAL-ADOLPHE-JEAN... " " 179 

DALOU, JULES " " 179 

DAME, ERXEST " " 180 

DAMEROX, EMILE CHARLES " " 180 

DANA, WILLIAM P. W " " 180 

DAXBY, FRANCIS " " 181 

DAXBY, JAMES " " 181 

DAXBY, THOMAS " " 181 

DAXFORTH, M. I " " 181 

DAX1EL, HEXRI JOSEPH " . " 182 

DAXXAT, WILLIAM " " 182 

DAXTAX, AXTOIXE LAURENT " " 182 

DAXTAX, JEAN-PIERRE " " 182 

DARGEXT, YAN " '« 183 

DARLEY, FELIX 0. C " " 183 

DARRAH, AIRS. S. T " " 184 

DAtJBAN, JULES-JOSEPH " " 184 

DAUBIGXY, CHARLES FRANQOIS " " 184 

DAUBIGXY, KARL PIERRE " " 185 

DAUZATS, ADRIEN " " 185 

DAVID D'AXGERS, PIERRE-JEAN " " 186 

DAVIOUD, GABRIEL-JEAN-ANTOINE " " 186 

DAVIS, HENRY W. B " « 186 

DEAXE, 'WILLIAM 'WOOD " " 186 

DEAS, CHARLES • " " 187 

DEBAY, JEAX-BAPTISTE-JOSEPH " " 187 

DEBAY, AUGUSTE HYACIXTHE " " 187 

DECAISXE, HENRY " " 187 

DECAMPS, ALEXANDRE GABRIEL " « 188 

DE COCK, XAYIER " " 189 

DE COCK, CfiSAR " « 189 

DE COXIXCK, PIERRE " " 190 

DECORCHEMONT, EMILE " « 190 

DEDREUX, ALFRED " » 190 

DEFAUX, ALEXAXDRE " " 190 

DEEREGGER, FRAXZ " « 190 

DEGEORGE, CIIARLES-JEAN-MARIE " " 191 

DEGEH, EKXEST " " 191 

DE HAAS, WILLIAM FREDERICK " " 191 



XX 



NAMES OF ARTISTS. 



DE HAAS, M. F. H Vol.1. Page 192 

DE HAAS, J. H. L " " 193 

DEHODENCQ, ALFRED « " 193 

DEHODENCQ, EDMOND " « 193 

DEJONGHE, JOHN BAPTIST " " 193 

DE JONGHE, GUSTAVE " « 193 

DE KAY, HELENA (MRS. R. WATSON GILDER)... " " 194 

DELABORDE, VISCOUNT HENRI « " 194 

DELACROIX, FERDINAND-VICTOR-EUGENE " "194 

DELACROIX, HENRI EUGENE " « 196 

DELAPLANCHE, EUGENE " « 196 

DELAROCHE, HIPPOLYTE " " 197 

DELAUNAY, JULES ELIE « " 198 

DELOBBE, FRANQOIS-ALFRED " " 198 

DELORT, CHARLES-EDOUARD " « 199 

DEMI, EMILIO " " 199 

DENGLER, FRANK « " 199 

DENNEULIN, JULES " " 199 

DESCHAMPS, LOUIS " « 199 

DESGOFFE, BLAISE-ALEXANDRE " " 199 

DESGOFFE, ALEXANDRE " " 201 

DESNOYERS, AUGUSTE-GASPARD-LOUIS-BOUCHER " " 201 

DESPREZ, LOUIS " " 201 

DETAILLE, JEAN-BAPTISTE-EDOUARD " " 201 

DEVENTER, J. F. VAN " " 203 

DEVERIA, EUGENE-FRANgOIS-MARIE-JOSEPH... " " 203 

DEVIGNE, PIERRE " " 203 

DEVIGNE, PAUL " " 203 

DEWING, T. W .• " " 203 

DEXTER, HENRY " " 204 

DIAZ DE LA PENA, NARCISSE-VIRGILE " " 204 

DICKENS, KATE. See PERUGINI, MRS Vol. II. Page 175 

DICKSEE, THOMAS F Vol. I. Page205 

DICKSEE, FRANK " " 206 

DIDAY, FRANCOIS " " 206 

DIEBOLT, GEORGES " " 206 

DIEFFENBACH, ANTON HEINRICH ; " " 206 

DIELMAN, FREDERICK " " 207 

DIEN, CLAUDE-MARIE-FRANgOIS " " 207 

DIETZ, FEODOR " " 207 

DIEZ, WILHELM " " 208 

DILLENS, HENRI " " 208 

DILLENS, ADOLPHE ^ " " 208 



NAMES OF ARTISTS. xxi 

DILLON, FRANK Vol.1. Page 208 

DIX, CHARLES TEMPLE " " 209 

DOBSON, WILLIAM C. T " " 209 

DOCHARTY, JAMES " " 210 

DOLPH, J. II " " 210 

DOMINGO, J " " 210 

DONALD, JOHN MILNE " " 211 

DOO, GEORGE THOMAS " " 211 

DOOLITTLE, EDWIN STAFFORD " " 211 

DORFL, PAUL GUSTAVE " " 212 

DOUBLEMARD, AMfiDEE DONATIEN " " 215 

DOUGHTY, THOMAS " " 215 

DOUGLAS, WILLIAM FETTES " " 215 

DOUGLAS, EDWIN " M 216 

DOYLE, RICHARD " " 216 

DRAKE, FRIEDRICII JOHANN HEINRICH " " 217 

DREBER, HEINRICH " " 217 

DROZ, JULES-ANTOINE " " 217 

DRUMMOND, JAMES M " 218 

DRURY, J. H " " 218 

DUBAN, JACQUES-FfiLIX " " 218 

DUBOIS, PAUL " " 218 

DUBOIS, CHARLES E " " 219 

DUBRAY, GABRIEL-VITAL " " 220 

DUBRAY, CHARLOTTE GABRIELLE " " 220 

DUBRAY, EUGENIE GIOVANNA " " 220 

DUBUFE, CLAUDE-MARIE " " 220 

DUBUFE, EDOUARD " " 220 

DUBUFE, GUILLAUME " " 221 

DUC, JOSEPH LOUIS " " 221 

DUCKER, EUGENE " " 221 

DU-COMMUNE-DU-LOCLE. See DANIEL " " 182 

DUFFIELD, WILLIAM " " 222 

DUFFIELD, MRS. WILLIAM " " 222 

DUGGAN, PETER PAUL " " 222 

DUMAS, MICHEL " " 222 

DTJ MAURIER, GEORGE B " " 222 

DUMILATRE, ALPHONSL JEAN " " 222 

DUMONT, AUGUSTIN-ALEXANDRE M " 223 

DUNCAN, EDWARD " " 223 

DUNCAN, THOMAS " " 223 

DUNCAN, WALTER " " 224 

DUNCAN, ALLAN " " 224 



XXII 



NAMES OF ARTISTS. 



DUNCAN, LAURENCE Vol.1. 

D'UNKER LUTZOW, KARL HINDRICK 

DUPAIN, EDMOND-LOUIS 

DUPRAY, LOUIS-HENRY 

DUPRE, JULES 

DUPRE, LEON VICTOR 

DUPRE, GIOVANNI 

DURAN, CAROLUS 

DURAND, ASHER B 

DURAND, LUDOVIC 

DURAND, SIMON 

DURAND-BRAGER, JEAN-BAPTISTE-HENRI 

DURANT, SUSAN D 

DURET, FRANCISQUE-JOSEPH 

DURHAM, JOSEPH 

DUVAL-LE-CAMUS, PIERRE 

DUVAL-LE-CAMUS, JULES-ALEXANDRE 

DUVENECK, FRANK 

DUVERGER, THEOPHILE EMMANUEL 

DYCE, WILLIAM 

DYCKMANS, JOSEF LAURENS 

DYER, CHARLES GIFFORD 



Page 224 
" 224 



EAKINS, THOMAS 

EARLE, THOMAS 

EASTLAKE, SIR CHARLES LOCK... 

EATON, JOSEPH 

EATON, WYATT 

EBERS, EMILE 

ECHTERMEYER, KARL 

ECKERSBERG, JOHN FREDERICK 

EDMONDS, FRANCIS W 

EDMONSTON, SAMUEL 

EDWARDS, EDWIN 

EGG, AUGUSTUS L 

EGLY, WILLIAM 

EHNINGER, JOHN W 

EHRMANN, FRANQOIS EMILE 

EICHENS, FREDERIC EDOUARD ... 
EICHENS, PHILIPPE HERMANN... 

ELLIOTT, CHARLES LORING 

ELMORE, ALFRED 

ELSHOLTZ, LUDWIG 



XAMES OF ARTISTS. 



xxiu 



ENDER, THOMAS Vol 

KM; RAND, GEORGES 

KNHUBER, CARL VON 

ENX EKING, JOHN J 

ttPINAY, t'AVALLIERE PROSPER D' 

ESCOSURA, LEON Y 

■TEX, ANTOINE 

ETTV, WILLIAM 

EVANS, WILLIAM (of Eton) 

EVANS, WILLIAM (.of Bristol) 

EVANS, SAMUEL T. G 

EVANS, DE SCOTT 

EWALD, ERNST DEODAT PAUL FERDINAND 

EZEKIEL, MOSES JACOB 



FAED, JOHN 

FAED, THOMAS 

FAED, JAMES 

FAGERLIN, F. J 

FAHEY, JAMES 

FAHEY, EDWARD H 

FALCONER, JOHN M 

FALGUIERE, JEAN-ALEXANDRE-JOSEPH 

FANTACCHIOTTI, ODOARDO 

FANTIN-LATOUR, HENRI 

FARRER, HENRY 

FARRER, THOMAS C 

FARUFEINI, FEDERIGO 

FASSETT, C. ADELE 

1 AvMN, ADOLPHE 

FATTORI, CAVALIERE GIOVANNI 

FEDI, PIO 

RBLSING, JACOB 

FERON, FIRMIX-ELOI 

FERRARI, LUIGI 

FERRARI, E 

FERRIER, JOSEPII-MARIE-AUGUSTIN-GABRIEL... 

FESQUET, JULES 

FEUERBACII, ANSELM 

I KYKN-PERRIN, FRANCOIS NICOLAS AUGUSTIN 

FICHEL, EUGENE BENJAMIN 

FIEDLER, BERNIIARD 

FILDES, S.LUKE : 



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xxiv NAMES OF ARTISTS. 

TILDES, MRS. LUKE Vol. 

FINCH, FRANCIS OLIVER " 

FIRMIN-GIRARD. See GIRARD " 

FISCHER, AUGUST FERDINAND " 

FISHER, WILLIAM MARK " 

FISK, WILLIAM " 

FITCH, JOHN L " 

FLAGG, GEORGE W " 

FLAGG, JARED B " 

FLAHAUT, LEON " 

FLAMENG, LEOPOLD " 

FLANDIN, EUGENE NAPOLEON " 

FLANDRIN, AUGUSTE " 

FLANDRIN, JEAN HIPPOLYTE " 

FLANDRIN, JEAN PAUL " 

FLERS, CAMILLE " 

FLEURY, LEON " 

FLUGGEN, " 

FOCOSI, ALESSANDRO " 

FOLEY, JOHN H " 

FOLEY, MARGARET E " 

FOLTZ, PHILIPPE " 

FONS^CA, ANTOINE-MANOEL DA " 

FONTANA, ROBERTO " 

FONVILLE, HORACE " 

FOOTE, MARY HALLOCK " 

FORBES, EDWIN " 

FORRESTER, ALFRED HENRY " 

FORSTER, FRANQOIS " 

FORTIN, CHARLES " 

FORTUNY, MARIANO " 

FOSTER, BIRKET " 

FOWKE, FRANCIS " 

FOWLER, FRANK " 

FRACCAROLI, INNOCENZO " 

FRAIKIN, CHARLES AUGUSTE " 

FRANQAIS, FRANgOIS LOUIS " 

FRANCIS, JOHN " 

FRANgOIS, CHARLES-REMY-JULES " 

FRANgOIS, ALPHONSE " 

FRASER, CHARLES " 

FRASER, ALEXANDER (the Elder) " 

FRASER, ALEXANDER " 



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NAMES OF ARTISTS. xxv 

FREEMAN, JAMES E Vol.1. Page 269 

FREEMAN, MRS. JAMES E " " 270 

FREEMAN, FLORENCE " ' " 270 

FREESE, J01IANN OSKAR HERMANN u " 270 

FREMIET, EMMANUEL " " 271 

FRENCH, DANIEL CHESTER " " 271 

FRERE. PIERRE EDOUARD " " 271 

FRERE, CHARLES THEODORE " " 272 

FRfiRE, CHARLES-EDOUARD " " 273 

FRERE, JEAN-JULES " " 273 

FRESCHIERI, GIUSEPPE " " 273 

FRIPP, GEORGE ARTHUR " " 273 

FRIPP, ALFRED D " " 273 

FRITH, WILLIAM POWELL " " 274 

FROMENTIN, EUGENE " " 275 

FROST, WILLIAM EDWARD " " 276 

FRULLINI, PROF. CAV. LUIGI " " 276 

FUHRICK, JOSEPH " M 277 

FULLER, GEORGE " " 211 

FULLER, R. H " " 277 

FUNK, HEINRICH " " 278 

FURNESS, WILLIAM H " " 278 

GABRIEL, PAUL JOSEPH CONSTANTINE " " 278 

GAIL, WILHELM " " 278 

GALE, WILLIAM " u 278 

GALLAIT, LOUIS " " 279 

GARDNER, ELIZABETH JANE " " 280 

GARNERAY, AMBROSE LOUIS " " 281 

GARNIER, JEAN-LOUIS-CHARLES " " 281 

GARTNER, JO H ANN PHILIPP EDUARD " " 283 

GASTENEAU, HENRY " " 283 

GATTI, ANNIBALE " " 283 

GAUCIIEREL, LEON " " 283 

GAUERMANN, FRIEDRICH " " 283 

GAUTHIER, CHARLES u " 284 

GAUTIER, fiTIENNE " u 284 

GAVARNI, real name CHEVALLIER " u 284 

GAVIN, ROBERT " " 286 

GAY, W. ALLAN " " 286 

GAY, EDWARD " " 286 

GAY, WALTER " " 287 

GEBHARDT, KARL FRANZ EDUARD YON " " 287 



XXVI 



NAMES OF ARTISTS. 



GEBLER, FRIEDRICH OTTO Vol.1. 

GEDDENS, GEORGE 

GEEFS, JOSEPH 

GEEFS, MME. FANNY 

GEGERFELT, WILHELM DE 

GEIST, AUGUST CHRISTIAN 

GEMITO, VINCENZO 

GENDRON, AUGUSTE 

GENELLI, JOHAN.N BONAVENTURA 

GENTZ, WILHELM KARL 

GERARD, THEODORE 

GERIMSKY, ALEXANDER 

GEROME, JEAN LEON 

GERRY, SAMUEL L 

GERVEX, HENRI 

GEYER, KARL LUDWIG OTTO 

GIACOMOTTI, FELIX HENRI 

GIBSON, JOHN 

GIDE, THEOPHILE 

GIERYMSKI, MAX 

GIFFORD, SANDFORD R 

GIFFORD, R. SWAIN 

GIFFORD, FANNIE ELLIOT 

GIGNOUX, REGIS 

GIGOUX, JEAN FRANgOIS 

GILBERT, SIR JOHN 

GILDER, MRS. See DE KAY, H 

GILES, JAMES 

GILL, EDMUND 

GIRARD, FIRMIN 

GIRARDET, KARL 

GIRARDET, EDOUARD-HENRI 

GIRARDET, PAUL 

GIRAUD, PIERRE-FRANQOIS-EUGENE 

GIRAUD, SEBASTIEN-CHARLES 

GIRAUD, VICTOR 

GIROUX, ANDRE 

GISBERT, ANTONIO 

GLAIZE, AUGUSTE BARTHEXEMY 

GLAIZE, PIERRE-PAUL-LEON 

GLASS, JAMES W 

GLEYRE, CHARLES-GABRIEL 

GODEBSKI, CYPRIEN 



Page 287 



NAMES OF ARTISTS. xxvii 

0ONZALVO, PEREZ PABLO Vol.1. Page 303 

GOOD, THOMAS SWORD " " 303 

GOODALL, EDWARD " " 303 

DALL, FREDERICK " M 304 

GOODALL, WALTER " " 304 

GOODALL, EDWARD A " H 304 

QORDIGIANI, MICHELE " " 305 

GORDON, SIR JOHN WATSON " " 305 

GOSLING, WILLIAM " " 305 

GOSSE. M( <> LAS-LOUTS-FRANCOIS " " 305 

GOUBIE, JEAN-RICHARD M M 306 

GOULD, THOMAS R " a 306 

GOULD, WALTER " " 307 

GOl/PIL, JULES " " 307 

GOW, ANDREW C " " 307 

GOWER, LORD RONALD LEVESON ,c " 308 

GRAEB, KARL-GEORG-ANTON " " 308 

GRAEF, GUSTAV " u 308 

GRAHAM, PETER " " 309 

GRAHAM, WILLIAM " " 309 

GRAHAM, THOMAS " " 309 

GRAHAM-GILBERT, JOHN " " 310 

GRANDSIRE, EUGENE " " 310 

GRANT, SIR FRANCIS " " 310 

GRANT, CLEMENT R " " 311 

GRASS, PHILIPPE " " 312 

GRAVES, ROBERT " " 312 

GRAY, HENRY PETERS " " 312 

GREATOREX, ELIZA " " 313 

GREATOREX, KATE and ELEANOR " " 314 

GREENOUGH, HORATIO " " 314 

GREENOUGH, RICHARD S " " 314 

GREUX, GUSTAVE-MARIE " " 314 

GRIGOLETTI, MICTIEL-ANGE " " 315 

GRISWOLD, C. C " » 315 

GROISEILLIEZ, MARCELLIN DE " M 315 

GU(')XLAND, TIIEUDE " " 315 

GROS, LUCIEN-ALPHONSE " " 315 

GROSS, RICHARD " « 315 

GROUX, CHARLES CORNELIUS AUGUSTE " " 316 

GRUNDMANN, OTTO " ■ 316 

GRUNER, GIILLAI Mh-HENRI-LoriS " " 316 

GRUNEWALD, GUSTAV " " 316 



xxviii NAMES OF ARTISTS. 

GRUYERE, THEODORE-CHARLES Vol.1. Page316 

GUARNERIO, PIETRO " " 317 

GUAY, GABRIEL " " 317 

GUDE, HANS FREDERIC " " 317 

GUDIN, JEAN-ANTOINE-THEODORE " " 317 

GUERARD, EUGENE VON " " 318 

GUFFENS, GODEFROID " " 318 

GUILLAUME, JEAN-BAPTISTE-C.-E " " 318 

GUILLEMET, JEAN-BAPTISTE-ANTOINE " " 319 

GUILLEMIN, ALEXANDRE-MARIE " " 319 

GUILLON, ADOLPHE IRENEE " " 319 

GUNKEL, FRIEDRICH " " 319 

GUNTHER, OTTO EDMOND " " 320 

GURLITT, LOUIS - " 320 

GUSSOW, CARL " " 320 

GUTHERS, CARL " " 320 

GUY, SEYMOUR JOSEPH " " 321 

GYSIS, NICOLAS " " 322 

HAAG, CARL " " 322 

HAANEN, REMI A. VAN " " 323 

HADEN, FRANCIS SEYMOUR " " 323 

HAGHE, LOUIS " " 323 

HAHNEL, ERNST JULES " " 324 

HALE, WILLIAM MATTHEW " " 324 

HALE, SUSAN " " 324 

HALE, ELLEN DAY " " 325 

HALL, GEORGE HENRY " " 325 

HALL, SYDNEY P ; " " 325 

HALSALL, WILLIAM FORMBY " " 326 

HALSE, G " " 326 

HALSEWELLE, KEELEY " " 326 

HAMERTON, PHILIP G " " 327 

HAMILTON, JAMES " " 327 

HAMILTON, J. McLURE " " 327 

H AMMAN, EDUARD-JEAN-CONRAD " " 328 

HAMON, JEAN LOUIS : " " 328 

HANCKE. See WIEGMANN Vol.11. Page350 

HANOTEAU, HECTOR Vol. I. Page 329 

HARDING, CHESTER " 330 

HARDING, JAMES D " 330 

HARDWICK, PHILIP " : 330 

HARDY, FREDERICK DANIEL x " " 331 



XAMES OF ARTISTS. 



XXIX 



IIARGITT, EDWARD Vol.1 

HARNISCH, ALBERT E 

HARPIGNIES, HENRI 

HART, SOLOMON ALEXANDER 

HART, JOEL T 

HART, WILLIAM 

HART, JAMES M 

HARTLEY, J. S 

HARTZER, KARL FERDINAND 

HARVEY, WILLIAM 

HARVEY, SIR GEORGE 

HASELTINE, WILLIAM STANLEY 

HASELTINE, HENRY J 

HASENCLEVER, P. P 

HAUSMANN, FREDERIC KARL 

HAYES, EDWIN 

HAYEZ, FRANCISCO 

HAYLLAR, JAMES 

HAYS, WILLIAM J 

HATTER, SIR GEORGE 

HEADE, MARTIN J 

HEALY, G. P. A 

HEAPHY, THOMAS 

HEBERT, ANTOINE-AUGUSTE-ERNEST 

HEDOU1N, EDMOND 

HEILBUTH, FERDINAND 

HELM, FRANQOIS JOSEPH 

HELFFT, JULIUS EDUARD WILHELM 

HELLRATH, E 

HEMSLEY, WILLIAM 

HENDERSON, JOSEPH 

HENXEBERG, RUDOLF FRIEDRICH 

HENNER, JEAN-JACQUES 

HENNESSY, WILLIAM J 

HENRIQUEL-DUPONT, LOUIS PIERRE 

HENRY, EDWARD L 

HERBERT, JOHN ROGERS 

HERBSTHOFFER, CHARLES 

HERDMAN, ROBERT 

HEREFORD, LAURA 

BERING, GEORGE E 

HERKOMER, HUBERT 

HERPIN, LEON 



ol. I. Page 331 


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xxx NAMES OF ARTISTS. 

HERRING, JOHN FREDERICK Vol. I. 

HERRING, JOHN FREDERICK, Jr " 

HERTEL, KARL CONRAD JULIUS " 

HESS, PETER VON " 

HESS, HEINRICH MARIA " 

HESS, KARL " 

HESS, GEORG " 

HESSE, NICOLAS-AUGUSTE " 

HESSE, ALEXANDRE-JEAN-BAPTISTE " 

HEYDEN, OTTO JOHANN HEINRICH " 

HEYDEN, AUGUST JACOB THEODOR VON " 

HICKS, GEORGE E " 

HICKS, THOMAS " 

HIDDEMANN, FRIEDRICH PETER " 

HILDEBRANDT, FERDINAND THEODOR " 

HILDEBRANDT, EDUARD " 

HILL, DAVID OCTAVIUS " 

HILL, AMELIA R " 

HILL, THOMAS " 

HILLEMACHER, EUGENE-ERNEST " 

HILLIARD, WILLIAM HENRY " 

HILLINGFORD, ROBERT ALEXANDER " 

HINCHLIFF, JOHN JAMES " 

HINCKLEY, THOMAS HEWES " 

HINE, H. G " 

HIOLLE, ERNEST EUGENE " 

HOCKERT, JEAN FREDERIC " 

HODGSON, JOHN E " 

HOFF, KARL " 

HOFFMANN, HEINRICH JOHANN M. F " 

HOGUET, CHARLES " 

HOLFLAND, THOMAS R " 

HOLL, WILLIAM " 

HOLL, FRANK " 

HOLLAND, JAMES " 

HOMER, WINSLOW " 

HOOK, JAMES CLARKE " 

HOPFGARTEN, AUGUST FERDINAND " 

HOPLEY, EDWARD W. J " 

HOPPIN, AUGUSTUS " 

HOPPIN, THOMAS B " 

HORSCHELT, THEODOR " 

HORSLEY, JOHN C " 



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XAMES OF ARTISTS. 



XXXI 



HOSMER, HARRIET Vol. T. 

HOSTEIN, BDOUARD JEAN MARIE " 

HOUGHTON, ARTlll R BOYD " 

HOUSTON, JOHN" ADAM " 

HOVENDEN, THOMAS " 

HOWLAND, ALFRED C " 

HOWS, JOHN A " 

HOME. MRS. See REAM, V Vol.11. 

HUBBARD, RICHARD W Vol.1. 

hObner, rudolf-jules-benno 

Hl'BNER, KARL WILHELM 

HUET, PAIL 

HUGHES, BALL 

HUGHES, ARTHUR 

HUGUES, DOMINIQUE-JEAN-BAPTISTE 

HULME, FREDERICK WILLIAM 

HUMBERT, FERDINAND 

HUNIN, ALOUIS-PIERRE-PAUL 

HUNT, WILLIAM HENRY 

HUNT, WILLIAM MORRIS 

HUNT, WILLIAM IIOLMAN 

HUNT, RICHARD M 

HUNT, ALFRED WILLIAM 

HUNTEN, EMIL JOIIANN 

HUNTER, COLIN 

HUNTINGTON, DANIEL 

HURLSTONE, FREDERICK YEATES 

HUTCHISON, JOHN 



IMER, fiDOUARD 

INDUNO, GIROLAMO 

INGHAM, CHARLES C 

INGRES, JEAN-DOMINIQUE-AUGUSTIN. 

INJALBERT, JEAN-ANTONIN 

1NMAN, HENRY 

INMAN, J. O'BRIEN 

INNESS, GEORGE 

INNESS, GEORGE, Jr 

IRMER, KARL 

IRVING, J. BEAUFAIN 

I8ABEY, EUGENE-LOUIS-GABRIEL 

I8ELIN, HENRI-FREDERIC 

ISRAELS, JOSEF 



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xxxii NAMES OF ARTISTS. 

ITTENBACH, FRANZ Vol. I. Page 385 

IVES, C. B " " 385 

JACKSON, JOHN ADAMS Vol.11. Page 1 

JACOB, JULIUS " " 3 

JACOBS, JACQUES-ALBERT-MICHEL " " 3 

JACOMIN, ALFRED-LOUIS " " 4 

JACQUAND, CLAUDIUS " " 4 

JACQUE, CHARLES EMILE " " 4 

JACQUEMART, HENRI ALFRED " " 5 

JACQUEMART, JULES FERDINAND " " 5 

JACQUEMART, MLLE. NELIE " " 6 

JACQUESSON DE LA CHEVREUSE, LOUIS " " 6 

JACQUET, JEAN GUSTAVE " " 7 

JADIN, LOUIS GODEFROY " " 7 

JADIN, EMMANUEL CHARLES " " 7 

JAEGER, GUSTAV " " 7 

JALABERT, CHARLES FRANQOIS " " 8 

JANSSEN, PETER JOHANN THEODOR " " 8 

JAPY, LOUIS AIME " " 9 

JEANNIN, GEORGES " " 9 

JEANRON, PHILIPPE-AUGUSTE " " 9 

JENKINS, JOSEPH J " " 9 

JENKS, MRS. PHCEBE " " 9 

JERICHAU, A " " 10 

JERICHAU-BAUMANN, MME. ELIZABETH " " 10 

JOBBE-DUVAL, FELIX " " 10 

JOHNSON, HORACE C " " 10 

JOHNSON, DAVID " " 11 

JOHNSON, EASTMAN " " 11 

JOHNSON, EDWARD KILLINGWORTH " " 13 

JOHNSON, FROST " " 13 

JOHNSTON, ALEXANDER " " 14 

JONES, GEORGE " " 15 

JONES, OWEN " " 15 

JONES, ALFRED " " 15 

JONES, H. BOLTON : " " 16 

JONGKIND, JOHAN BARTHOLD " " 16 

JOORAVLEF, F " " 17 

JOPLING, JOSEPH M " " 17 

JOPLING, MRS. LOUISE " " 17 

JORDAN, RUDOLF " " 17 

JOUFFROY, FRANCOIS v " " 18 



NAMES OF ARTISTS. 



XXX1U 



JOURDAN, ADOLPIIE Vol.11. 

JUNDT, GUSTAVB 

KAEMMERER, FREDERIC HENRI 

KALCKREUTH, STANISLAUS, COUNT OF 

KAUFMANN, THEODORE 

KAULBACH, WILHELM VON 

KAULBACH, HERMANN 

KAULBACH. F. A 

KEMYS, EDWARD 

KEXSETT, J. F 

KEY, JOHN R 

KEYMEULEN, EMILE 

KEYSER, NICAISE DE 

KEYSER, E 

KIERS, PETER 

KING, CHARLES B 

KIORBOE, CHARLES FREDERIC 

KISS, AUGUSTUS 

KLEIN, JOHANN ADAM 

KLOEBER, AUGUST KARL FRIEDRICH VON 

KNAUS, LUDYVIG 

KNIGHT, JOHN PRESCOTT 

KNIGHT, DANIEL RIDGWAY 

KNILLE, OTTO 

KNOWLTON, HELEN M 

KNYFF, ALFRED DE 

KOCH, JOSEPH ANTON 

KOEKKOEK, BERNARD CORNELIUS 

KOERNER, ERNST 

KOHLER, CHRISTIAN 

KOLLER, GUILLAUME 

KOLLOCK, MARY 

KORZOOCIIIN, ALEXIS 

KOTZEBUE, ALEXANDER YON 

KRAI SE, WILHELM AUGUST LEOPOLD CHRISTIAN " 

KRONER, CHRISTIAN JOHANN 

KRUGER, FRANZ 

KRUGER, KARL MAX 

KUHLING, WILHELM 

KUNTZ, GUSTAV ADOLF 

KUNTZE, EDWARD J. A 

KURZBAUER, E. 



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xxxiv NAMES OF ARTISTS. 

KUWASSEG, CARL-JOSEPH Vol.11. Page 29 

KUYCK, LOUIS VAN « « 2 9 



LACROIX, GASPARD JEAN 

LA FARGE, JOHN 

LAGUILLERMIE, AUGUST FREDERIC. 

LAGYE, VICTOR 

LALANNE, MAXIME 

L'ALLEMANDE, FRITZ 

LAMBDIN, GEORGE COCHRAN 

LAMBERT, LOUIS EUGENE 

LAMBINET, EMILE 

LAMI, LOUIS EUGENE 

LANCE, GEORGE 

LANDELLE, CHARLES 

LANDSEER, JOHN 

LANDSEER, THOMAS 



LANDSEER, CHARLES 

LANDSEER, SIR EDWIN 

LANDSEER, GEORGE 

LANE, B. J 

LANG, LOUIS 

LANGERFELDT, T. 

LANOUE, FELIX HIPPOLYTE 

LANSIL, WALTER F 

LANSYER, EMMANUEL 

LAOUST, ANDRE-LOUIS-ADOLPHE. 

LAPIERRE, LOUIS EMILE 

LAPITO, LOUIS-AUGUSTE 

LAPOSTOLET, CHARLES 

LASCH, KARL JOHANN 

LATHROP, FRANCIS 

LATOUCHE, LOUIS 

LAUDER, ROBERT SCOTT 

LAUDER, JAMES E 

LAUGEE, FRANCOIS DESIRE 

LAUNITZ, ROBERT E 

LAURENS, JEAN PAUL 

LAUTERS, PAUL 

LAWMAN, JASPER 

LAWRIE, ALEXANDER 

LAWSON, CECIL G 

LAWSON, WILFRID 



\AM/:S OF ARTISTS. xxxv 

LAY. OLIVER IXGRAIIAM Vol.11. Page 45 

LAZERGES, JEAN RAYMOND HIPPOLYTE " M 45 

LEADER, BENJAMIN WILLIAM " " 46 

LE BLANT, JULIEN " " 46 

LECHESNE, AUGUSTE " " 46 

LE CLEAR, THOMAS " " 46 

LECOMTE DU NOUY, JULES JEAN ANTOINE ... " "47 

LECOMTE-VERNET, CHARLES-HIPPOLYTE-tfMILE " w 47 

111.. FREDERICK RICHARD " " 47 

LEECH, JOHN " " 48 

LEFEBVRE, CHARLES " " 49 

LEEEBVRE, JULES JOSEPH " " 49 

LEFUEL, HECTOR MARTIN " " 49 

LEGROS, ALPHONSE " " 50 

LEHARIVEL-DUROCIIER, VICTOR EDMOND " " 51 

LEHMAXN, CHARLES ERNEST RODOLPHE HENRI " " 52 

LEHMANN, RUDOLF " " 53 

LEHOUX, PIERRE-ADRIEN-PASCAL " " 53 

LEIBL, II. W " " 53 

LEIGHTON, FREDERICK " " 54 

LEITCH, W. L " " 55 

LE JEUNE, HENRY " " 55 

LE KEUX, HENRY " " 55 

LELAND, HENRY " " 56 

LELEUX, ADOLPHE M " 56 

LELEUX, ARMAND " " 57 

LELOIR, JEAN BAPTISTE AUGUSTE " " 57 

LELOIR, ALEXANDRE LOUIS " " 57 

LELOIR, MAURICE " " 57 

LEMAIRE, PHILIPPE-HENRI " " 57 

LEMAIRE, HECTOR " " 57 

LEMATTE, JACQUES-FRANQOIS-FERNAND " " 58 

LENBACH, FRANZ " M 58 

LENEPVEU, JULES-EUGENE " " 58 

LEPIC, LUDOVIC-NAPOLfiON " " 59 

LEQUESXE, EUGEXE-LOUIS " " 59 

LE ROUX, CHAULES-MARIE-GUILLAUME " " 59 

LE ROUX, HECTOR " " 59 

LE ROUX, EUGENE *' " 60 

LESLIE, CHARLES ROBERT " " 60 

LESLIE, GEORGE D " " 61 

LESLIE, ROBERT C " " 62 

LESSING, CHARLES FREDERIC " " 62 



XXXVI 



NAMES OF ARTISTS. 



LEU, AUGUST WILHELM Vol.11. 

LEUTZE, EMMANUEL 

LEVY, EMILE 

LEVY, HENRI LEOPOLD 

LEWIS, JOHN FREDERICK 

LEWIS, FREDERICK C 

• LEWIS, EDMONIA 

LEYS, BARON JEAN AUGUSTE HENRI 

LIER, ADOLF 

LIMA, VICTOR MEIRELLES DE 

LINDENEHER, EDOUARD 

LINDENSCHMIT, WILHELM 

LINDHOLM, B 

LINNELL, JOHN 

LINNELL, JAMES THOMAS 

LINNELL, WILLIAM 

LINTON, WILLIAM 

LINTON, WILLIAM JAMES 

LINTON, MRS 

LINTON, JAMES D 

LIPARINI, LUDOVICO 

LIPPINCOTT, WILLIAM H 

LLOYD, THOMAS 

LOCKHART, W. E 

LOEFFTZ, LUDWIG 

LOISON, PIERRE 

LOMBARDINI, GAETANO 

LONG, EDWIN 

LONGFELLOW, ERNEST W 

LOOP, HENRY A 

LOOP, MRS. HENRY A 

LOOSE, BASILE DE 

LOSSOW, ARNOLD HERMANN 

LOSSOW, FRIEDRICH 

LOUGH, JOHN GRAHAM 

LOUVRIER DE LAJOLAIS, JACQUES-A.-G 

LOW, WILL H 

LUCAS, JOHN 

LUCCARDI, VINCENZO 

LUCY, CHARLES 

LUMINAIS, EVARISTE-VITAL 

LUNDGREN, EGRON 

LUNT. See MRS. WILLIAMS 



NAMES OF ARTISTS. xxxvii 

LUPTON, THOMAS GOFF Vol. II. Page 78 

LYNN, SAMUEL FERRIS " " 78 

MACALLUM, HAMILTON " " 79 

MACBETH, NORMAN " " 79 

MACBETH, R. W " " 79 

MACBETH, JAMES " " 79 

MAC CALLUM, ANDREW " " 80 

MACCARI, CESARE " " 80 

MAC CULLOCH, HORATIO. " " 81 

MAC DONALD, JAMES WILSON ALEXANDER ... " " 81 

MAC DOWELL, PATRICK " " 82 

MACDOWELL, SUSAN HANNAH " - 82 

MAC LEAY, KENNETH " " 82 

MACLISE, DANIEL " " 82 

MAC NEE, SIR DANIEL " " 83 

MACY, W. S " " 84 

MADOU, JEAN BAPTISTE " " 84 

MADRAZO, DON FREDERIC MADRAZO Y KUNT " " 85 

MADRAZO, LOUIS " " 85 

MADRAZO, RICARDO " " 85 

MAGAUD, DOMINIQUE ANTOINE " " 85 

MAGNI, PIETRO " " 85 

MAGNUS, EDUARD " " 85 

MAGRATH, WILLIAM " " 86 

MAIGNAN, ALBERT " " 86 

MAILLET, JACQUES LEONARD u " 86 

MAINDRON, ETIENNE-HIPPOLYTE * " 86 

MAISIAT, JOANNY " u 87 

MAKART, HANS " " 87 

MALCHIN, CARL WILHELM CHRISTIAN " " 89 

IfANCINELLI, GIUSEPPE " " 89 

MANCINI, ANTOINE " " 89 

MANET, EDOUARD " " 89 

MANN, J. II. S " u 90 

MANSON, GEORGE " " 90 

MARC, JEAX-AUGUSTE " " 90 

MAKCELLIN, JKAN-ESPRIT " " 90 

MAIU'HAL, CHARLES FRANQOIS " " 91 

MARCHESI, POMPEO " " 91 

MARCHESI, SALVATORE " " 91 

MARECHAL, CHARLES-LAURENT " " 92 

MARILHAT, PROSPER " " 92 



xxxviii NAMES OF ARTISTS. 

MARIS, JACQUES 

MARIS, MATTHIAS 

MARKS, HENRY STACY 

MAROCHETTI, BARON CHARLES 

MARSHALL, CHARLES 

MARSHALL, WILLIAM C 

MARSHALL, ROBERT ANGELO KITTERMASTER 

MARSHALL, THOMAS W 

MARSTRAND, WILLIAM NICOLAS 

MARTIN, HOMER D 

MARTINEAU, ROBERT B 

MARTINET, ACHILLE-LOUIS 

MARZAROLI, CRISTOFORO 

MASINI, GIROLAMO 

MASON, GEORGE H 

MASSALOFF, NICOLAS 

MATEJKO, JEAN ALOYSIUS 

MATHIEU, LAMBERT JOSEPH 

MATOUT, LOUIS 

MATTESON, TOMPKINS H 

MAURETA, GABRIEL 

MAUVE, ANTON 

MAX, GABRIEL 

MAY, EDWARD HARRISON 

MAYER, ETIENNE-FRANQOIS-AUGUSTE 

MAYER, KARL 

MAYER, EDUARD 

MAYER, FRANK B 

MAYER, CONSTANT 

MAYER, LIEZEN 

MAYNARD, GEORGE W 

McCORD, G. HERBERT 

McENTEE, JERVIS 

M'DONALD, JOHN B 

MEADE, LARKIN G .« 

MEISSONIER, JEAN LOUIS ERNEST 

MEISSONIER, JEAN CHARLES 

MELBYE, ANTOINE 

M^LINGUE, LUCIEN 

MfiNE, PIERRE-JULES 

MENZEL, ADOLF-FREDERIC-ERDMANN 

MERCADE, BENITO 

MERCIE, MARIUS-JEAN-ANTOINE 



Vol. II. Page 93 
93 



NAMES OF ARTISTS. xxxix 

MERLE, HUGUES Vol.11. Page 111 

MERLE, GEORGES " " 112 

MERSON, LUC-OLIVIER " " 112 

MERYON, CHARLES " " 112 

MESDAG, HENDRIK-YVILLEM " " 112 

MEYER, ERNEST " " 113 

MEYER, JEAN-LOUIS-HENRI " " 113 

MEYER, JEAN GEORGES (MEYER VON BREMEN) " " 113 

MEYERHEIM, FREDERIC-EDUARD " " 113 

MEYERHEIM, PAUL FRIEDRICH " " 114 

MEYNIER, CHARLES " " 114 

MEYNIER, JULES JOSEPH M " 114 

MICHEL, ERNEST-BARTIIELEMY " " 114 

MIGLIORETTI, PASCAL " " 114 

MIGNOT, LOUIS R " " 114 

MILLAIS, JOHN EVERETT " " 115 

MILLER, ALFRED J " " 116 

MILLER, CHARLES H " " 117 

MILLET, JEAN-FRANCUHS " " 117 

MILLET, AIME " " 120 

MILLET, FRANCIS D " " 121 

MILLS, CLARK " " 121 

MILMORE, MARTIN " " 122 

MINARDI, TOMMASO " " 122 

MINOR, ROBERT C " " 123 

M INTRO P, THEODOR " " 123 

M'KAY, WILLIAM D " M 123 

MOLTEN I, GIUSEPPE " " 124 

MONCHAliLON, XAVIER ALPIIONSE " " 124 

MONTAGNY, ETIENNE " " 124 

MONTALBA, CLARA " " 121 

MONTEYERDE, GIULIO " M 12t 

MONYEL, LOUIS-MAURICE BOUTET DE " " 123 

MOONEY, EDWARD " M 125 

MOORE, GEORGE B " " 125 

MOORE, ALBERT " " 125 

MOORE, HENRY " " 126 

MOORE, II. HUMPHREY " " 127 

MORAN, EDWARD " u 127 

MORAN, THOMAS " " 128 

MORAN, PETEB " " 129 

MOREAU, MATHURIN " " 130 

IIORBAU, MATHURIN-AUGUSTE " " 130 



xl NAMES OF ARTISTS. 

MOREAU, ADRIEN Vol.11. 

MOREAU, GUSTAVE 

MOREAU-VAUTHIER, AUGUSTIN JEAN 

MORELLT, DOMENICO 

MORGAN, WILLIAM 

MORGAN, MATTHEW ("Matt") " 

MORIN, FRANCOIS-GUSTAVE 

MOROT, AIME-NICOLAS 

MORRELL, IMOGENE ROBINSON 

MORRIS, P. R 

MORSE, SAMUEL F. B 

MORSE, HENRY D 

MORTEMART-BOISSE, ENGUERRAND BARON DE " 

MOSER, KARL ADALBERT 

MOSS, ELLA A 

MOUCHOT, LOUIS 

MOULIN, HIPPOLYTE 

MOUNT, SHEPARD 

MOUNT, WILLIAM S 

MOZIER, JOSEPH 

M'TAGGART, WILLIAM 

MUCKE, HEINRICH KARL ANTON 

MULLER, CHARLES-LOUIS 

MULLER, CARL 

MULLER, VICTOR 

MULREADY, WILLIAM 

MULVANY, GEORGE F 

MUNKACSY, MIHALY 

MUNN, GEORGE F 

MUNRO, ALEXANDER 

MUNZIG, G. C 

MURRAY, ELIZABETH 

MURRAY, DAVID 

MUSIN, FRANQOIS 

MUSSINI, CESARE 

MUSSINI, LUIGI 

MUTRIE, MARTHA D. 

MUTRIE, ANNIE F 

M'WHIRTER, JOHN 

NAFTEL, PAUL J 

NAISH, JOHN GEORGE " 

NAKKEN, W. C 1 " 



XAMES OF ARTISTS. 



xli 



NANTEUIL, CBLBSTIN Vol.11. 

NASH, JOSEPH 

WAST, THOMAS 

NAYEZ, FRAXgOIS JOSEPH 

NEAGLE, JOHN 

neal, DAVID 

NEFF, TIMOLEON CHARLES DE 

NEHLIG, VICTOR 

NEMOZ, JEAN-BAPTISTE-AUGUSTIN 

NEUBER, FRITZ 

NEIYILLE, ALPHONSE DE 

NEWELL, HUGH 

NEWMAN, HENRY R 

NEWTON, SIR WILLIAM JOHN 

NEWTON, MRS. CHARLES T 

NEWTON, ALFRED P 

KEVIN, BLANCHE 

NICOL, ERSKINE 

NICOLL, J. C 

NIEMAN, EDMUND JOHN 

NIEMEYER, JOHN H 

NIERKER. Sec ALCOTT, MISS MAY Vol.1. 

NITTIS, GIUSEPPE DE Vol.11. 

NOBAS, ROSENDO 

NOBLE, MATTHEW 

NOEL, EDME-AXTONY-PAUL 

NORTON, WILLIAM E 



OAKES, JOHN WRIGHT 

OAKEY, MARIA R 

OCONNELL, MME. FREDERIC-EMILIE-A.-M. 

O'DONOVAN, WILLIAM R 

OGILYIE, CLINTON 

OLIYA, ALEXANDRE-JOSEPH 

OLIYIE, LEON 

O NEIL, HENRY 

ONEIL, G. B 

ORCHARDSON, WILLIAM Q 

ORDWAY, ALFRED 

OSBORN, MISS E. M 

OUDIXB, En.EXE-AXDRE" 

OUDINOT, ACIIILLE FRANCOIS 

OULESS, WALTER WILLIAM 



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xlii NAMES OF ARTISTS. 

OUVRIE\ PIERRE JUSTIN Vol.11. Pagel57 

OVERBECK, FRIEDRICH » " 157 

PABST, CAMILLE ALFRED " « 159 

PAGE, WILLIAM " « 159 

PALIZZI, JOSEPH " « 160 

PALMAROLI, VICENTE « " 160 

PALMER, SAMUEL " « 161 

PALMER, ERASTUS D " " 161 

PALMER, WALTER L " » 162 

PAMPALONI, LU1GI " « 162 

PAPE, EDUARD FRIEDRICH " " 163 

PARIS, CAMILLE " « 163 

PARKER, JOHN A " " 163 

PARKER, EDGAR « " 163 

PARMENTIER, LUISA VON " " 164 

PARROT, PHILIPPE " " 164 

PARSONS, CHARLES " " 164 

PARTON, ARTHUR " " 164 

PARTON, ERNEST " " 165 

PASINI, ALBERTO " " 165 

PASSINI, LUDWIG « " 165 

PATON, SIR NOEL " " 166 

PATON, WALLER H " " 166 

PATROIS, ISIDORE " " 167 

PATTEN, GEORGE " " 167 

PATTEN, ALFRED FOWLER " " 167 

PAUWELS, WILLIAM F " " 167 

PAZZI, ENRICO " " 168 

PEALE, REMBRANDT " » 168 

PEALE, SARA M " " 169 

PEARCE, CHARLES SPRAGUE " " 169 

PEDUZZI, RENATO " " 169 

PEELE, JOHN T " " 169 

PEIFFER, AUGUSTE-JOSEPH " " 170 

PEINTE, HENRI " " 170 

PELLEGRIN, LOUIS ANTOINE VICTOR " M 170 

PELOUSE, LOUIS GERMAIN " " 170 

PEXLEY, AARON EDWIN " M 170 

PENNE, CHARLES OLIVIER DE " " 170 

PENNETHORNE, SIR JAMES " " 171 

PEREDA, RAIMONDO " " 171 

PERIGAL, ARTHUR " " M 171 



NAMES OF ARTISTS. xliii 



PfiRIGNON, ALEXIS Vol.11. P 



PERKINS, CHARLES C - " 171 

PERRAUD, JEAN JOSEPH "' " 172 

PBRRAULT, LfiON " " 172 

PBRRET, AIMlS " " 173 

PERRY, E. WOOD " " 173 

PERRY, IONE " " 174 

PERRY, JOHN D " " 174 

PERUGINI, CHARLES EDWARD " " 175 

PERUGINI, MRS. C. E. (KATE DICKENS) " M 175 

PESENTI, DOMENICO " " 176 

PETERS, ANNA " " 176 

PETERSEN, JOHN E. C " " 176 

PETRI, HEINRICH " " 176 

PETTENKOFEN, AUGUSTE " " 176 

PETTIE, JOHN " " 177 

PEYROL. See BONHEUR, JULIETTE Vol.1. Page 74 

PFUHL, JOHANNES Vol. II. Page 178 



igel71 



PHELPS, W. P 

PHILIPPOTEAUX, FELIX-EMMANUEL-HENRI 

PHILLIP, JOHN 

PICKERSGILL, HENRY W 

PICKERSGILL, HENRY H 

PICKERSGILL, FREDERICK R 

PICKNELL, W. L 

PICOT, FRANgOIS-EDOUARD 

PIETRASANTA, ANGELO 

PILLE, HENRI 

PILOTY, CARL THEODOR VON 

PILS, ISIDORE ALEXANDRE AUGUSTIN 

PILZ, VINCENZ 

PINWELL, GEORGE JOHN 

PLACE, HENRI 

PLASSAN, ANTOINE ^MILE 

PLASS.MAN, ERNEST 

PLOCKHORST, BERNIIAUD 

POINTELIN, AU6USTE-EMMANUEL 

POITTEYIN, EUGENE LE 

POLLASTRINI, ENRICO 

POOLE, PAUL FALCONER 

PORCELLI, ANTONIO 

PORTAELS, JEAN FRANCOIS 

PORTER, BENJAMIN CURTIS 



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xliv NAMES OF ARTISTS. 

POTT, L. J Vol. II. 

POWELL, WILLIAM H " 

POWERS, HIRAM " 

POWERS, PRESTON 

POWERS, LONGWORTH 

POYNTER, EDWARD J 

POZZI, FRANCESCO 

PRADILLA, F 

PRATIRE, EDMOND DE 

PREAULT, ANTOINE-AUGUSTIN 

PRELLER, FRIEDRICH JOHANN C. E 

PREYER, JOHANN WILHELM 

PRINCETEAU, RENE" 

PRINSEP, VALENTINE C 

PRIOU, LOUIS 

PROBST, KARL 

PROTAIS, PAUL ALEXANDRE 

PROUT, SAMUEL 

PUGIN, EDWARD W 

PUVIS DE CHAVANNES, PIERRE 

PYE, JOHN 

PYNE, JAMES B 

QUARNSTROM, CARL GUSTAV 

QUARTLEY, ARTHUR 

RAABE, JOSEPH 

RADCLYFFE, EDWARD 

RADFORD, EDWARD 

RAFFET, DENIS-AUGUSTE-MARIE 

RAHL, CHARLES 

RAJON, PAUL-ADOLPHE 

RAMSAY, MILNE 

RANKLEY, ALFRED 

RANVIER, VICTOR JOSEPH 

RAPIN, ALEXANDRE 

RAVEN, J. S 

READ, THOMAS BUCHANAN 

REAM, VINNIE (MRS. HOXIE) 

REDGRAVE, RICHARD 

REED, HELEN 

REGNAULT, ALEXANDRE-GEORGES-HENRI " 

REID, GEORGE ' " 



NAUE3 OF ARTISTS. xlv 

RED), ARCHIBALD D Vol. II. Page 205 

KEIN1IART. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN " " 205 

REINHART, CHARLES S " " 206 

RBINHERZ, CONRAD " " 206 

RETHEL, ALFRED " " 206 

REUSCH, FRIEDRICH " " 207 

REVIERE, BRITON " " 207 

RHOMBERG, IIANNO " " 207 

RIBERA, CARLOS LOUIS " " 207 

RICARD, GUSTAVE " " 207 

RICHARDS, T. ADDISON " " 208 

RICHARDS, WILLIAM T " " 209 

RICHARDS, ORREN C " " 210 

RICHARDSON, T. M " " 210 

RICHET, LEON " " 210 

RICHMOND, GEORGE " " 211 

RICHOMME, JULES " " 211 

RICHTER, ADRIEN-LOUIS " " 211 

RICHTER, GUSTAV " " 211 

RIEDEL, AUGUST " " 212 

RIEFSTAIIL, WILHELM LUDWIG FRIEDRICH ... " K 212 

RIESENER, LOUIS-ANTOINE-LEON " u 212 

RIMMER, WILLIAM " l( 212 

RINEHART, WILLIAM HENRY " " 213 

RITCHIE, ALEXANDER H ■' " 213 

RIVALTA, AUGUSTO " " 213 

ROBBE, LOUIS-MARIE-DOMINIQUE-ROMA IN " " 214 

ROBBE, HENRI " " 214 

ROBBINS, HORACE W " " 214 

ROBER, ERNST " " 214 

ROBER, FRITZ « '* 215 

ROBERT, LEO-PAUL " " 215 

ROBEItT-FLEURY, JOSEPH-NICOLAS " " 215 

ROBERT-FLEURY, TONY - u 215 

ROBERTS, DAVID " " 215 

ROBERTS, EDWARD J " " 216 

ROBERTS, THOMAS " " 217 

ROBERTS, HOWARD " « 217 

ROBIE, JEAN I5APTISTE M " 217 

ROBINSON, JOHN HENRY " " 217 

ROBINSON, THOMAS " « 218 

ROBINSON, I. See MORRELL Vol.1. Page 132 

RODAKOWSKI, HENRI Vol.11. Page 218 



xlvi NAMES OF ARTISTS. 

ROGERS, RANDOLPH Vol.11. Page218 

ROGERS, JOHN " " 219 

ROGERS, FRANK WHITING " " 220 

ROLFE, H. L " " 220 

ROLL, ALFRED-PHILIPPE " « 220 

ROMANELLI, P " « 220 

ROMBERG, ARTHUR GEORG " « 221 

RONNER, MME. HENRIETTE " " 221 

RONOT, CHARLES " " 221 

ROQUEPLAN, JOSEPH-ETIENNE-CAMILLE " " 221 

ROSALES, EDOUARD " " 221 

ROSEN, GEORGE, COUNT VON " « 222 

ROSENTHAL, TOBY E " " 222 

ROSIER, AMEDEE " " 222 

ROSS, SIR WILLIAM " " 222 

ROSS, ROBERT THORBURN " " 223 

ROSS, ALFRED " " 223 

ROSSEELS, JACQUES " " 223 

ROSSETTI, DANTE GABRIEL " " 223 

ROSSITER, THOMAS P " " 224 

ROSSITER, CHARLES " " 224 

ROSSITER, MRS. CHARLES " " 225 

ROTH, CHRISTIAN " " 225 

ROTHERMEL, PETER F " " 225 

ROUSSEAU, PHILIPPE " " 226 

ROUSSEAU, THEODORE " " 226 

ROWBOTHAM, THOMAS L " " 227 

ROWSE, SAMUEL W " " 227 

RUBIO, LOUIS " " 227 

RUDDER, LOUIS-HENRI DE " " 228 

RUSKIN, JOHN rt " 228 

SAIN, fiDOUARD-ALEXANDRE " " 230 

SAINT-GAUDENS, AUGUSTUS " " 230 

SAINTIN, JULES EMILE " " 231 

SAINT-JEAN, SIMON " " 231 

SALENTIN, HUBERT " " 231 

SALMSON, HUGO " " 231 

SALTER, WILLIAM " " 231 

SAND, MAURICE (DUDEVANT) " " 232 

SANDERSON, CHARLES WESLEY " " 232 

SANDYS, FREDERICK K " " 232 

SANGSTER, SAMUEL " " 233 



NAMES OF ARTISTS. 



xlvii 



SANGUINETTI, FRANCESCO Vol.11 

SON, JUSTIN-CHRYSOSTOME 

BANT, JAMES 

BANTARELLI, EMILIO 

SARGENT, JOHN S 

BARROCCHI, TITO 

BARTAIN, JOHN 

BARTAIN, WILLIAM 

BARTAIN, EMILY 

SATTERLEE, WALTER 

BAUX, DE. See BROWNE, MME. H Vol 

SOARAMUZZA, FRANCESCO Vol 

SCIIADOW, FRIEDRICII WILHELM 

SCHAMPHELEER, EDMOND DE 

BCHAUS, PROF. FERDINAND 

SCHEFFER, ARY 

SCIIELFIIOUT, ANDREW 

SCIIENC K, AUGUST-FREDERIC-ALBRECHT 

SCIIENDEL, PETRUS VAN 

SCHETKY, JOHN CHRISTIAN 

SCHIEYELBEIX, FRIEDRICH ANTON HERMANN 

SCHILLING, JOHANNES 

SCHINKEL, KARL FRIEDRICII 

SCHIRMER, GUILLAUME 

SCHLEICH, EDUARD 

SCHLESINGER, HENRI GUILLAUME 

SCIILOESSER, KARL 

SCHMID, MATTIAS 

SCHMIDT, MAX 

SCHNORR VON CAROLSFELD, JULIUS VEIT HANS 

SCH(ENEWERK, ALEXANDRE 

SCHOLTZ, JULIUS 

SCHORN, CHARLES 

SCHRADER, JULES 

SCHREYER, ADOLPHE 

SCHRCEDTER, ADOLF 

BCHULZ, MORITZ 

8CHUTZENBERGER, LOUIS-FREDERIC 

8CHWARZ, ALBERT 

SCHWEINITZ, RUDOLF 

SCHWIXD, MORITZ LUDWIG (RITTER VON) 

I ONI, ANATOLIO 

SCOTT, SIR GEORGE GILBERT 



Page 233 

" 233 

" 233 

" 234 

" 234 

" 234 

" 235 

M 235 

" 236 

" 236 

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Page 237 

" 237 

" 237 

" 237 

" 237 

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" 239 

" 240 

" 241 

" 241 

" 241 

" 241 

" 242 

" 242 

" 242 

" 242 

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" 243 

c< 243 

" 243 

" 243 

" 243 

" 244 

" 244 

" 245 

" 245 

" 246 

" 246 

" 246 

" 246 

" 247 

" U1 



xlviii NAMES OF ARTISTS. 

SCOTT, JULIAN Vol. II. Page 247 

SEEL, ADOLF " " 248 

S£G£, ALEXANDRE " " 248 

SEIFFERT, KARL FRIEDRICH " " 248 

SEISSER, MARTIN B " " 248 

SELL, CHRISTIAN " " 248 

SELLIER, CHARLES AUGUSTE " " 249 

SELLSTEDT, LARS GUSTAF " " 249 

SEMPER, GOTTFRIED " " 249 

SETTEGAST, JOSEF " " 250 

SHALDERS, GEORGE " " 250 

SHAPLEIGH, F. H " " 250 

SHATTUCK, AARON D " " 250 

SHAW, RICHARD NORMAN " " 251 

SHAW, ANNIE C " " 251 

SHIRLAW, WALTER " " 251 

SHUMWAY, HENRY C " " 252 

SHURTLEFF, R. M " " 252 

SIEGERT, AUGUST " " 253 

SIEMIRADSKY, HENRI " " 253 

SIGNOL, fiMILE " " 253 

SILVA, FRANCIS A " " 253 

SIMART, PIERRE CHARLES " " 254 

SIMLER, FRIEDRICH KARL JOSEF " " 255 

SIMMONS, WILLIAM HENRY " " 255 

SIMMONS, FRANKLIN " " 255 

SIMONETTI, CAVALIERE ATTILIO " " 256 

SIMONSEN, NIELS " " 256 

SIMPSON, WILLIAM " " 256 

SINDING, OTTO " " 256 

SKILL, F. JOHN " " 256 

SKOVGAARD, PETER CHRISTIAN " " 256 

SLINGINEYER, ERNEST " " 257 

SMALL, WILLIAM " " 257 

SMART, JOHN " " 257 

SMILLIE, JAMES " " 258 

SMILLIE, JAMES D " " 258 

SMILLIE, GEORGE H " " 259 

SMIRKE, SIR ROBERT " " 259 

SMIRKE, SYDNEY " " 260 

SMITH, COLVIN " " 260 

SMITH, T. L " " 260 

SMITH, GEORGE " " " 261 



NAMES OF ARTISTS. xlix 

SMITH, A. CARY Vol. II. Page 261 

SMITH, F. HOPKINSON " * 261 

SMITH. FRANK HILL " " 262 

SMITH. WILLIAM RUSSELL " " 263 

SOHN, KARL FERDINAND " " 263 

SOLOMON, ABRAHAM " " 263 

SONNTAG, WILLIAM LOUIS " " 263 

SORENSEN, C. F " " 264 

SOUMY, JOSEPH-PAUL-MARIUS " " 264 

SPANGENBERG, GUSTAV ADOLF " " 264 

SPARTALI, MARIE (MRS. W. J. STILLMAN) " M 265 

SPENCER, FREDERICK R " " 266 

SPERTINI, GIOVANNI " " 266 

SPREAD, HENRY F " " 266 

SPRING, EDWARD A " " 266 

SPROSSE, CARL " " 267 

STACQUET, N " " 267 

STAIGG, RICHARD M " " 267 

STALLAERT, JOSEPH " " 268 

STANFIELD, CLARKSON " " 268 

STANFIELD, GEORGE C " " 268 

STANHOPE R. SPENCER " " 269 

STEBBINS, EMMA " " 269 

STEELE, SIR JOHN " " 269 

STEELE, GOURLAY " u 270 

STEFFECK, KARL CONSTANTIN HEINRICH " " 270 

STEINBRUCK, EDUARD " " 270 

STEINHEIL, LOUIS-CHARLES-AUGUSTE " " 270 

STEINLE, EDUARD M " 271 

STEPHENS, EDWARD B " " 271 

STEVENS, JOHN " " 271 

STEVENS, ALFRED {Brit.) " " 171 

STEVENS, JOSEPH " " 272 

STEVENS, ALFRED {Belgian) " " 273 

STIVER, GUSTAV CURT " " 273 

STOCKS, LIMB " " 274 

STONE, FRANK " " 274 

\E, HORATIO " " 274 

\E, WILLIAM OLIVER " " 274 

NE, MARCUS " " 275 

STONE. J. M " " 275 

8TORELLI, FELIX-MARIE-FERDINAND " " 276 

STOREY, GEORGE ADOLPHUS " " 276 



1 NAMES OF ARTISTS. 

STORY, WILLIAM W Vol.11. Page277 

STORY, GEORGE H « « 277 

STRAZZA, GIOVANNI « « 278 

STREET, GEORGE EDMUND " « 278 

STROEBEL, J. A. B « « 278 

STROOBANT, FRANgOIS " " 278 

STURM, FRIEDRICH LUDWIG CHRISTIAN " " 278 

SULLY, THOMAS ' " « 279 

SUNOL, GERONIMO « « 279 

SUSSMANN, HELLBORN LOUIS " « 279 

SUYDAM, JAMES A « « 279 

SWERTCHKOW, NICOLAS " " 280 

SYLVESTRE, JOSEPH-NOEL " « 280 

TADOLINI, ADAM SCIPIONE " " 280 

TADOLINI, SIGNORA " " 281 

TAIT, ARTHUR F " " 281 

TAIT, JOHN R " " 281 

TANTARDINI, ANTONIO " " 282 

TARDIEU, PIERRE-ALEXANDRE " " 282 

TATKELEFF, VOGISNY " " 283 

TAYLER, FREDERICK " " 284 

TAYLER, NORMAN " " 284 

TENERANI, PIETRO " " 284 

TEN KATE, HERMANN FREDERIC KARL " " 284 

TENNANT, JOHN " " 285 

TENNIEL, JOHN " " 285 

TERRY, LUTHER " " 285 

TESCHENDORFF, EMIL w " 285 

THACKERAY, WILLIAM M " " 285 

THAYER, ABBOTT H " " 286 

THEED, WILLIAM " " 287 

THIRION, EUGENE-ROMAIN " " 287 

THOM, JAMES CRAWFORD " " 287 

THOMAS, JOHN EVAN " " 288 

THOMAS, WILLIAM CAVE " " 288 

THOMAS, GABRIEL-JULES " " 288 

THOMAS, GEORGE H " " 289 

THOMPSON, CEPHAS G " " 289 

THOMPSON, JEROME " " 290 

THOMPSON, LAUNT " " 291 

THOMPSON, A. WORDSWORTH " " 291 

THOMPSON, ELIZABETH (MRS. BUTLER) S " " 292 



NAMES OF ARTISTS. 






THOMPSON, ALBERT Vol.11. 

THORBURN, ROBERT 

THORNDIKE, G. QUINCY 

THORNYCROFT, MARY 

THORXYCROFT, THOMAS 

THORNYCROFT, IIAMO 

THORNYCROFT, HELEN 

THORNYCROFT, THERESA 

TIDEMAM), ADOLPHE 

TIDEY, ARTHUR 

TIDEY, HENRY 

TIECK, CHRISTIAN FREDERIC 

TIFFANY, LOUIS C 

TILTON, JOHN ROLLIN 

TIMBAL, LOUIS CHARLES 

TISSOT, JAMES 

TITE, SIR WILLIAM 

TOLLES, SOPHIE MAPES 

TOMPKINS, CLEMENTINA M. G 

TOPHAM, FRANCIS ^VILLIAM 

TOPHAM, FRANCIS W. TV 

TORELLI, LOT 

TOUDOUZE, EDOUARD 

TOULMOUCHE, AUGUSTS 

TOURNEMINE, CHARLES L\MILE VACHER DE... 

TRAUTMANN, KARL FRIEDRICH 

TRIGT, II. A. VAN 

TRIQUETI, HENRI DE 

TROTTER, NEWBOLD II 

TROYON, CONSTANT 

TRUBNER, WILHELM 

TRUMBULL, GURDON 

TRYON, BENJAMIN F '. 

BAGGENY, CHARLES PHILOGEAE 

T'SCHAGGENY, EDMOND 

TUCKERMAN, S. S \ 

TURCAX, JEAN 

TURNER, JOSEPH M. W 

TURNER. WILLIAM GREEN 

TWACHTMAN, J. II 



ULIYI, PIETRO 

ULMANN, BENJAMIN 



Page 293 
293 
294 
294 
295 
295 
295 
295 
295 
295 
296 
296 
296 
297 
298 
298 
299 
299 
299 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
301 
301 
301 
301 
301 
301 
303 
303 
303 
303 
304 
304 
304 
304 
307 
307 

307 
307 



lii NAMES OF ARTISTS. 

UNGER, WILHELM Vol.11. Page307 

USSI, COMMANDER STEFANO " " 308 

UWINS, THOMAS " " 308 

VAINI, PIETRO " " 308 

VALERIO, THEODORE " M 309 

VALLANCE, W. F " " 309 

VALLES, LORENZO " " 309 

VAN ELTEN, KRUSEMAN " " 309 

VAN HOVE, VICTOR " « 310 

VAN LERIUS, JOSEPH HENRI FRANgOIS " « 310 

VAN LUPPEN, G. J. A „ " " 311 

VAN MARCKE, EMILE " " 311 

VANNUTELLI, CAVALIERE SCIPIONE " " 311 

VARLEY, JOHN " " 311 

VARLEY, CORNELIUS " « 311 

VARLEY, WILLIAM FLEETWOOD » " 311 

VARNI, SANTO « " 312 

VASSELOT, ANATOLE MARQUET DE " " 312 

VAUDREMER, JOSEPH-AUGUSTE-EMILE « " 312 

VAUREAL, HENRI DE " " 312 

VAUTIER, BENJAMIN " " 313 

VEDDER, ELIHU " « 313 

VEIT, PHILIP M " 314 

VELA, VINCENZO " " 314 

VELY, ANATOLE " " 314 

VERA, ALEJO " " 315 

VERBOECKHOVEN, EUGENE JOSEPH " " 315 

VERBOECKHOVEN, CHARLES-LOUIS •* " 315' 

VERHAS, JAN " " 315 

VERHEYDEN, ISIDOR " " 315 

VERLAT, CHARLES " <: 315 

VERNET, EMILE-JEAN-HORACE " " 316 

VERNON, THOMAS " " 320 

VERON, ALEXANDRE RENE " " 320 

VERTUNNI, ACHILLE " M 320 

VERVEER, SAMUEL LEONIDAS " " 321 

VETTER, JEAN HEGESIPPE " " 321 

VEYRASSAT, JULES JACQUES " " 322 

VIBERT, JEHAN GEORGES " u 322 

VINCK, FRANZ " u 325 

VINTON, FREDERICK PORTER " " 325 

VIOLLET-LE-DUC, ETIENNE ADOLPHE " " 326 



XAMKS OF ARTISTS. 



lilt 



VIRY, PATJt Vol 


.11. Page 326 


VOGEL VOX YOGELSTEIN, KARL CHRISTIAN ... 


" 326 


VOILLEMOT, ANDR&-CHARLES 


" 326 


YOLK, LEONARD W 


" 326 


VOLK, DOUGLAS 


" 327 


VOLLON, ANTOINE 


" 327 


VOLTZ, FRIEDRICH JOIIANN 


" 328 


VON SEVERDONCK, J 


" 328 


VOSS, MARIA 


" 328 


YRIEXDT, JULIAN DE 


" 328 


VRIENDT, ALBRECHT DE ' 


" 328 


WAl'II, KARL WILIIELM ' 


" 328 


WAGNER, FERDINAND 


" 329 


WAGNER, ALEXANDER 


" 329 


WALDO, SAMUEL 


" 329 


WALDORP, ANTOINE 


" 330 


WALKER, FREDERICK 


a 330 


WALLACE, WILLIAM 


" 330 


WALLER, FRANK 


11 331 


WALTER, THOMAS N 


" 331 


WALTON, ELIJAH 


" 331 


WAPPERS, EGIDE-CHARLES-GUSTAVE, BARON... 


" 331 


WARD, EDWARD M 


" 332 


WARD, HENRIETTA 


" 333 


WARD, JOHN Q. A 


" 334 


WARD, EDGAR If 


" 334 


WARNER, OLIN L 


u 335 


WARREN, HENRY 


" 335 


WARREN, EDMOND G 


" 335 


WASSON, GEORGE S. 


" 335 


WATERHOUSE, ALFRED 


" 336 


WATERMAN, MARCUS 


u 336 


WATSON, JOHN D 


11 336 


WATSON, THOMAS II 


' " 336 


WAIT, JAMES HENRY 


" 337 


WAITER, JOSEF 


" 337 


WAITS, GEORGE F 


" 337 


WAITERS, CHARLES AUGUSTIN 


" 338 


WAITERS, E\MILE CHARLES 


" 338 


WAY, A. J. II 


1 " 338 


WEBER, AUGUST 


" 339 


WEBER, PAUL 


" 339 



liv NAMES OF ARTISTS. 

WEBER, OTTO Vol. II. Page339 

WEBSTER, THOMAS « " 340 

WEEKS, HENRY « « 340 

WEEKS, E. L " » 341 

WEGENER, JOHANN FRIEDRICH WILHELM " " 341 

WEIR, ROBERT W " « 342 

WEIR, JOHN F " « 342 

WEIR, JULIAN ALDEN « " 343 

WELLS, HENRY T « " 343 

WELLS, JOHANNA MARY « « 344 

WENCKER, JOSEPH " « 344 

WERNER, ANTON VON " " 344 

WEST, PETER B " « 344 

WESTMACOTT, RICHARD '..... " « 345 

WHARTON, P. F « « 345 

WHISTLER, JAMES ABBOTT M'NEILL " « 345 

WHITE, JOHN BLAKE " " 347 

WHITE, EDWIN " " 348 

WHITEHOUSE, JAMES " " 349 

WHITTREDGE, WORTHINGTON " " 349 

WICHMANN, LUDWIG-WILHELM " " 350 

WICHMANN, OTTO GOTTFRIED " " 350 

WIEDER, WILHELM " " 350 

WIEGMANN, MARIE ELISABETH {nee HANCKE) " " 350 

WIGHT, MOSES " " 351 

WIGHT, PETER B " " 351 

WILES, LEMUEL M , " " 351 

WILKIE, SIR DAVID " " 352 

WILLEMS, FLORENT " " 352 

WILLENICH, MICHEL " u 353 

WILLIAMS, PENRY " " 353 

WILLIAMS, ISAAC L " " 353 

WILLIAMS, FREDERICK D " " 353 

WILLIAMS, MRS. FREDERICK D. (nee LUNT) " " 354 

WILLIAMSON, DANIEL ALEXANDER " M 354 

WILLIAMSON, JOHN " " 354 

WILLIS, HENRY BRITTAN ,. " " 354 

WILLMORE, JAMES T " " 355 

WILLMORE, A " " 355 

WILMARTH, LEMUEL E " " 355 

WILMS, PETER JOSEF " " 356 

WINNE, LIEVIN DE " " 356 

WINTER, L. DE v " " 356 



NAMES OF ARTISTS. Iv 

WINTER, PIIARAON-AHDON-LEON DE Vol. II. Page356 

WINTERHALTER, FRANQOIS XAV1ER " " 356 

WINTZ, GUILLAUME " " 357 

WISLICENUS, HERMANN " " 357 

WITHERINGTON, WILLIAM FREDERICK " " 358 

WITTIG, HERMANN FRIEDRICII " M 358 

WITTIG, I U1EDRICH AUGUST " " 358 

WOLF, EMIL " " 358 

WOOD, JOHN " " 359 

WOOD, GEORGE B., Jr " " 359 

WOOD, MARSHALL " " 359 

WOOD, THOMAS W " " 359 

WOODINGTON, WILLIAM F " " 360 

WOOLNER, THOMAS " " 361 

WORMS, JULES " " 361 

WORTH, THOMAS " " 361 

WRIGHT, RUFUS " " 362 

WRIGHT, F. E " " 363 

WVANT, A. II " " 363 

WYATT, SIR MATTHEW DIGBY " " 363 

WYBURD, FRANCIS JOHN " " 364 

WYLIE, ROBERT " " 364 

WYLLIE, W. L " " 364 

WYNFIELD, DAVID W " " 365 

XYLANDER, W " " 365 

YARZ, EDMOND " " 365 

YLAMES, WILLIAM FREDERICK " " 366 

YELLAND, R. D " " 366 

YEWELL, GEORGE H " " 367 

YON, EDMOND-CIIARLES " " 367 

YOUNG, JAMES HARVEY " " 367 

YOUNG, HARVEY " " 368 

YVON, ADOLPHE " " 368 

ZACHARIE, PHILIPPE-ERNEST " " 368 

ZAMACOIS, fiDOUARD " " 368 

ZETTERSTROM, MME. M " " 370 

ZEZZOS, ALESSANDRO " u 370 

ZIEM, FELIX " " 370 

ZIER, FlDOUARD " " 372 

ZIMMERMANN, ALBRECHT " " 372 



lvi 



NAMES OF ARTISTS. 



ZOCCHI, EMILIO Vol. II. Page 372 

ZUBER, JEAN-HENRI (Alsatian) " " 372 

ZUBER-BUHLER, FRITZ " " 372 

ZUCCOLI, LUIGI " « 372 

ZUGEL, HEINRICH JOHANN " " 372 

ZULIANI, JEAN " " 372 

ZUMBUSCH, CASPAR " " 372 

ZWIRNER, ERNEST-FREDERIC " " 373 



AUTHORITIES CONSULTED. 



American Engravers and their Works. 
Benjamin's Contemporary Art in Europe. 
English Artists of the Present Day. 
English Painters of the Present Day. 
Great American Sculptors. 
Hamerton's Thoughts about Art. 
Hamerton's Painting in France. 
Hamerton's Contemporary French Painters. 
Hamerton's Etching and Etchers. 
Jarves' Art Idea. 
Jarves' Art Thoughts. 
Men of the Time. 
Mrs. Tytler's Modern Painters. 
Ottley's Living and Recent Painters. 
Smith's Art Education. 
Tuckerman's Book of the Artists. 
"Wornum's Epochs of Painting. 
Appletons' Art Journal. 
London Art Journal. 
The Portfolio. 
Magazine of Art. 
Palgrave's Essays on Art. 
Redgrave's Century of Painters. 
Ruskin's Academy Notes. 
Ruskin's Modern Painters. 
Tain i OS England. 

Atlantic Monthly. 
London Athenaeum. 

Atkinson's Northern Capitals of Europe. 
Nichols' Art Education. 

Weir's Official Report of the American Centennial Exhi- 
bition. 



lviii AUTHORITIES CONSULTED. 

Report of the United States Commissioners at Vienna. 

Mario Proth's Voyage au Pays des Peintres. 

Chesneau's Chefs d'Ecole. 

L'Illustration. 

Gazette des Beaux-Arts. 

L'Art. 

Galerie Contemporaine, Litteraire, Artistique. 

Revue des Deux Mondes. 

Cherbuliez' Litterature et Art. 

Charles Blanc's Les Artistes de mon Temps. 

Claretie's Artistes Contemporains. 

T. Gautier's Salon de 1861. 

E. About's Salon de 1864. 

Roma Artistica. 

Die KiInstler aller Zeiten und Volker, von Professor Fr. 
Muller. 

ansichten tjber die beldenden ktjnste von einem deutschen 
Kunstler IN Rom. 

Die Deutsche Kunst in unserem Jahrhundert, von Dr. Hagen. 

Die Konigliche Kunstakademie in Dusseldorf, von Wiegmann. 

Zeitschrift fur Bildende Kunst. 

Gegenwart. 

Bryan, Vapereau, Bitard, Nagler, Larousse, and many other 
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 



Jackson, John Adams. (.4 m.) Born in Bath. Me., 1825. Pupil, 
when quite young, of D. C. Johnston of Boston. After a careful study 
of linear and geometrical drawing, he gave some time to working in 
crayons, and later made some successful portraits in this manner. At 
Paris he studied anatomical drawing from life in the famous school of 
M. Suisse. In 1851 Jackson executed some fine portrait busts. That 
of Webster was made from medals and portraits furnished by his fam- 
ily. At Florence, in 1853, he modeled portrait busts of Miss Ade- 
laide Phillips, T. Buchanan Read, etc. In 1854, in Paris, he modeled 
his bust of Judge Mason, United States Ambassador to France, and 
during the same year in Boston he made the bust of Wendell Phillips, 
now in the Boston Athenaeum ; that of George S. Hillard, for the New 
York Historical Society ; and that of Rev. Dr. Lyman Beecher, now 
owned by Rev. H. W. Beecher. In 1858 Jackson removed to New 
York, and there modeled ideal subjects as well as those from life, in- 
cluding his bust of T. Buchanan Read, for the Union League Club of 
Philadelphia. In 1860 he received a commission from the " Kane 
Monument Association " for a statue of the arctic voyager, to be made 
in bronze ; his model was unanimously accepted by the committee, and 
the sculptor went to Florence to attend to the making of the figure. 
Since that time Florence has been his home. In 1862 Jackson mod- 
eled his group of " Eve and the Dead Abel," which (in marble) belongs 
to Mr. W. G. Morehead of Philadelphia. This work has been much 
praised by English and Italian art critics. Charles J. Hemans made a 
careful analysis of it, and Dr. Arrowsmith, an English surgeon, wrote 
an essay on it, giving the connection in it of anatomy and physiology, 
and " showing how the artist had in this group expressed the very 
subtle truths of organization and pathology." Following this work, 
the artist made a statue of " Autumn," for Mr. Tirrell of Weymouth ; 
"Cupid stringing his Bow," for Mr. Watson of New York ; " Titania 
and Nick Bottom," a small group in bronze, for Mr. Thomas Williams 
of London ; "Cupid on a Swan " (marble), for Mr. If. Clarke of Bel- 
mont ; the " Culprit Fay," for Mr. S. D. Warren of Boston, of which 
several copies have been mad»- tor England and the United States ; 
a bust called " Peace," for Mr. Whidden of Philadelphia, and mother 

VOL. II. 1 A 



2 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

called " Dawn," for Mr. Theron Shaw of Boston. The last has 
been often repeated. Jackson has made many portrait busts (having 
finished one hundred) and medallions. Among the latter is one called 
the " Morning-Glory," which has been fourteen times reproduced 
in marble. In 1867 Jackson visited New York, and modeled for 
the " Croton Water-Board " a group of figures, and several single 
figures, to be cast in bronze and placed on the southern gate-house 
of the Reservoir at Central Park. The design was approved and 
the contract signed for the work. These statues have not yet been 
cast, but an engraving of the central group appears on the bonds 
issued by the Board. In 1869 the artist modeled his statue of the 
" Reading Girl," belonging to Mr. Aaron Healy of Brooklyn. In the 
Berlin " Zeitung " Dr. Hans Semper published an article upon this work, 
which he highly praised. At Vienna, in 1873, was seen the " Musi- 
dora," belonging to Mr. Clarke of New York, of which Mr. Gordon 
McKay of Cambridge has a fine copy, one third reduced in size. 
This statue was exhibited for a few days in New York, and was as 
much admired as it had been in Florence before it left the artist's 
studio. In 1874 the Soldiers' Monument at Lynn was erected. In 
this Mr. Jackson represented the city as a woman with one hand 
resting on a shield, while with the other hand she bestowed the laurel 
wreath ; the shield bearing the city's coat of arms. Below this figure 
are two others, M Justice " and " War," the latter at rest with arms 
reversed. The monument is of granite, and the figures of bronze. In 
1875 was modeled a " Hylas " ; and following that, " II Pastorello," 
which is a group in marble, representing an Abruzzi peasant-boy 
with his goat. It has been sold to Mr. Nevins of New York. It is 
very spirited, full of grace as well as life. It has a peculiar interest, 
since it faithfully represents the artistic Abruzzi costume, which is 
rapidly disappearing, and is much regretted by all lovers of the pictu- 
resque. Of the " Abel and Eve " the Boston Transcript said, — 

" The more we study this group the more we find in it to admire. The fine conception 
is fully carried out in the details. The composition is admirable, viewed from any direc- 
tion, — a rare accomplishment in a work of this kind. Eve rests on one knee, and on 
the other she supports the inanimate form of Abel, which she is supposed to have just 
discovered. Her left hand is under his drooping head, while in her right hangs his life- 
less wrist. Her head is bent towards his with a gaze in which curiosity, uncertainty, 
and anxiety are mingled. The form of Eve is an exquisite piece of modeling. It is full 
of action, and yet pervaded with grace. The back is especially fine. It would seem as if 
the very marble itself felt the coming revelation, which is to prostrate the desolate heart 
of the first mother. The head is also an exquisite piece of chiseling, and we would call 
particular attention to the hair and the ivy (a happy suggestion of woman's first at- 
tempt to adorn herself) which binds it ; the mastery of which sculptors know to be a 
difficult task. We have rarely seen hair so faithfully and beautifully done. The form 
of Abel is very bold in its conception. It is dead beyond any hope of recovery ; and 
yet, through the magic of the sculptor's art, it excites only tender and pleasing emotions. 
Tlie hand of the boy, and that of Eve which holds it, are worthy the most critical 
study of both the artist and anatomist. They form a group in themselves. The droop- 
ing left arm of Abel is equally successful. The anatomy of the eiitire group is per- 




ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 3 

feet ; we have heard professional anatomists speak on this point in terms of the highest 
admiration." 

Mr, Jackson is now engaged in modeling another group of " Eve 
and Abel," in which the form is so changed that it is the same only 
in name. He intends to make it his capo cV opera. It has already 
been much praised by critics and connoisseurs who have seen the 
model 

'• Mr. J. A. Jackson's Mcsidora. — Several years ago a group in statuary, ' F.ve and 
Abol.' by Mr. J. A. Jackson, was exhibited in thiscity, and was much admired It made 
a real impression. The critics of the day were enthusiastic over it. The artist com- 
pleted it in Florence, where he had lived some years, and where he now resides. After 
the Vienna Exposition he sent to this country a life-sized statue, ' Musidora,' which 
had been exhibited there. For a short time it was shown in New York, and was sold, 
but Tiot l>efore its superior merits had made for it many friends among the artists and 
lovers of art. Some timeafter, Mr. Jackson reproduced this work in marble, two thirds 
life-size, and this work is now owned by Mr. McKay of Cambridge, who certainly is to be 
tulated upon the possession of it. The story of Musidora and her lover Damon, 
told in the ' Slimmer' of Thomson's 'Seasons,' gave Mr. Jackson the suggestion. He 
has taken the moment when Musidora, standing in the lilies by the pool, nude, ready for 
the bath, is startled by the noise of her retreating lover, who, half angry with her, una- 
ware of her approach, had been musing in a pet under the hazels near by. She leans 
forward, listening in the attitude of surprise, with left hand and arm uplifted, and the 
right supporting the drapery. The weight of the body is thrown to the left. The figure 
is that of a lovely young girl, beautiful in face and form, and graceful in action. The 
conception is a most fortunate one, and in the embodiment of it the artist has made a 
gratifying success. He has given the figure a pose which is full of natural grace and 
charming in its suggested action. The symmetry of a beautiful form is well displayed 
under conditions where it is easy to offend, and where a hand that was not guided by 
refinement or was wanting in that confidence in modeling which is the result of conscien- 
tious study of anatomy, would have failed. It is altogether a work of great merit, and 
as a credit to American art ought to be better known." — J. B. Millet, in Boston Daily 
Advertiser, October 2S, 1S78. 

Jacob, Julius. (Ger.) Born at Berlin, 1811. Medals at Paris, 
Lyon-, and Rouen. Member of many artistic societies. Studied 
under "NVach at the Diisseldorf Academy, and later in Paris under 
Delaroche. He traveled extensively in Europe, and visited Asia and 
Africa. From all these journeys he brought back twelve hundred 
sketches of landscapes, and more than three hundred heads, copied 
from famous pictures. Among his works are a " Scene from the Life 
of Saint-Louis," "Artist Life," etc. In 1844 he went to England and 
remained eleven years, — his portraits were much admired, and he 
made a fortune by them. He afterwards traveled in the South of 
Europe, and went to Vienna, where he made likenesses of many 
eminent persona, Metternich, Schwarzenl>erg, Lichtenstein, etc. He 
worked with great rapidity, and finished twenty-six portraits in a 
single year. In 1866, on account of the war, he returned to Berlin. 
In the National Gallery of Berlin is a study of men's heads by Jacob. 
At Berlin, in 1876, he exhibited " Steinfeld von Sorrent " and " Aus 
der Mark.*' 

Jacobs, Jacques- Albert-Michel. (Belgian.) Born at Antwerp, 



4 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

1812. Officer of the Order of Leopold. Member of the Royal Academy 
of Belgium. Pupil of F. de Braekeleer. Traveled in the East. Paints 
landscapes and marines. At the National Gallery, Berlin, is his 
" Grecian Archipelago." 

Jacomin, Alfred-Louis. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Pupil of his 
father. Medal at Philadelphia, where he exhibited " Bilboquet and 
his Companion " and " An Armorer of the Seventeenth Century." At 
Paris, in 1877, was "A Baptism " ; in 1878, " The Magic Mirror." 

Jacquand, Claudius. (Fr.) Born at Lyons, 1805. Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor and of the Order of Leopold. Pupil of the 
Academy of Lyons and of Fleury- Richard. His motives are histor- 
ical. A number of his works have been bought by the Civil List. 
His "Amende Honorable, — Scene in a Convent" (1853) is in the 
Luxembourg. His portraits are numerous and excellent. The " Tak- 
ing of Jerusalem" is at Versailles. Among his other works are, 
"Bonaparte at Nice," "The Last Interview of Charles I. and his 
Children," " The Ransom of a Sicilian Family captured by a Morocco 
Pirate," " The Death of Joseph," " Christopher Columbus about to 
die requests his Son to bury with him the Chains which he had worn," 
etc. His picture of " William the Silent " was exhibited in Boston by 
Williams & Everett in the winter of 1878. 

Jacque, Charles Emile. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1813. Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honor. When seventeen years old he studied with 
a geographical engraver, but a little later enlisted as a soldier and re- 
mained seven years in the army. He then resumed his engraving, and 
worked two years in England as a draughtsman on wood. He may 
be characterized as a rustic artist. His knowledge of sheep and poul- 
try (of which last he is a fancier and breeder) is simply perfect, and 
he has been called " le Raphael des Pourceaux" from his exact 
acquaintance with pigs. He has been much in Burgundy, and his 
pictures of life there are marvelous in their minute representation, not 
only of the larger objects, but of details ; of the utensils, implements, 
and all the picturesque peculiarities of that charming country. One 
cannot always praise the color of this painter, and for this reason 
many connoisseurs rank his etchings higher than his paintings. A 
catalogue of Jacque's engravings, numbering four hundred and twenty, 
was made by M. Guiffrey. Many stories are told of his buying an 
old shepherd dog for a model, of his giving a new wheelbarrow for a 
broken, weather-stained one, etc., to the astonishment of the peasantry 
at Barbizon, where he built a little house and a big studio, and could, 
in that country, indulge his love for all that the word " rustic " can sug- 
gest. His earlier pictures, like his etchings, were small ; but he has 
painted larger ones ; of which " A Landscape with a Flock of Sheep " 
(1861) is at the Luxembourg. He has sent nothing to the Salons 
since 1870; then he exhibited "The Border of a Wood with Ani- 
mals " and " The Interior of a Sheepfold." Jacque has made many 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 5 

•as for book illustrations, and by contributions to " Charivari " 
has shown himself a good caricaturist. Some of his etchings form 
delightful series, and are much prized by collectors. The proofs of 
several of his prints are exceedingly rare. At a Paris sale in 1872 "A 
Girl Knitting" sold for £ 164. Several excellent works by this artist, 
ihowing the manner of his different periods, are in the Walters Gal- 
lery at Baltimore. 

" If the wont pittoresque did not exist in the French language, one would have to in- 
vent it for the works of Charles Jacque ; and what is the picturesque, if not the senti- 
ment of life in its most f;tmiliar form? When a painter shows me a plow in the fields, 
a pail near a well, a pot in a kitchen, a lantern in a garret, I ought to understand that 
these are common objects, frequently used, and not brand-new things just out of a shop. 
Of course the form would be the same, but the expression would be different ; and the 
expression conveys the charm of a rustic scene by giving us the illusion of reality. Why 
have Charles Jacque's works such a powerful charm ? It is because they always show 
us things or persons such as they are in nature : because he studies them in the course 
of their usual life and avocations ; and because this sincerity carries us without effort to 
the scene that he chooses to represent. Who knows better than he how to paint or draw 
hens perched on a cart, ducks dabbling in a pond, sheep in search of grass, children 
rambling about the fields instead of going to school, a servant washing clothes, a plow 
under a shed ? His inns, his farms and poultry yards, his village streets, his skirts of 
forest ; his old walls, full of crevices, of stains of damp or crumbling plaster ; his barns, 
with cobwebs hanging from their ceilings, charm us precisely because the painter has 
not recourse to any tricks, but merely tells us, in his plastic language, the things that he 
saw, observed, and studied in the country." — Rene Menard, The Portfolio, Septem- 
ber, 1S75. 

" But it is necessary, in justice, to say that the pictures of Charles Jacque represent 
him quite unfairly, and that his knowledge of nature and fine artistic sensibility are 
both neutralized on canvas bjkhis congenital incapacity to see color. His greens are as 
crude as the worst English greens, and crude, if possible, in a more hopeless way ; for 
English crudity in very many cases is nothing but a vain attempt to render natural 
brilliance, resulting from an extreme sensitiveness uncontrolled by science ; whereas the 
crudity of Charles Jacque is not due to sensitiveness at all, but to mere blindness. His 
ordinary gamut of color — one cannot call it a harmony — is limited to these raw greens, 
and a set of grays equally raw, passing into lead-color of the most unpleasant hue. 
When the greens are absent, as they are from some pictures, they are replaced by dirty 
browns, not less crude in reality, though the crudity of browns is not so generally 
recognized as that of greens. But when Charles Jacque is free from the embarrassment 
of color, as in his etchings, or the lithographs and photographs from his pictures, he is 
often one of the most charming of French artists."— -P. G. Hamerton, Contemporary 
French Painters. 

Jacquemart, Henri Alfred. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1824. Cheva- 
lier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Paul Delaroche. This sculp- 
tor executed the two Griffons of the Fontaine du Saint Michel. He 
directed the restoration of the Fontaine de la Victoire, and has done 
other public works at Paris. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited 
" A Camel-Driver of Asia Minor" (group in plaster) and a "Young 
Wood-Gatherer." His portrait busts and statues are numerous ; 
among them are several equestrian statue*. Many of his subjects 
-nt animal life. 

Jacquemart, Jules Ferdinand. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1837. 



• 



6 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Chevalier of the Legion, of Honor, and of the Order of Francis 
Joseph. Son of Albert Jacquemart, a man of letters. Some of the 
best etchings of the son were executed for the illustration of the works 
of the father. This artist is inimitable as an engraver of still-life ; as 
a reproducer of pictures he is not remarkable. His chefs-d'oeuvre are 
the illustrations of the " History of Porcelain," by his father, and 
those for " The Gems and Jewels of the Crown." Jacquemart is one 
of the Committee of Fine Arts of International Expositions. 

" I never knew the glory and beauty of noble old work in the precious stones and 
metals, till Jules Jacquemart taught me. The joyaux of the Louvre were familiar to me, 
but a veil hung between me and their true splendor ; and it was only when Jacquemart 
had etched them one by one that I learned to know them truly." — P. G. Hamerton, 

Etching and Etchers. 

Jacquemart, Mile. Nelie. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Three medals 
at Paris, 1868, '69, and '70. Portrait-painter. This artist early 
showed her talent, has been very successful in her profession, and has 
the power to make warm friends of her subjects and patrons. At the 
Salon of 1877 she exhibited a portrait of General d'Aurelle de Pala- 
dines, and one of the Viscount Henry G. ; in 1876 those of Gen- 
eral de Palikao and of Count de Chambrun ; in 1875, portraits of 
two gentlemen and one lady ; in 1874, three portraits ; in 1873, por- 
traits of M. Dufaure and of the Marquise A. de C. ; in 1872, M. 
Thiers, President of the Republic ; in 1870, Marshal Canrobert and a 
lady. 

" One feels that this artist does not take her inspiration alone from the sittings of her 
subjects, but that she finds the best part of her work in her knowledge of character, and 
from her close study of the personclle of those whom she portrays."— Paul d'Abkest, 
Zeitschrift fur bildende Kitnst, 1875. 

Jacquesson de la Chevreuse, Louis. (Fr.\ Born in Toulouse, 
France, 1840. His family belonged to the ancient French nobility, 
and their estate in St. Domingo was confiscated by Napoleon I. The 
young Louis consequently was of necessity educated for an indepen- 
dent career. Having strong musical and artistic tastes, he entered 
the Conservatory of Toulouse, and carried away the first prize of that 
institution at the age of fourteen. Later he was sent to Paris to study 
painting, and entered the studio of Flandrin. Subsequently he be- 
came one of the favorite pupils of Ingres. At this time the master 
was too old to teach in his studio, but gave to Jacquesson the entree 
into his private chamber, where frequently in his bed Ingres poured 
into the willing ears of his fortunate pupil the principles and thoughts 
of his long life and great experience. In consequence of these advan- 
tages, Jacquesson is said to have been imbued more deeply with the 
grand ideas of Ingres than any other artist in France. In 1865 he 
competed for the grand prix de Rome, although quite unprepared for 
the task. Jacquesson at this time was but twenty-five, and heretofore 
students of thirty had been admitted to this competition, but a new rule 
forced him to enter then or never. In addition to this he was dis- 



ARTISTS OF THK NINETEENTH CENTURY. 7 

abled by illness, and his picture was not finished in time, although it 
WOD the second prize and was purchased by the government for 2,000 
francs. Soon after this he opened a studio in Paris for the reception 
of pupils, of which one of his students writes: "The serious work 
required, and lofty principles inculcated, have stood in the way of its 
becoming the resort of the average rapin. It is not a popular studio, 
one to which the masses Hock." A number of Americans have been 
among his pupils. He has so devoted himself to his classes that his 
own work has seriously suffered, although he has painted a number of 
tine portraits. 

Jacquet, Jean Gustave. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1846. Medals in 
1868 and '75. Pupil of Bouguereau. He made his debut at the Salon 
of 1865 with two pictures, " Modesty " and " Sadness." His picture 
of "The Call to Arms" (1867) attracted much attention. Edmond 
About said : " Behold an artist, unknown to-day, who will be cele- 
brated to-morrow." His " Sortie de Lansquenets" of 1868 was bought 
by the State, and is at the chateau of Blois. Jacquet has traveled in 
Italy, Germany, and England. His pictures are in demand and bring 
good prices. He is fond of all the objects which collectors love, and 
his atelier is rich in tapestry, stuffs, arms, draperies, etc. He took 
part in the battle of Malmaison, where he saw Cuvelier killed and 
Leroux grievously wounded. His drawing is spirited, his color pleas- 
ing, and the general effect in his pictures is bright and charming. 
Among his works are, " La pauvrette " (1877), the " Peasant- Woman" 
(1876), " Reverie," " Halt of Lansquenets," "A Vidette " (1875), etc. 
He paints many portraits. His " Going to the Races " belongs to Mr. 
Hawk of New York. At the Paris Salon of 1878 he exhibited " Jeanne 
d'Arc praying for France." 

Jadin, Louis Godefroy. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1805. Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Hersent and Abel de Pujol. He 
has done some decorative paintings, among which are eight panels of 
subjects from the chase in the dining-room of the Ministry of State, 
and a ceiling at the palace of the Luxembourg, representing " Aurora." 
Many of his pictures are of hunts and animals. 

Jadin, Emmanuel Charles. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Pupil of his 
father and of CabaneL He received a medal at Philadelphia, where 
he exhibited " The Sheik Salah dead in his Tent." At the Salon of 
1^77 he exhibited the "Resurrection of Lazarus"; in 1878, " The 
Return from the Cemetery, Venice." 

Jaeger, Gustav. (Ger.) Born at Leipsic (1808- 1871). Director of 
the Academy at Leipsic. Pupil of the Academy at Dresden, and of 
Schnorr von Carolsfeld. Many of his most important works were 
« ; among these the decoration of a salon at the chateau of the 
Grand Duke of Weimar. Cartoons of these pictures are in the Mu- 
seum of Leipsic, where are also two pointings of religions subjects. At 
Munich he executed one of the frescos of the Grand Hall of the Nie- 



8 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

belungen. Among his oil-paintings may be mentioned, " The Death 
of Moses," bought by the Society of Arts of Saxony, and " The En- 
tombment of Christ." Vapereau says : — 

. " He enjoyed the repxitation of a master of German painting ; he is praised for gran- 
deur of style, clearness of composition, nobleness, expression, boldness of touch, and, 
with correct drawing, the sentiment of light and color." 

Jalabert, Charles Francois. (Fr.) Born at Nirnes, 1819. Officer 
of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Paul Delaroche. Passed some 
time in Italy. Has painted portraits, genre and religious subjects. 
His "Virgil, Horace, and Varius at the House of Maecenas " (1847) is 
at the Luxembourg. In 1873 he exhibited at the Salon two portraits 
of ladies; in 1872, a portrait and " The Awakening"; in 1870, two 
portraits. Among his earlier works are, " Christ on the Mount of 
Olives," "St. Luke," "The Annunciation," "Nymphs listening to 
Orpheus," " Romeo and Juliet," etc. At the Walters Gallery, Balti- 
more, is his "Orpheus," of which the Sunday Bulletin, February 12, 
1876. says : — 

"A most delicately wrought and poetic composition. The grace and beauty of the 
nymphs, and the soft and dreamy tone that is preserved, betray a peculiarly happy con- 
ception and a pretty idea well sustained and fully developed. The picture is in liarmony 
with Orpheus' music, which is sensuous, dreamy, and reposeful, and with nothing too 
real about it." 

Also in the same gallery is a scriptural subject, " Suffer little Chil- 
dren to come unto Me," and another picture of a child. 

" The practical work of such a painter as Jalabert depends greatly on the use of the 
razor. First, the dead-color is laid of about equal thickness throughout, and then 
scraped down with a very sharp razor till it presents a perfectly smooth and even surface 
everywhere. On this surface, slightly oiled, the artist proceeds to work, this time in 
thinner color, and after successive scrapings and repaintings the picture arrives, finally, 
at a sort of finish remarkable for an extreme equality of surface, which has always a 
certain charm for the popular mind. And the popular mind is right to some extent, for, 
although roughness of loading would not signify in the least if the picture were always 
to be seen by a light equally diffused over the whole of its area, it is true, nevertheless, 
that since pictures are always seen by a light either coming from above or from one side, 
many of the rough projections of paint will catch lights and project shadows of their own 
quite independently of the light and shade of the picture, and- often altogether destruc- 
tive to it. Horace Vernet said, and truly, that light resides in the quality of the tone 
and not in the thickness of the pigment ; and the love for smoothness of surface which 
marks Jalabert and some others is perfectly compatible with artistic, power, both in 
color and chiaroscuro, whilst it is more than ' compatible ' with drawing, being posi- 
tively favorable to form. Of Jalabert's works I like his portraits best, and the single 
figures which resemble portraits, and are, in fact, portraits of models, more or less ideal- 
ized." — P. G. Hamertox, Painting in France. 

Janssen, Peter Johann Theodor. (Get.) Born at Diisseldorf, 
1844. Studied at the Diisseldorf Academy, and adopted the manner, 
of E. Bendemann. Visited Munich, Dresden, and Holland. Painted, 
at the Hotel de Ville in Crefeld, a series of scenes from early German 
history, and at Bremen, in the Exchange, a picture of " The Com- 
mencement of Colonization in the Baltic Provinces." He also painted 
many smaller pictures, historical subjects and portraits. Recently 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 9 

he has undertaken a series of works in the Hotel de Ville at Erfurt. 
In the National Gallery at Berlin he has also painted some decorative 
works. 

Japy, Louis Aim^. (Fr.) Born at Berne (Douhs). Pupil of 
Francais. Medals in 1870 and '73. A painter of landscapes. At 
the Corcoran Gallery, Washington, are "A Spring Landscape" and 
"Twilight," painted in 1873. At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited 
" Spring in the Valley of the Somme " and " In the Wood in April." 

Jeannin, Georges. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Pupil of Vincelet. 
Medal of the third class in 1878, when he exhibited "A Barrow of 
Flowers" and "A Basket of Flowers" ; in 1877, "After the Rain" 
and "In the Flowers"; in 1876, "The Flower Shop" and "A 
Quantity of Flowers." 

Jeanron, Philippe-Auguste. (Fr.) Born at Boulogne-sur-Mer, 
1809. Member of the Institute of France and Officer of the Legion 
of Honor. A writer and painter. His pictures are scenes from every- 
day life. " The Little Patriots," the first which he exhibited, was 
purchased by the Luxembourg, and is now at Caen. " The Flight" 
and "The Repose in Egypt" were bought by the Duke de Luynes. 
" The Abandoned Port of Ambleteuse " is at the Luxembourg. Jean- 
ron has made many estimable portraits ; also some engravings with 
the dry point. In 1848 he was appointed Director of the Louvre and 
the National Museums. In this position he rendered important 
services to the world in his classification and arrangement of the art 
treasures in the Louvre, in the opening of the Egyptian Museum, and 
many other admirable additions to the conveniences for seeing the 
little world of wonders and beauties gathered there. Since 1860 he 
has been the Director of the Museum of Marseilles. 

Jenkins, Joseph J. (Brit.) Born in London, 1811. He studied 
under his father, an engraver in London, and began his professional 
life by designing illustrations for books and magazines. In 1842 he 
became a member of the New Society of Painters in Water-Colors, 
resigning, however, in 1845. In 1846 he went to the Continent, 
spending some time in study and sketching. In 1849 he was elected 
an Associate of the Old Water-Color Society, full member in 1850, 
was Secretary for many years, and is at present a Trustee and regular 
contributor to its exhibitions. Among the better known of his works 
are, " Going with the Stream," " Going against the Stream," " Hopes 
and Fears," " Happy Times," "On the Thames at Mill End," "Both 
Sides of the Channel," " In Sight of Home," " A Creek on the 
Blyth," " At Caen, Normandy," " A Nook on the Thames," " Mist 
on the Hillside," and others, many of which have been engraved. 

His " En Route " was at the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition of 
1876. 

Jenks, Mrs. Phoebe. (Am.) Born in Portsmouth, N. H., 1849. 
Studied art under B. C. Porter and D. T. Kendrick in Boston, spending 
1* 



10 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

her professional life so far in that city. She paints landscapes, figures, 
and portraits, and has exhibited frequently of late years in the Boston 
Art Club and New York Academy of Design. Among her works 
are, a two-thirds portrait of a lady (owned by Mrs. Alvin Adams 
of Watertown), portrait of a child (in the possession of W. H. 
Humphrey, Boston), " Mamma's Comb " (belonging to Robert M. 
Mason, Boston), " The First Attempt " and " Making Dolly's D'ess " 
(to Oliver Ames), " Priscilla the Spinner" (to S. L. French), and 
" Industry " (to Oliver Ditson). Her " Patience " was at the National 
Academy in 1878. 

Jerichau, A. (Dane.) Born, 1818. After studying awhile at 
home, this sculptor went to Rome, where he had for a master hi3 
countryman Thorwaldsen. His principal works are, " The Marriage 
of Alexander and Roxana," a bas-relief for a frieze of the Royal castle 
at Copenhagen, a colossal group of " Hercules and Hebe," " Pe- 
nelope" (a chef-d'oeuvre of this artist), "A Hunter devoured by a 
Lioness," an " Ascension " (which took the grand prize given by the 
Princess Albert of Prussia, whose property the statue became), " The 
Creation of Eve," "Adam and Eve after the Fall," "A Sleeping 
Woman," " The Panther-Hunter," and the monuments to Oersted and 
Andersen at Copenhagen, which are much admired. This sculptor is 
classical in his correctness and purity of form. 

Jerichau-Baumann, Mme. Elizabeth. (Dane.) Born at Copen- 
hagen about 1825. Pupil of the Academy at Diisseldorf. This 
painter has been with her husband for a long time in Rome. Her 
pictures are of genre subjects. In 1861 she had an honorable mention 
at Paris. Her " Reading of the Bible " was a commission from Na- 
poleon III. Mme. Jerichau painted a portrait of the Princess of Wales 
in her wedding-dress, for the Princess Christian. Among her works 
are, " The Joys of a Mother," " A Danish Sailor drying his Nets," 
"The Wounded Soldier," "A Young Girl praying for her Sick 
Mother," etc. At Berlin, in 1876, she exhibited " A Scene on the 
Nile," " A Portrait of a Sultana," and " Egyptian Water-Carriers." 

Jobbe'-Duval, Fe"lix. (Fr.) Born at Carhaix, 1821. Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Paul Delaroche. Made his debut 
at the Salon of 1841. In 1875 he exhibited three portraits ; in 1874, 
the same number; in 1873, "The Mysteries of Bacchus "and car- 
toons of frescos in the Palace of Justice at Bordeaux and in the 
church of Saint-Gervais at Paris ; in 1872, " Wishes " and " Bouquet of 
Roses." Among his works are, " The Descent from Calvary," some 
frescos in the church of Saint-Severin at Paris, and others in the 
Monastery of the Visitation at Troyes, etc. At the Salon of 1878 he 
exhibited " The Sea." 

Johnson, Horace C. (Am.) Born at Oxford, Ct, 1820. Began 
his art studies under Professor Morse in the city of New York, and 
during the years 1856, '57, and '58 was a pupil of William Page in 






ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 11 

Rome. His professional life has been spent in Italy and in his native 
State, many of his portraits being in the possession of Connecticut fami- 
lies. He is at present a resident of Waterbury. His " Roman Peas- 
ant on the Campagna " belongs to Mr. C. N. Wayland of New York ; 
" Grape-Gatherers of Gensano," to Mr. D'Aubigny of New York ; and 
his portrait of Dr. Samuel Elton and " The Roman Mother " are in 
the possession of Mrs. John P. Elton of Waterbury, Ct. 

Johnson, David, N. A. (Am.) Born in New York, 1827. At 
the commencement of his career he received a few lessons from J. F. 
Cropsey, but has been a close student of Nature, looking upon her 
as his teacher and master. His professional life has been spent in 
New York. He has never been abroad. In 1859 Mr. Johnson was 
one of the founders of the Artists' Fund Society. He was elected an 
Associate of the National Academy in 1860, and Academician in 1862. 
In 1867 he exhibited "Echo Lake"; in 1869, " On the Wallkill 
River " ; in 1870, " New Berlin, N. Y. " ; in 1871, " View at Barry- 
town, N. Y. " ; in 1874, "View at Dresden, Lake George" (belonging 
to Cortland Palmer) ; in 1876, " Near Noroton, Ct."; in 1877, "Green- 
wood Lake " ; in 1878, " Morning at the Harbor Islands, Lake 
George." 

His " Lake George " belongs to Mrs. William H. King, N. Y. ; his 
" Hudson River," to Mrs. William H. Gerrard ; his " Mount Lafay- 
ette," to John J. Cisco ; his " October on the Erie Railway," to E. A. 
Munson, Utica ; his " Spring at Mount Vernon," to Bryan Smith of 
Brooklyn. His " Housatonic River," exhibited at the Paris Salon in 
1877, belongs to L. A. Lanthier, N. Y. 

To the Centennial Exhibition of 1876 he sent " Scenery on the 
Housatonic" (belonging to Mrs. J. Bollard), " Old Man of the Moun- 
tain " (belonging to Richard Taft), and " A Brook Study, Orange 
County, N. Y.," receiving one of the first awards. 

Johnson, Eastman N. A. (Am.) Born in Maine. As a young 
man he began the practice of his profession by the execution of por- 
traits in black and white, showing considerable skill, and meeting 
with some success in that branch of the art. Going abroad, he studied 
for two years in Diisseldorf, for the first time painting in oil. He 
subsequently studied in Italy, Paris, Holland, and at The Hague, 
where lie remained four years, and executed his first important works, 
"Card-Players" "Savoyard Boy," and others. Returning to Amer- 
ica, he opened a studio in New York, and was made a member of the 
National Academy in 1860, painting those original sketches and pic- 
tures of American domestic and negro life in which he so decidedly 
excels. Among the earlier of these works (many of which have been 
chromoed, lithographed, and engraved) are his "Girls by the Stove," 
"Boys at the School," "Post- Boy," "Sunday Morning," 

"Hard Cider," "Washington's Kitchen, Mt. Vernon," " Old Kentucky 
Home," "Crossing a Stream,"" Chimney-Sweep" (belonging to T. R. 



12 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Butler), " The Drummer-Boy," and others illustrative of the life of 
the American soldier during the Civil War. He sent to the National 
Academy, in 1869, "The Art-Lover"; in 1871, "The Old Stage- 
Coach" ; in 1873, "The Woodland Bath," "Catching the Bee," and 
"The Sulky Boy " ; in 1874, "The Tea-Party," "Bo-Peep," and "A 
Prisoner of State"; in 1875, " Milton dictating to his Daughter," 
"The Toilet," and "The Peddler"; in 1876, " The Husking-Bee " 
and "The New Bonnet"; in 1877, " Dropping Off" (belonging to 
R. H. Stoddard) and " The Tramp " ; in 1878, portraits of Dr. 
Patten of Union College, Chief Justice Daly, and "Children playing 
in a Barn." At the Mechanics' Fair, Boston, 1878, was exhibited 
" The Lullaby " (belonging to Mr. E. D. Maynard). 

His " New England Boy at Breakfast," " Chimney-Corner," and 
" Wandering Fiddler " were in the Johnston Collection, the last selling 
for $ 2,375. His " Old Kentucky Home " (belonging to R. L. Stuart) 
was in the Paris Exposition of 1867, and the American Centennial 
Exhibition of 1876. His "Old Stage-Coach" is the property of 
George Whitney; "Sabbath Morning," of R. L. Stuart; " Bo-Peep," 
of H. Richmond. " Tender Passion " is in the Walters Collection in 
Baltimore. His " Corn-Husking" and " What the Sea says" were at 
the Paris Exposition of 1878. His " Mother and Child " belongs to 
Abner Mellen, Jr., of New York. 

Among Eastman Johnson's portraits is one of A. B. Stone. 

" In his delineation of the negro Eastman Johnson has achieved a peculiar fame. 
One may find in his best pictures of this class a better insight into the normal character 

of that unfortunate race than ethnological discussion often yields 'The Old 

Kentucky Home ' is not only a masterly work of art, full of truth, nature, local signifi- 
cance, and character, but it illustrates a phase of American life which the late war and 
its consequences will either uproot or essentially modify ; and therefore this picture is 
as valuable as a memorial as it is interesting as an art study." — Tuckerman's Book of 
the Artists. 

" In genre Mr. Eastman Johnson contributed the ' Prisoner of State,' 'The Old Ken- 
tucky Home,' 'Sunday Morning,' and 'The Old Stage-Coach,' which are all representa- 
tive of the acknowledged excellence of his style. Mr. Johnson's subjects are derived 
fresh from nature, and are generally illustrative of characteristic traits of American life 
and customs. They are carefully studied, and always expressive of genuine feeling. 
They are not altogether free from uncertainty of form and touch and monotony of tone, 
but no one has more decided individuality and independence in choice and treatment 
of subject than this artist. His pictures bear the unmistakable stamp of originality. 
We are never reminded in them of the influence of schools or foreign methods ; they 
rest upon their own merits, and the only comparisons they suggest are those afforded by 
the truths of nature. ' The Old Kentucky Home ' is the picture that first gave him his 
reputation, which every succeeding work has sustained and increased. ' The Old Stage- 
Coach ' displays greater maturity of method and breadth of treatment, but in accurate 
delineation of character ' The Old Kentucky Home ' is hardly surpassed. The impres- 
sion made by Mr. Johnson's pictures is a genuine one. We instinctively feel that the 
artist himself was impressed, and sought to express something that touched his sympa- 
thies forcibly. This is their interest and power, and criticism starts from this source 
rather than from the. mere pictorial elements of technical merit that usually, in artists 
of less character, first engage the attention." — Prof. Weir's Official Report of the Ameri- 
can Centennial Exhibition of 1876. 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 13 

Johnson, Edward Killingworth. {Brit.) Born at Stratford-le- 
Bow, near London, 1825. He displayed a marked talent for art at an 
early age, but has never studied under any masters. For some years, 
however, he copied at the Langham Life School, and has drawn a great 
deal upon wood. He began painting as a profession about 1863. In 
l^".»i he was elected an Associate of the Society of Painters in Water- 
Colors, and a full member in L876. He resided in London until 1871, 
when he removed to a small ancestral property in North Essex, where 
his studio still is (1878). Among his more important works are, " The 
Anxious Mother" (Water-Color Exhibition in 1876, engraved in 1878 
and purchased by Birket Foster), "The Reader" (exhibited in Lon- 
don, 1874, Birmingham, 1875, and owned by John JafFray of the latter 
city), " A Golden Swarm " (1877), "The Rival Florists " (exhibited 
in Xew York in 1S73, and belonging to G. B. Warren, Jr., of Troy, 
X. V.), "A Peep into the Letter-Bag," and " Going to Bed" (1878). 
He Bent "A Study" to the Philadelphia Exhibition of 1876, and 
"The Anxious Mother" to the Paris Exposition of 1878. 

"' We can certainly characterize ' The Rival Florists' as one of the most remarkable 
pictures of its kind ever brought to this country." — New York Times, February 16, 1873. 

"Killingworth Johnson's ' Intruders' [New York Water-Color Exhibition, 1876] has 
been received with expressions of the highest praise. The picture is open to criticism 
r>erhaps, owing to the absence of positive shadows, but its aim is so high and its motive 
so charming that it commands admiration in spite of any mere defect." — Art Journal, 
March, 1S76. 

•' Mr. E. K. Johnson sends only one contribution to this exhibition, but in that he 
seems to have determined to concentrate all the beautiful color and delicacy and brill- 
iancy characteristic of his work. ' A Golden Swarm ' takes us into a garden which is 
simply a bla^e of flowers and sunlight Of course the women are beautiful women, for 
Mr. Johnson does not admit the halt and the lame and the blind into these earthly para- 
dises of his The action of the female figure in the center of the picture is ex : 

tremely graceful, and the child beside her is charming in attitude and expression." — 
London Daily Ncu-g, May 19, 1877. 

Johnson, Frost. (Am.) Born in New York, 1835. After copy- 
ing for a short time in Milwaukee he studied for two years under 
Professor Cnmmings in the Antique and Life Schools of the Academy 
of Design, in his native city. lie went to Europe in 1859, entering 
the Art Academy of Diisseldorf, and remaining until 1861, when he 
became a student of the Academy of St. Luke in Antwerp. In 18(53 
he went to Paris, drawing in L'Ecole des Beaux- Arts, and from 1865 
to '69 he was a pupil of Edward Frere at Eeouen. He spent some 
time in the practice of his profession in London, and is at present a 
•nt of New York. Among Front Johnson's earlier pictures may 
be noted, " Grand mother's Spectacles" (belonging to Mr. Morrill of 
»n), "The First Whiff," "Caught at It," "The Broken Bot- 
and "The Arithmetic Leeson" (owned in Milwaukee, "Wis.). 
His " Les pommea" and a "Study of an Interior" were at the Paris 
Salon of 1869, and at the National Academy, Xew York, some Tears 
later. Hi* " Roasted Chestnuts " belongs to S. D. Warren of J 



14 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

ton ; " Good Night " and a portrait, to G. W. Hoi lis of the same 
city. Alvah Hall of New York owns " La petite flaneuse." Menzo 
Diefendorf of New York owns " Last and Best," which was painted 
for the Arcadian Club. " The Bouquet," portrait of Lady Helena 
Blackwood, is in the collection of her father, Earl Dufferin. His 
" Neglected Lesson, " " Does your Mother know you 're out ? " " Love 
Me, Love Me Not," " Stitch in Time," and others, have been exhib- 
ited in New York, Brooklyn, Buffalo, and other cities. To the Phila- 
delphia Centennial Exhibition of 1876 he contributed " Good Night " 
and " A Thirsty Party." 

" Frost Johnson is profitably occupied with several pieces of still-life which are prin- 
cipally remarkable for their rich and subtle contrasts of color The artist's studies 

in heads, mostly taken abroad, are unique. They are simply studies of coloration from 
Nature, and unite individuality of color with strength of effect." — New York Herald, 
December 12, 1872. 

" Mr. Frost Johnson has recently completed a cabinet picture, the central and only 
figure of which is a portrait of the daughter of the Earl of Dufferin, remarkable not only 
for artistic treatment, but for the thorough mastery with which conventional laws in re- 
gard to color have been controlled and subordinated to the final and most admirable 
effect. " — Baltimore American, October 13, 1877. 

" Mr. Frost Johnson has just completed a picture which has attracted the attention of 
connoisseurs, and is of peculiar interest, not only for the admirable finish of the work, 
but for a certain departure from the recognized conventions of art. The picture is a 
small one, only cabinet size, and was painted as a portrait of the young daughter of the 
Earl of Dufferin, but the arrangement of color, the distribution of accessories, and the 
effect obtained from light through a draperied window is so thoroughly fine, and in some 
respects original, as to justify the high approval expressed from the most authoritative 
sources." — New York Graphic, October 16, 1877. 

Johnston, Alexander. (Brit) Born in Scotland, 1815. Pupil 
of the Trustees Academy of Edinburgh, and later of the schools of 
the Royal Academy. Began to exhibit, about 1835, portraits and his- 
torical figure pictures. Among his earlier works are, " The Mother's 
Grave," in 1839; "The Gentle Shepherd," in 1840; "The Cove- 
nanter's Marriage," in 1842 ; " Prince Charley and Flora Macdonald," 
in 1847 ; " The Trial of Archbishop Laud," in 1849 ; " Tyndal trans- 
lating the Bible," in 1854 ; " John Bunyan in Bedford Jail," in 1861 ; 
and " The Land o' the Leal," in 1863. His " Press-Gang " was in the 
International Exhibition of 1862, and his "Last Sacrament of Lord 
Russell in the Tower," painted in 1845 (belonging to the Vernon Col- 
lection), is now in the National Gallery of London. In 1868 he sent 
to the Royal Academy, "The Billet-Doux" ; in 1870, " Juliet" ; in 
1871, "Isaac Watts and his Mother"; in 1873, "The Turning- 
Point " ; in 1874, " Tired " ; in 1875, " Ought I to do it ?" ; in 1876, 
"Bonnie Lesley" and "The Kettledrum-Quadrille"; in 1877, "A 
Waif" ; in 1878, "Preparing for Conquest." His " Turning-Point " 
was at the Paris Exposition of 1878. 

" The figure here [* II Penseroso,' by Alexander Johnston, R. A., 1870] is of a nun, of 
stately and dignified form, who has walked forth in the evening twilight and stands fixed 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 15 

in contemplation of the heavens. The conception is fine, and the expression of the face, 

though somewhat severe, is appropriate to the sentiment The license taken by the 

artist in the landscape afleeta in no degree the excellence of the composition as an ex- 
ample throughout of good and sound painting and of poetic feeling." — Art Journal, 
May, 1 

Jones, George, R. A. (Brit.) (1786-1869.) Son of a well- 
known mezzotint engraver. He entered the Royal Academy in 1801, 
but he joined the army under Wellington on the breaking out of the 
Peninsular War, and did not practice art until its close in 1815, when 
he painted street-scenes of English and Continental cities for some 
years ; finally turning his attention to war subjects, in which he was 
very successful. Among the many works of this description, painted 
during his long career, may be mentioned, "Waterloo," "Lucknow," 
"Alma," and " Balaklava." He painted also many pictures in water- 
colors, and pictures of an historical character in oil, the more impor- 
tant being " The Coronation of George IV.," " The Passage of the 
Reform-Bill," and " The Opening of the New London Bridge." His 
"Fiery Furnace," "Lady Godiva," and two battle-pieces are in the 
National Gallery, London. He was made an Associate of the Royal 
Academy in 1822, and Academician in 1824, Librarian of 1834, and 
Keeper in 1850. He received from the British Institute, in 1820, a 
premium of £ 200 for his " Waterloo." Several of his pictures have 
been engraved. 

Jones, Owen. (Brit.) Born in Wales (1809-1874). Spent some 
years in the office of a well-known London architect, and later visited 
the Continent and the East. He was one of the superintending archi- 
tects of the Crystal Palace at Sydenham, erected in 1851, devoting 
himself particularly to its decoration, and in 1873 he received a medal 
for designs furnished for the Exposition buildings at Vienna. He was 
well known as a writer on subjects connected with his profession, pub- 
lishing, in 1836, his "Alhambra," containing over a hundred valuable 
plates ; in 1842, " Views on the Nile" ; in 1856, a " Grammar of Or- 
nament," and several handbooks to the various courts of the Crystal 
Palace, etc lis was architect of St. James' Hall, Piccadilly, probably 
his most important work. 

Jones, Alfred. (Am.) Born in Liverpool, 1819. Came to Amer- 
ica very early in life. He received the first prize at the National 
Academy of Design in New York, in 1839, for a drawing from Thor- 
waldsen's Mercury. " The Proposal," after Durand, and " The Farm- 
er's Nooning," after W. S. Mount, first called attention to him, and 
his work was sought for the illustrated publications of the day. In 
1846 he went to Europe. He there studied in life schools, devoted 
himself to his profession, and was elected a member of the National 
Academy, New York, in 1851. He sometimes paints in oil and water- 
colors. He is one of the foremost American engravers. His plate of 
the " Image-Breaker," after Leutze, is one of his best. Among his 
plates are Adoniram Judson (half length, sitting), alter Chester Hard- 



16 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

ing ; William Cullen Bryant (head and full bust), after A. B. Durand ; 
" The Capture of Major Andre/' after Durand ; " Sparking/' after 
Edmonds ; " The New Scholar," after Edmonds ; " Mexican News/' 
after R. C. Woodville ; and several portraits. 

Jones, H. Bolton. (Am.) Born in Baltimore, receiving his art 
education and spending the greater part of his professional life in his 
native city. In 1877 he made a sketching-tour in Brittany and Spain, 
sending the results of his labors to Baltimore, where several of his pic- 
tures were exhibited in 1878. He has been a regular contributor to 
the National Academy since 1874, where he sent " Summer on the 
Blue Ridge/' followed in other seasons by " September Afternoon," 
"Hunter's Camp, Maryland," "Old Fort Ticonderoga," "At the 
Edge of the Moor," "The Parable of the Sower," "After the Shower," 
" Spring in Brittany/' and " Taking Geese to Market." " The Ferry 
Inn " was at the Centennial Exhibition of 1876 ; " Return of the 
Cows, Brittany," at the Paris Exposition of 1878 ; and to the Paris 
Salon of the same year he sent " A Heath in Bloom, Brittany." 

Jongkind, Johan Barthold. (Dutch.) Born at Latrop, about 
1822. He left Holland at an early age, and studied marine-painting 
under Isabey at Paris. He made his debut at the Salon of 1845, and 
received in 1852 a medal of the third class. Perhaps this artist is 
more interesting as an etcher than as a painter. Charles Baudelaire, 
in " L'Art Romantique," calls him a " charming and candid artist," and 
speaks of his etchings as "abbreviations of his painting " and sketches, 
which amateurs who are accustomed to find the soul of an artist in his 
most rapid scrawls (gribouillages) will know how to read. 

" The purpose of his art as an etcher may be explained in a few words. All landscape- 
painters make memoranda of impressions, which must of necessity be done very rapidly 
if they are to be worth anything, because the effects in nature change so fast that they 
cannot be sketched at all by a slow hand. Jongkind has so far trusted to the intelli- 
gence of the public (or of the small cultivated public to which he addresses himself) as 
to make memoranda of impressions directly upon copper, and print them. This is the 
whole explanation of his work as an etcher. But now comes the person living outside 
of art, who, when he sees one of these etchings, feels first puzzled and then offended, 
and thinks that both artist and laudatory critic must be making fun of him. ' Could 
not any child of ten years old do as well ? ' The true answer to this question (it is not 
an imaginary question) is, that, rude as this sketching looks, and imperfect in many 
respects as it really is, the qualities which belong to it are never attained in art without 
the combination of talent approaching to genius, and study of a very observant and 
earnest kind, quite beyond any possible experience of infancy. The right way to esti- 
mate work of this nature is to look upon it as the artist's manner of noting down an 
impression in all its freshness. Jongkind succeeds in doing this, either by an uncon- 
sciousness which is itself a great gift, or else by an effort of will strong enough to set 
himself entirely above the criticism of ignorance. There is something approaching to 
sublimity in the courage which was needed to send plates of this description to the 
printer. All landscape-painters have made memoranda of this class, though they rarely 
make them quite so well, but Jongkind is the first who has had the courage to publish 
them. It seems like the rashness which tempts Providence to set these things before 
the French bownjeols or the English Philistine, for the only public they are fit for is a 
public of true amateurs or artists ; but whoever can really read them is in a fair way for 



ARTISTS OF Till: NINETEENTH CENTURY. 17 

being able to read all painting that sets itself honestly to the rendering of the mutual 
impression in its unity." — Hamkuton, Ktchiwj and Etchns. 

me of the best of these etchings are, " The Town of Maa&lins, 
Holland " (1862), u Entrance to the Portof Honrleur" (1863), "Sortie 
da Port de Honflear" (1S(>4), and " View of the Sclielilt at Antwerp, 
— Setting-Sun" (1869). Jongkind lias exhibited many pictures of 
Dutch scenery ; several of them are views in and about Dordrecht. 

Jooravlef, F. (Russian.) Of St. Petersburg. At Philadelphia he 
exhibited a picture of " The Dinner after the Funeral," for which he 
received a medal. The same work was at the Paris Exposition in 
1878, together with "The Blessing of the Betrothed." 

Jopliiig, Joseph M. (Brit.) Born in London, 1831. Studying 
in no schools and under no masters, he has spent his professional life 
in his native city, with the exception of three winters devoted to 
work and observation in Home. He was elected an Associate of the 
New Society of Painters in Water-Colors in 1859, resigning in 1876. 
He received a silver medal at the Crystal Palace in 1876, and a medal 
at the International Exhibition at Philadelphia the same year. 
Among his works may be mentioned, " The Tea-Rose," " The Fair 
Florist. - ' " Autumn," " Joan of Arc at her Trial," " Baiting the Line," 
etc. To Philadelphia, in 1876, he sent "Flossy" (belonging to the 
Right Hon. Cooper Temple), "Winter," and " In the Conservatory." 
At the Grosvenor Gallery in 1878 was a portrait of M. Rouzaud in 
armor of the sixteenth century, and several fruit and flower pieces. 

Jopliiig, Mrs. Louise. (Brit.) Wife of Joseph M. Jopling. She 
was born in Manchester, in 1843, and learned to draw for the first time 
in 1867. She studied in Paris tinder Charles Chaplin and Alfred 
Stevens, exhibiting frequently for some years at the Royal Academy, 
the Dudley and Grosvenor Galleries, and elsewhere in England. 
Among her more important works are, "Five-o'clock Tea," at the 
Royal Academy in 1874 (purchased by the Messrs. Agnew), "The 
Modern Cinderella," "It might have been," etc. Her "Five Sisters 
of York " was at the Philadelphia Exhibition of 1876 ; " The Modern 
Cinderella," at the Paris Exhibition of 1878. 

"'The Five-o'clock Tea ' is the largest ami most important design we have seen from 
Mrs. Joj.ling's band, and in the disposition of the various figures and the management 
of color, it certainly exhibits very remarkable technical gifts. Especially do we notice 
in this lady's work a correct understanding of the laws of tone, very rare to lind in the 
works of English painters, giving the artist power to bring different tints, even if they 
are not harmonious, into right relations one with another." — Art Journal, July, 1874 

Jordan, Rudolf. (Ger.) Born at Berlin, 1810. Member of the 
emies of Berlin, Dresden, and Amsterdam, and Knight of several 
Orders. Medal at Philadelphia. Pupil of the Academy of Berlin 
and of Waeh. He at first painted religious subjects, but u most ad- 
mired in genre pictures. At the National Gallery, Berlin, are, "The 
oiler of Marriage in Heligoland," "Death of a Pilot," "A Scene in 
Normandy, - ' u An Old Man's Home in Holland," and " The Widow's 



18 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Consolation" ; the last is in the National Gallery, Berlin, and was 
sent to the Paris Exposition in 1878. The " Offer of Marriage" is the 
first work which gave him reputation. Jordan is also a writer on art, 
and is much interested in its history. At Berlin in 1876 he exhibited 
" The Boats have all returned ; One alone is wanting." 

Jouffroy, Francois. (Fr.) Born at Dijon, 1806. Member of 
the Institute. Officer of the Legion of Honor. Grand prix de Rome 
in 1832. Professor of Sculpture at l'Jicole des Beaux- Arts. His 
" Ingenuousness; or, a Young Girl telling her First Secret to Venus " 
is at the Luxembourg. Jouffroy has executed various busts for private 
persons, and a " Benitier " for the church of Saint-Germain-l'Auxer- 
rois, Paris, from the design of Mme. Lamartine. He was charged 
with the decoration of the new church of Saint- Augustin, and has 
done many other decorative works for public edifices. 

Jourdan, Adolphe. (Fr.) Born at Nimes. Medals in 1864, '66, 
and '69. Pupil of Jalabert. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited "A 
Breakfast at Saint-Honorat" ; in 1876, "The Good-By" and "The 
Three Friends." At the Johnston sale, New York, 1876, "A Young 
Italian Mother" (39 by 31) sold for $ 2,300. At the Salon of 1878 
he exhibited a portrait and " The Banks of the Gardon." 

Jundt, Gustave. (Fr.) Born at Strasbourg, 1830. Medals in 
1868 and '73, and at Philadelphia, 1876. Pupil of Guerin, and (at 
Paris) of Drolling and Biennourry. He traveled somewhat, and made 
bis debut at the Paris Salon in 1856 with the "Fete of the Village." 
Since then he has sent works to nearly every Salon, among which 
may be named, " Near a Fountain," " Alpine Strawberries," " May- 
flowers," " Cutting Hair at the Fair of La Tour in Auvergne " (sent 
to Philadelphia), "It Rains ! — Swiss Oberland," "The Pence of St. 
Anne," " Sunday Morning," " The Time of the Wedding," etc. 

This artist also makes many caricatures and illustrations for publi- 
cations, such as " L'Histoire de la Poupee," " Le Poltron," " Polichi- 
nelle," etc. 

" He draws, as one walks, without seeming thought, and he paints, as one talks, 
always improvising. Only there are some men who have a good appearance in walking, 
while they scarcely think of it, and those who talk with wit and humor without 
making any pretensions. It is precisely in this manner that Jundt paints. His pic- 
tures have some pieplant improvisations in which malice overflows ; gawky awkward- 
ness takes under his lively and animated touch an air of amusing good-nature 

As a painter he may be reproached with certain defects, but he possesses one very rare 
quality, he has incontestable originality. Jundt is one of the few who might dispense 
with signatures on his pictures. " — Rene Menard, UAH en Alsace-Lorraine. 

Kaemmerer, Frederic Henri. (Dutch.) Born at the Hague. 
Medal at Paris in 1874. Pupil of Gerome. At the Salon of 1877 
he exhibited "A Party at Cricket" ; in 1875, " A Winter Day in 
Holland" ; in 1874, "The Beach at Scheveningen," now in the Cor- 
coran Gallery at Washington. At the Latham sale, New York, 
1878, " Autumn, — Terrace of the Tuileries, 1790" (24 by 16) sold 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 19 

for fl,12& Knoedler & Co. exhibited, in 1878, his "Going to 

Church in the Olden Time." At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited "A 
Baptism." 

Kalckreuth, Stanislaus, Count of. (Pole.) Born at Kozmin, 
1821. Professor and member of the Academy of Berlin, and member 
of the Academies of Amsterdam and Rotterdam. Medals at Berlin, 
Vienna, and Bordeaux. Studied in Berlin and Polnisch-Lissa. 
After several years of military life he studied under Krause and 
Schinner. His progress attracted the attention of the King, who 
him commissions. In 1800 an art school was established at 
Weimar by the Grand Duke of Saxony, and Kalckreuth became 
its conductor. During student travels which he made he visited 
Switzerland and Spain, saw a large part of Germany, and spent some 
time in Vienna, In 1876 he gave up his office at Weimar and set- 
tled in Kreuznach. His representation of Alpine scenery is espe- 
cially happy, and remarkable for the effects of light and shade. At 
the National Gallery, Berlin, are his " Lake of Gaube in the Upper 
Pyrenees " and ,; Canagai Valley in the Eastern Pyrenees." At Ber- 
lin, in 1S76, he exhibited the M Lake of Thun." At the Paris Expo- 
sition of 1878 was seen his " Mont Blanc" (belonging to the Emperor 
of Germany). 

Kaufmann, Theodor. (Ger.-Am.) Born in Hanover, 1814. 
Studied art in Hamburg and at Munich, where he was a pupil of 
Bess. He practiced his profession for a few years in Europe, settling 
in America in 1850. Among the better known of his pictures 
painted in this country are, " On to Liberty," " A Railway Train at- 
tacked by Indians/' and " General Sherman near the Watchfire." 

In 1S71 he published a work entitled "The American Painting- 
Book.'' He resided in Boston for some years. 

Kaulbach, Wilhelm von. (Ger.) Born at Arolsen (1805 - 1874). 
Officer of the Legion of Honor. Correspondent of the Institute. He 
received many decorations, and was member of several academies. 
At the age of seventeen he was placed in the Academy of Diisseldorf, 
then under the direction of Cornelius. When twenty-one he went to 
Munich. Six allegorical frescos in the arcade of the Hofgarten were 
among his earli^t works there. Before he was twenty-five he exe- 
cuted " Apollo and the Muses," in the Odeon, and the celebrated design 
called " The Mad-House." He next painted sixteen illustrations of 
the story of u Cupid and Psyche," on the walls of the palace of the 
Duke Maximilian ; then, together with the painter Schnorr and the 
sculptor Schwanthaler, he worked at the decoration of the new pal- 
ace of King Ludwig. He completed his design for the " Battle of 
the Huns" in 1^.37 ; it was a chef-iVozuvre. About the same time he 
completed the cartoon of the " Destruction of Jerusalem," the paint- 
ing from which was not made until eight years later, when King 
Ludwig purchased it. In 1846 his designs illustrative of " Reynard 



20 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

the Fox " appeared. He also illustrated the Gospels and the Shaks- 
pere gallery. Kaulbach devoted many years to the great decorative 
paintings of the " Treppenhaus " of the new Museum at Berlin. His 
subjects here were, " The Tower of Babel," " Destruction of Jerusa- 
lem," and " Battle of the Huns " (reproduced), colossal -figures of 
Moses, Solon, History, Legend, etc., and " The Reformation," besides 
friezes which were designed as borders for the principal works. In 
1867 he sent to Paris his " Epoch of the Reformation," a cartoon 
of which, belonging to Mr. Durfee of Fall River, was for some time 
in the Boston Athenaeum. For this painting he received a medal of 
honor. Vapereau says : " It united all his qualities of composition, 
drawing, and color." In the National Gallery at Berlin are his car- 
toons of " The Death, of the Marquis Posa," and one of a scene from 
the " Mary Stuart " of Schiller. Mr. Probasco of Cincinnati has a 
beautiful work by Kaulbach called " Mutterliebe " (" Mother-Love "). 
It was painted for Mr. Probasco, and he claims that it is the only 
original painting by Kaulbach in America. It represents a mother 
with her four children. She is seated beneath a tree in the midst of 
a pleasing landscape. In her right arm she holds one child, whose 
face is hidden on her breast ; with her left hand she supports another 
tiny one, who stands upon her knee and presses his lips to hers in a 
playful baby embrace. Two larger children, one upon the ground 
and another climbing up behind and resting on the mother's shoulder, 
complete the group, which is well balanced and graceful. 

" I have extolled Kaulbach in no stinted terms, yet I know that his mortality is be- 
trayed through his robes of state. His limits are confessed when he rushes towards the 
illimitable ; his finality is felt when, in boldest flight, he steals fire from heaven. Kaul- 
bach has many virtues, but moderation is not of their company. Nevertheless, let me, 
in fine, recapitulate the claims which Kaulbach lays upon the remembrance of posterity. 
His subjects, his styles, and his materials, which are many, are alike worthy of note. 
His themes, we have seen, are wide in range and lofty in aspiration. History in epochs 
which are landmarks in the world's civilization ; philosophy that teaches through exam- 
ple ; poetry as manifested in the creations of Shakspere and Goethe ; life in its light 
and shade, in the climax of its joy and the depths of its sorrow, — such are the subjects 
which, in their diversity and import, measure the genius and circumscribe the labors of 
Kaulbach. In style, too, as in subject, this painter displays the same versatility ; by 
turns he is grave and gay. Like dramatists and actors of first quality, he is great at 
once in comedy and in tragedy ; his impersonations, in short, are close upon the models 
of Phidias and Raphael, of Diirer and Hogarth. The, name of Kaulbach will also be 
identified with the most successful efforts to free art from the tyranny of the Church, to 
ennoble secular sulijects by lofty thought and elevated treatment, and to raise the prac- 
tice of monumental painting to an equality with the sister arts of sculpture and archi- 
tecture. Such are the services which Kaulbach has conferred upon his age and coun- 
try."— J. Beavington Atkinsok, London Art Journal, December, 1865. 

Kaulbach, Hermann. (Ger.) Son of the preceding, and a pupil 
of Piloty. He is an historical painter who merits attention. 

Kaulbach, P. A. (Ger.) This painter is a distant relative of the 
late William von Kaulbach, and is one of the rising artists of Munich. 
Some of his pictures are very pleasing, and show a genuine feeling for 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 21 

ideal art. At the Exposition of 1878 he exhibited u Reverie," "Por- 
trait of a Young Girl," " Young Woman with hex Son," and a" Head 
of a Woman." 

Kemys, Edward. (.1//!.) Born in Savannah, Ga. He lived for 
some time in Now York. By profession a sculptor, he has devoted 
himself particularly to the modeling of the more prominent wild 
animals of the far West of America ; a collection of groups in plaster 
by him, which were exhibited in London in 1877, attracted much at- 
tention. His " Coyote and Raven," M Playing 'Possum,' 1 and "Pan- 
therand Deer" were at the Exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876; "Fight 
between Buffaloes and Wolves." at the Paris Salon of 1878. 

"In anatomical knowledge Kemys appears to us little, if at all, behind his predecessor 
[Barye], and if he be Bane's inferior in audacity and splendor of conception, he partly 
compensates for this by a subtle perception of delicate shades of character, and a tine 
discrimination of animal individuality, in which Barye's works are comparatively de- 
ficient." — London Spectator, December, 1S77. 

Kensett, J. F., X. A. (Am.) Born in Cheshire, Ct. (1818 - 1873). 
Aj a youth he studied bank-note engraving, and practiced art in his 
leisure hours. lie finally went to England, where he worked for some 
time, sending to the Royal Academy, in 1850, "A View of Windsor 
Castle," which was highly praised by the London art critics. He re- 
mained in Europe seven years, spending two years in Rome, making 
excursions to Naples, Switzerland, the Rhine, and the Italian lakes, 
and sending home many cleverly executed paintings and sketches, 
some of which, exhibited in the Art Union Gallery, New York, estab- 
lished his reputation in America as a landscape-painter of no common 
merit. His views of American scenery have become justly popular. 
Among them are, " Sunset on the Coast," "Sunset in the Adirondack?," 
" Lake George," " Scenes on the Genesee River," " Noon on the Sea- 
Shore " (engraved by S. V. Hunt), " Beverly Coast," " Bash Bish," 
M From the Meadows at Cold Spring," " Narragansett," " Lake Cone- 
sus" (belonging to Robert Hoe), " Mount Washington," " Keene Flats," 
" Bass Rock, Newport," etc. His " Morning off the Coast of Mas- 
sachusetts" (belonging to Shepherd Gaudy), "Newport Harbor" 
(to R. M. Olyphant), "Glimpse of the White Mountains" (to R. S. 
Stuart), wen- in the Paris Exposition of 1867. Hifl "View near 
Northampton ' ; (property of R. S. Stuart), "Lake George" (the prop- 
of M. K. Jessup), and his "New Hani]. -hire Scenery" (now 
in the Century Club), were at the Philadelphia Exhibition of 1^76. 
At the Johnston sale, in 1^76, his "Afternoon on the Connecticut 
Shore" sold for $ 1,500, and his k- Secluded Brook " (belonging origi- 
nally to A.M. Cozzens) brought $600. His "Whit- Mountains' 1 
(at the Wright sale, some years befon Id for $1,300. His 

"October Afternoon. Lake George, exhibited in Paris in 1867, and 
at the Sanitary Fair. New Y<<rk, in 1864, at the Bale of the Olyphant 
pictures in 1877, found a purchaser at $6,300. His "White Bfoun- 



22 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

tains " was sent to the Paris Exposition of 1878. Kensett was made 
a member of the National Academy in 1849. 

" Kensett is the Bryant of our painters ; a little sad and monotonous, but sweet, ar- 
tistic, and unaffected. In his later pictures there is a phantom-like lightness and cold- 
ness of touch and tint which gives them a somewhat unreal aspect, but they take all the 
more hold on the fancy for their lyrical qualities." — Jarves, Art Idea. 

" Kensett's best pictures exhibit a rare purity of feeling, an accuracy and delicacy, 

and especially a harmonious treatment, perfectly adapted to the subject If we 

desired to carry abroad genuine memorials of native scenery, to keep alive its impressions 
in a foreign land, we should select half a dozen of Kensett's landscapes. Other artists 
may have produced single pictures of more genius, may be in certain instances supe- 
rior, but on the whole, for average success, Kensett's pictures are, we do not say the 
most brilliant, effective, or original, but often the most satisfactory." — Tuckerman's 
Book of the Artists. 

Key, John R. (Am.) Native of Baltimore. He studied art in 
Munich and Paris, painting in Boston for some years, and exhibiting 
there, in 1877, about one hundred of his pictures, including " Marble- 
head Beach," " Ochre Point, Newport," " Morning Stroll," and a view 
of " The Golden Gate, San Francisco," for which he received a medal 
at the Philadelphia Exhibition of 1876. His "Cloudy Morning, 
Mount Lafayette " was at the National Academy, New York, in 1878. 
He has been very successful in his works in black and white. 

"Mr. Key's charcoal drawings are among the best ever shown in Boston ; they are firm 
and masterly in drawing, strong in effect, and graceful in composition. Mr. Key has a 
fascinating skill in this kind of work, in which he approaches nearer to Allonge than any 
other American artist The collection of his pictures is highly attractive for the true 
artistic feeling in all the works on exhibition." — Boston Saturday Gazette, 1877. 

Keymeulen, Emile. (Belgian.) Of Brussels. Medal at Philadel- 
phia, where he exhibited " Landscape in Provence " and " After the 
Hurricane." 

Keyser, Nicaise de. (Belgian.) Born at Santoliet, 1813. Presi- 
dent of the Academy of Antwerp, and Chief Director of the Museum 
of that city. Corresponding member of the Institute of France, and 
Officer of the Legion of Honor. Chevalier of the Order of Leopold, 
and that of the Lion of the Netherlands. Medal at Philadelphia. 
Pupil of the Antwerp Academy under the direction of Vdn Bree. In 
1834 he exhibited "A Crucifixion," which had been painted for a 
Roman Catholic church in Manchester, England ; it attracted con- 
siderable attention. He went soon after to France and England, and 
returned through Holland. In 1836 his picture of '* The Battle of the 
Golden Spurs in 1302 " was exhibited at Brussels, and won the great 
gold medal ; this w T ork is now in the Museum' of Courtrai. In 1839 
he exhibited the " Battle of Woeringen," which took a gold medal in 
Paris. De Keyser then visited Italy and Germany. The " Battle of 
Nieuport " and that of " Seneffe " were painted for William II. of 
Holland. Among his other works are, " Vandyck setting out for 
Italy," " Mending in the Hospital at Bruges," " Christ and his Dis- 
ciples," " The Last Moments of Weber," etc. His portraits of royal 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY, M 

and distinguished persons are numerous. The courts of Belgium, 
Sweden, Bavaria, and Wurteniberg have conferred decorations upon 
him, as well a^> that of France. (The list of honors given in this article 
is taken from the London Art Journal, of January, 1866.) At the 
Wolfe sale in New York in 1864, «■ The Love-Test, — Italian Gleaners " 
sold for $3,100, and "Milton and his Daughters " for $ 2,400. At 
the Berlin National Gallery are his " Giaour " and " Death of Marie 
de' Medici." Mr. Probasco of Cincinnati has his "Francis I. at 
Fontainebleau," painted in 18G9. 

Keyser, E. (Am.) Born in Baltimore, 1850. He received his art 
education in the Royal Art Academy of Munich, under Professor 
Widmann, and in the Royal Art Academy of Berlin under Professor 
Albert Wolff. He went to Munich in 1872, remaining until the 
autumn of 1876. In Berlin he received " the Michael Beerche Prize" 
for a life-sized figure, called " Psyche." This prize entitles the suc- 
cessful competitor to one year's study in Rome at government expense. 
Among his most successful works are the " Psyche," and " The Toy- 
ing Page " (in bronze), belonging to Dr. O'Donavan of Baltimore, for 
which he gained the silver medal of the Munich Academy. 

Kiers, Peter. (Dutch.) Born at Graeneveld, 1807. Member of 
the Academy of Amsterdam. Pupil of Douwe de Hoop. A genre 
painter. He was specially noted for his effects of light. Among his 
subjects are, "A Woman going out of her House at Evening " (effect 
of lanterns), " Woman reading the Bible," " Woman writing a Let- 
ter," " Interior of a Dutch House," etc. 

King, Charles B. (Am.) (1786-1862.) Studied with Leslie 
and Allston in London, living and painting portraits in that city for 
some years. Finally settled in Washington, D. C., where he died. 
During his long career many of the celebrities of all countries who 
visited the capital were among his sitters. His portraits were prized 
for their accuracy rather than their delicacy of finish. 

Kiorboe, Charles Frederic. (Swede.) Born at Stockholm (1815 
-1876). Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Henner. In 
1874 he exhibited at the Paris Salon, "A Fox surprised by Hunters" 
and "A Buck coming out of a Wood" ; in 1870, "The Breakfast of 
the Foxes" ; in 1869, "Hunting Ducks." At a London sale in 1874 
his " Inundation " sold for 260 guineas. 

Kiss, Augustus. (Prussian.) Born at Pless (1802- 1865). Member 
of the Berlin Academy, where he was also Professor. Studied at the 
same Academy under Ranch. In 1839 he exhibited the model of his 
famous group of "The Amazon struggling with a Panther." This 
was cast in bronze by means of public subscriptions, which were even 
taken in the churches, so great was the enthusiasm it excited. It was 
placed in the Berlin Museum in 1845. A plaster cast of it took the 
first prize at London in 1851, and was purchased by an American. 
Among his works are, "The Fox-Hunt" (Berlin Museum), "St. 



24 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Michael and the Dragon," statues of Frederick the Great and Fred- 
erick William III., " St. George," etc. At the time of his death a 
group called " Faith, Hope, and Charity " was unfinished ; this was 
completed by Blaser, and, with a bust of Kiss, was presented by his 
widow to the Berlin Museum. 

Klein, Johann Adam. (Ger.) Born at Nuremberg (1792 - 1875). 
This artist first studied etching and engraving. He spent some time 
at the Academy of Vienna, and commenced oil-painting in 1815. 
Soon after this he went to Rome. He gave his efforts to reproducing 
the peculiar costumes and habits of different peoples. He had trav- 
eled in Northern countries, and his industry and diligent observation 
made him skillful in his peculiar work. At the National Gallery, 
Berlin, are his " Hungarian Wagoners " and " The Wallachian 
Freight- Wagon " ; also, " An Animal-Tamer before a Tyrolese Inn." 
Klein's engravings are numerous and highly esteemed. 

Kloeber, August Karl Friedrich von. (Ger.) Born at Breslau 
(1793-1864). Professor and member of the Berlin Academy. Pu- 
pil of Berlin Academy. During the war of 1813 Kloeber was a sol- 
dier, and afterwards spent nearly four years at Vienna. He affected 
the manner of Rubens and Correggio. His portraits of Beethoven, 
Grillparzen, etc., are well spoken of. His first large picture was that 
of the " Virgin Mary with Jesus and St. John." At the theater of 
Breslau he painted a frieze and other decorative works. In 1821 he 
went to Italy, and spent seven years in Rome. Kloeber executed va- 
rious decorative paintings in the palaces and public buildings of Ber- 
lin. Several of his pictures are in the National Gallery, Berlin, — 
" Education of Bacchus," " Cupid and Psyche," etc. 

Knaus, Ludwig. (Ger.) Born at Wiesbaden, 1829. Member of 
the Academies of Berlin, Vienna, Munich, Amsterdam, Antwerp, and 
Christiana. Officer of the Legion of Honor. Knight of the Order 
of Merit. Various medals at Paris, Berlin, Weimar, etc. Pupil of 
Jacobi and the Academy of Diisseldorf, under Sohn and Schadow. 
He separated himself from their influence, and was allied with Les- 
sing, Leutze, and Webber. From 1853 he lived eight years in Paris, 
but settled at Diisseldorf in 1866. Among his works are, "The Prom- 
enade" (1855), at the Luxembourg, " Peasants reprimanded by their 
Priest," " A Woman playing with Two Cats," " The Wife of a Shoe- 
maker, her Child, and an Apprentice contemplating a Mouse in a 
Trap," " The Invalid," " A Woman gathering Flowers," etc. At the 
Johnston sale, New York, 1876, "The Old Beau," from the Wolfe 
sale in 1863 (24 by 19), sold for $ 3,000. In 1874, at Christie's in 
London, " Thieves at a Fair " sold for 565 guineas. At the Forbes 
sale, London, 1874, "The Sisters" sold for 1,250 guineas. At the 
Sedelmeyer sale in Vienna, 1873, "Maternal Kindness" brought 
£ 1,440. His " Children's Festival " is at the National Gallery, Berlin. 
At the Latham sale, New York, 1878, " My Little Brother " (18 by 14) 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 25 

sold for $ 2,200, and "After the Bath " (8-£ by 6j), for $ 2,350. His 
"Priest and Poacher" belongs to Mr. T. R. Butler of New York. 

Knight, John Prescott, K, A. (Brit.) Born, 1803. He was the 
son of Edward Knight, a well-known actor, and began life in a mer- 
chant's office in London. Displaying a decided taste for art, he 
studied under Henry Son, and later under George Clint, entering 
the schools of the Royal Academy in 1823. His first pictures were 
at the British Institute in 1827 or '28. He turned his attention to 
portrait-painting, in which branch of art he has been very success- 
ful. He was made an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1836, 
Academician in 1844. He was Professor of Perspective for many 
years, and Secretary of the Royal Academy from 1847 to '73, when 
he resigned with a life pension from the trustees. Among the many 
portraits of distinguished men painted by Mr. Knight may be men- 
tioned those of the Duke of Cambridge (in Christ's Hospital), F. C. 
Burnand, Henry L. Holland, the Governor of the Bank of England, 
£douard Frere, Arthur Grote, and Sir Titus Salt. 

Knight, Daniel Ridgway. (Am.) Born at Philadelphia. In 
1872 he went abroad, studying for some years in Paris at l'Ecple des 
Beaux- Arts and under Gleyre. He was in the studio of Meissonier 
in 1876. To the Paris Salon, in 1873, he sent " The Fugitives " ; in 
1875, "Washerwomen"; in 1876, "Repast during the Harvest." 
He has exhibited frequently at the National Academy, New York, con- 
tributing, in 1870, "The Veteran" (belonging to Asa Whitney) ; in 
1871, "Othello in the House of Brabantio " ; in 1873, " The "Anti- 
quary," " The Old Beau," and " Dividing the Profits " ; in 1874, 
"Strolling in the Garden"; in 1876, " Washerwomen "; in 1877, 
"Market- Place at Poissy" and "Harvest Scene" (belonging to A. J. 
Drexel) ; in 1878, " Pot au Feu." 

"In 'The French Washerwomen,' by D. R. Knight, the figures are drawn with re- 
markable spirit, and in their delineation much grace of form is shown. It is without 
that artificial feeling which belongs to work where the conventional model is called into 
requisition." — Art Journal, May, 1876. 

Knille, Otto. (Ger.) Born at Osnabriick, 1832. Medal at Berlin. 
An instructor there, with title of Professor. Pupil at Diisseldorf 
under K. Sohn, Th. Hildebrandt, and W. von Schadow. Also studied 
under Couture at Paris. He spent some time in Munich and Italy, 
and settled in Berlin in 1865. Some of his decorative paintings (the 
subjects taken from the Thuringian Myths) are in the Castle of 
Marienburg near Xordstemmen. Others are over the stairway of the 
University Library at Berlin. In the National Gallery at Berlin is 
his " Tannhauser and Venus." At Berlin, in 1876, he exhibited 
"Athens, — Plato with his Pupils," a portion of a frieze for the 
Library of the University of Berlin. This was also seen at the Paris 
Exposition of 1878. 

Knowlton, Helen M. (Am.) Born at Worcester, Mass. She 



26 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

has spent her professional life in Boston, where she has classes in 
painting. She was a pupil of William M. Hunt, and that artist's 
well-known " Talks about Art " are the result of notes taken by 
Miss Knowlton during his lessons. She sketches in charcoal, and 
paints landscapes and portraits in oil, exhibiting at the Boston Art 
Club, National Academy, and elsewhere. 

Knyfif, Alfred de. (Belgian.) Born at Brussels. Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. Landscape-painter. His pictures represent all 
kinds of scenery, and he passes easily and gracefully from the beach 
to the forest, from the banks of the Meuse to the mountains of Scot- 
land. At Paris in April, 1876, several of his pictures were sold. 
" Setting Sun in the Campine " brought 4,000 francs ; " Moonlight," 
2,600 francs ; etc. Among his subjects are, " The Scottish Heather," 
" The Evening," " Forest of Fontainebleau," " Villiers-sur-Mer." At 
the Paris Salon of 1877 he exhibited " The Forest of Stolen in the 
Campine, Belgium" and " The Prairies of Lagrange" ; in 1876, "The 
Garden of A. Stevens," "The Mouth of the Meuse," and "A Marsh 
in the Campine in Spring." 

Koch, Joseph Anton. (Ger.) Born at Obergiebeln am Bach 
(1768 - 1839). The works of this landscape-painter are seen in va- 
rious German galleries. At the Museum at Leipsic are three of his 
pictures, and in the National Gallery, Berlin, is " A View of the 
Convent of Civitella, in the Sabine Mountains." 

Koekkoek, Bernard Cornelius. (Dutch.) Born at Middlebourg 
(1803-1862). Chevalier of the Order of the Lion (Netherlands), 
and of the Order of Leopold (Belgium). Medals at Paris, Amster- 
dam, and the Hague. Pupil of Schelfhout and Van Os. The land- 
scapes of this painter are much esteemed. He established a Drawing 
Academy at Cleves. In 1850 he published at Amsterdam a book of 
his " Souvenirs and Communications " (" Erinnerungen und Mitthei- 
lungen eines Landschaftmalers "). At the Johnston sale, New York, 
1876, his " Scenery on the Upper Rhine " (32 by 42) sold for $ 2,800. 
It was from the Wolfe sale in 1863. A " Winter Scene in Holland," 
also from the Wolfe sale (20 by 26), sold for $ 1,550. At a sale in 
London in 1876, "A Forest Scene" sold for £283. At the Strous- 
berg sale, Paris, 1874, "Interior of a Wood" sold for £1,084. At 
the Latham sale, New York, 1878, "Landscape with Cattle" (26 by 
33) sold for $ 1,600. In the National Gallery, Berlin, are two of his 
landscapes, and two others are in the Leipsic Museum. Koekkoek 
was also a member of the Academies of Rotterdam and St. Petersburg, 
and of the Society of Arts, London. His "Castle on the Rhine" 
and " Landscape in Winter " belong to Mr. T. R. Butler of New York. 
Koerner, Ernst. (Ger.) Of Berlin. Pupil of Eschke and Stef- 
feck. Medal at Philadelphia, where he exhibited " Mahmoudieh Canal 
near Alexandria." This was " commended for distinguished excel- 
lence." At the Paris Salon of 1878 he exhibited "The Mahmoudieh 
Canal, Egypt "and "Under the Palm-Trees." 






ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 27 

Kohler, Christian. (Ger.) Born in Werben (1809-1861). Pro- 
fessor at Dusseldorf. Studied at Berlin Academy and at Dusseldorf. 
In 1860 he went to Montpellier for his health, but received no benefit. 
In the Berlin National Gallery is his " Semiramis." 

Roller, Guillaume. (Aus.) Born at Vienna, 1829. Followed 
the course at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna, and then studied at 
Dusseldorf from 1851 to '55. " The Emigrants," " The Asylum," and 
" Scene from the Peasants' War, 1524 " were painted while he was at 
Dusseldorf, and found their way into the best collections in Vienna. 
Next Koller resided three years in Antwerp. He first exhibited in 
that city " The Clandestine Marriage of the Archduke Ferdinand 
with Philippine Welser at the Chateau de Meran, in the Tyrol " ; it 
was purchased by Mr. Nieuwenhuys. Koller draws his inspirations 
from the literature and history of Germany, and as he spends much 
time on his works they are not numerous ; among them are, " The 
Christening of Martin Luther,'' purchased by M. Drasche of Vienna ; 
" The First Interview of Marguerite and Faust," purchased by the 
Chevalier de Knyff of Antwerp ; " Albert Diirer receiving a Message 
from the Archduchess of Parma," purchased by the late Prince Albert 
of England ; "The Coal- Market" ; "Philippine Welser demanding 
Pardon for her Husband from his Father, the Emperor Ferdinand " ; 
" The Departure for the War " ; " Almsgiving " ; etc. 

"In manner of treatment he has grafted upon the comparatively dry style of the Ger- 
man school, acquired in Dusseldorf, the richer and more realistic style of the modern 
Belgian. His coloring is always good, but he does not strive to produce an impression 
by this quality so much as by a faithful rendering of his subject. In this his sympa- 
thies are more with Leys and his disciples than they are with Gallait, Wappers, and 
De Keyser. In his choice of subjects he aims high, but certainly not beyond his powers. 
And as he is still in the early prime of life, a long and prosperous career may be his 
future, which shall yield more abundant and riper fruit than any he has yet produced." 
— James Dafforne, London Art Journal, January, 1867. 

Kollock, Mary. (Am.) Born in Norfolk, Va., 1840. Studied 
art in Philadelphia for three years under Robert Wylie, in the Penn- 
sylvania Academy of Fine Arts. Later she took lessons in landscape 
from J. B. Bristol and A. H. Wyant. The greater part of her profes- 
sional life has been spent in the city of New York, contributing to the 
National Academy of Design scenes from the Adirondack regions 
and Lake George. In 1877 she sent " Morning in the Mountains " and 
" On the Road to Mt. Marcy " ; in 1878, " A November Day " and 
" An Evening Walk." Her " Midsummer in the Mountains " was 
at Philadelphia in 1876. 

Korzoochin, Alexis. (Russian.) Of St. Petersburg. At Philadel- 
phia he exhibited pictures of "A Sunday Tea- Party " and "A Scene 
in the Wood," and received a medal. 

Kotzebue, Alexander von. (Russian.) Medal at Paris in 1867. 
Medal at St. Petersburg. This artist was a soldier in his youth, 
and understands what he paints. His " Passage of the Devil's Bridge 



28 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY, 

by the Russian Army in 1799" is a well-known picture. He has 
lived for some time in Munich, and lias traveled in various countries 
of Europe. His pictures in the galleries of Russia are much liked. 
At St. Petersburg, in 1870, he exhibited " The Battle at Lessnoje " 
and " The Surrender of Riga in 1710." 

Krause, Wilhelm August Leopold Christian. (Ger.) Born at 
Dessau (1803- 1864). Member of the Academy, and Royal Professor 
at Berlin. Founder of the School of Marine Painting at Berlin. 
Studied at Berlin and Dresden. He was very poor, and did many 
things to earn money ; among others, he sang in a theater in Berlin. 
In 1828, never having seen the sea, he painted his first marine picture. 
He showed great talent in this specialty. In 1830 and '31 he traveled 
in Northern Europe. At the National Gallery, Berlin, are, " A Storm 
at Sea," " View on the Coast of Pomerania," and " Scottish Coast 
Scene in a Storm." 

Kroner, Christian Johann. (Ger.) Born at Rinteln, in Hesse, 
1838. Medal at Berlin in 1876. Pupil. of nature, and an artist who, 
by earnest study, brought himself to a reputable standing in land- 
scape-painting. Many of his pictures are of wild, mountainous scenes. 
At Diisseldorf he came under the influence of L. H. Becker, who en- 
couraged him to persevere in his art. His pictures are well consid- 
ered. He has traveled considerably, and visited various parts of Ger- 
many, the North Sea, Paris, etc. He has made wood-engravings and 
etchings. Some of these represent animals as well as landscapes. At 
the National Gallery, Berlin, is an " Autumn Landscape, with Deer." 

Kriiger, Franz. (Ger.) Born at Radegast (1797 - 1857). Court 
painter. Professor and member of the Berlin Academy. Without 
masters, he became a good portrait-painter, and established himself 
at Berlin. In 1844 he was invited to visit Russia by the Emperor, 
and remained there six years. He was called " Pferde-Kriiger " from 
his good painting of horses. He painted many equestrian portraits ; 
and his parade scenes and other military pictures are excellent. At 
the National Gallery of Berlin are his " Departure for the Hunt * 
and "Return from the Hunt," "Emperor Nicholas of Russia," and a 
"Dead Rabbit." 

Kriiger, Karl Max. (Ger.) Born at Lubbenau, 1834. Studied 
at Munich Academy, and under Ott and R. Zimmermann ; also at 
the Art School of Weimar. Traveled in Germany and in Northern 
Italy. Since 1870 he has lived in Dresden. At the National Gallery 
at Berlin is a view of "A Forest on the Spree." At Berlin, in 1876, 
he exhibited " A Hunting-Lodge in the Neighborhood of Lvibbenau." 

Kuhling, Wilhelm. (Ger.) Born at Berlin, 1823. Studied at 
the Berlin Academy, and traveled in Switzerland, France, and Italy. 
At first he was very successful in portraits. Later, he has painted 
landscapes, many of which are taken from Upper Bavarian scenery. 
At the National Gallery, Berlin, is his " Group of Cattle." At Berlin, 
in 1876, he exhibited four cattle-pictures. 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 29 

Kuntz, Gustav Adolf. (Ger.) Born at Wildenfels, 1843. Medal 
at Philadelphia. Pupil of Schilling at Dresden. In 1869 he went 
to Italy for two years, and there executed a life-size marble statue of 
the prophet Daniel for the mausoleum of the late Prince Consort at 
Frogmore. He then visited Weimar, England, France, Holland, and 
Belgium, and studied painting. In 1877 he settled in Rome. At the 
National Berlin Gallery is his " Italian Pilgrim." lie sent to Phila- 
delphia u The Nun's Bevel v." 

Kuntze, Edward J. A., N. A. (Ger.-Am.) Born in Pomerania 
(1826- lb70). Settled in America in 1844, devoting himself to the 
practice of his art with some success. He was elected an Associate of 
the National Academy in 18G9, a year before his death. Among his 
works may be mentioned, statuettes of Shakspere and Lincoln ; a 
statue of " Psyche ■ ; bust of u Mirth," in marble ; " Merlin and 
Vivien," in bas-relief ; and many medallion portraits and busts. 

Kurzbauer, E. (Austrian.) Born at Vienna, 1846. Pupil of 
Piloty. We have not been able to obtain a sketch of this artist's life, 
but he is well considered, and sent to the Paris Exposition of 1878 
u The Fugitives ■ (belonging to the Emperor of Austria) and " La 
rnaison mortuaire " (belonging to M. Eggers of Vienna). 

Kuwasseg, Carl-Joseph. (Austrian.) Born at Trieste. Natural- 
ized Frenchman. Died, 1876. Medals at Paris in 1845, '61, and 
'63. He commenced life as a carpenter, but, abandoning this occu- 
pation, he went to Vienna, and lived by making water-color drawings. 
He traveled in South America, and went to Paris in 1830, and there 
soon earned a good reputation as a landscape-painter. Of late years 
he has principally exhibited Swiss and French views. 

Kuyck, Louis Van. (Belgian.) Born at Antwerp (1821 - 1874). 
Gold medal at Brussels. Pupil at the Antwerp Academy under Van 
Bree, and of Baron Wappers. The familiar scenes which he first 
painted are almost unknown. His first " Interior of a Stable " is in 
the Museum at Munich ; it is by subjects of this class that he has 
earned his high European reputation. The names of his different pic- 
tures are so much alike that a list is quite useless. They are rural 
Flemish scenes, most frequently stable interiors, with horses, dogs, 
poultry, pigeons, etc. 

Lacroix, Gaspard Jean. (Fr.) Born at Turin (1820-1878). 
His parents were French, and his professional life was spent in France. 
He received a medal of the third class in 1842, and medals of the second 
- in 1843 and '48. He was a pupil of Corot, and proved to be one 
of his most worthy followers. To the Salon in 1878 he sent a land- 
scape ; in 1877, " Aux Glaises, pres de Palaiseau"; in 1876, "At Pa- 
laiseau " ; in 1873, two views in the park of the Gigoux, both belonging 
to II Bonnel. One of his landscapes was at the Exposition of 1878. 

La Farge, John, N. A. (Am.) Figure, flower, and landscape 
painter, drawing also on wood. He has occupied a studio in New 



30 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

York for some years. He was elected a member of the National 
Academy in 1869. Is a member of the American Water-Color So- 
ciety and of the Society of American Artists. Among his works, in 
oil, are, " View over Newport," " Sleeping Beauty," " A Gray Day," 
" A Snowy Day," " A Seaside Study " (belonging to J. F. Kensett), 
" A Hillside Study," " From the Story of Cupid and Psyche," " New 
England Pasture-Land," " A Bather," and others, exhibited at the 
National Academy in different seasons. To the first Exhibition of 
the Society of American Artists, in 1878, he sent " Autumn Sunset," 
" Wild Poses," and " Hollyhocks." " Bishop Berkeley's Rock, New- 
port," " Wreath of Flowers," etc., were at the Philadelphia Exhi- 
bition of 1876. To Paris, in 1878, he sent " Paradise Valley, New- 
port." He executed the frescos in Trinity Church, Boston. Miss 
Alice Hooper owns La Farge's "New England Pasture-Land," one 
of his finest works. At Boston, in November, 1878, he exhibited and 
successfully sold a large number of his pictures. 

" La Farge goes to art with earnest devotion, and an ambition for its highest walks, 
bringing to the American school depth of feeling, subtlety of perception, and a magnifi- 
cent tone of coloring, united to a fervent imagination, which bestows upon the humblest 
object a portion of his inmost life His landscapes are gems of imaginative, sugges- 
tive, and delicate, vital ti-eatment, not pantheistic in sentiment, although the soul of na- 
ture breathes in them." — Jarves, Art Idea. 

"Mr. La Farge sent five pictures, two of figures and three of flowers. The latter are 
works of peculiar excellence for their purity and charm of color, — flowers forming but 
the theme for a most delicate and refined harmony that addresses the eye with occult 
power. Mr. La Farge is learned in his art, working for profound and subtle results, and no 
one is more sensitive to the value of mystery in tone and color, and of the emission of 
luminous light through these qualities. His picture of ' St. Paul at Athens ' is stamped 
with great sincerity of aim, and bears unmistakable evidence of power and thought. His 
works, however, for the most part give an impression of incompleteness, or suggest a 
deficiency of form, and the drawing, as of the hands of this picture of St. Paul, is often 
defective. But these shortcomings are more than compensated by the superior aim 
which characterizes his work, and renders it highly intellectual, spiritual, and poetical in 
feeling." — Prof. Weir's Official Report of the American Centennial Exhibition o/1876. 

." All Mr. La Farge's pictures are apt to have that element commonly called * sugges- 
tiveness,' — that sense of progressive fluency, rather than of either loose tremulotisness 
or fixed stability, which once led a clever critic to remark of them that it was always the 
next picture Mr. La Farge would paint that was the masterpiece. But his sketches — 
or the pictures he catalogues ' sketches ' — have it eminently, and in them it is espe- 
cially pleasing. Somehow one learns in time that even in his sketches there is no lack 
of completeness of motive, and that if it does not seem completely expressed, that may 
not be so much the fault of the painter as of the observer, if the latter has been accus- 
tomed to the stock notion that completeness of expression means a hunting of the mo- 
tive to its fastnesses. " — New York World, November 3, 1878. 

Laguillermie, August Fr^d&ric. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Prix de 
Rome, 1866. Pupil of Flameng and Bouguereau. He has also studied 
in Madrid, Rome, and Athens. His drawings from the frescos of 
Michael Angelo in the Sistine Chapel and from the Temple of 
Erechthens at Athens are important. He has made some powerful 
plates after the works of Velasquez. More recently Laguillermie has 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 31 

sent some pictures to the Salons. In 1876 he exhibited a " Portrait 
of Mine. B.'' and two etchings, M Ruth and Boaz" and "The Death of 
Jacob," both alter Bida ; in 1S75, two portraits (in oil), three water- 
color sketches lor portraits, and an etching of a portrait after Ter- 
burg ; in 1874, picture of a " Young Breton Girl winnowing Buck- 
wheat on the Seashore " and an etching, " Fantasy," after Fromen- 
tin ; in Ibl'S, M A Spinner" and a portrait (in oil), and an etching of 
" The Surrender of the City of Breda," by Velasquez ; etc. At the 
London Academy, 1878, he exhibited an etching after "The Prisoner," 
by Gerome. 

" The serious and prolonged studies of this artist have resulted in a kind of etching 
perfectly adapted to the interpretation of such a master as Velasquez, who dwelt in an ar- 
tistic region elevated very far above the small prettinesses of merely technical mechanical 
engravers. Few things in the history of the fine arts are more hopeful and encouraging 
than the emancipation of engraving, and its nearer approach to thoroughly artistic 
painting, which have been effected by Flameng and his pupils Rajon and Laguillermie." 
— P. G. Hamerton, The Port/olio, April, 1S73. 

Lagye, Victor. (Belgian.) Of Antwerp. Pupil of Leys. His 
subjects are taken principally from the fourteenth and fifteenth cen- 
turies. " The Antiquaries " is remarkable for its finish of detail. 
Another of his pictures represents a " Mother putting her Child in 
the Cradle," and gives a peep at the family life of the olden times in 
Belgium. It was done for the city of Ghent. He received a medal 
at Philadelphia, where he exhibited " The Sculptor, — Close of the 
Fifteenth Century." To the Paris Exposition of 1878 he contributed, 
"The Gypsies," " The Sculptor," "The Magician," and " The Cross- 
bowman." 

Lalanne, Maxime. (Fr.) Born at Bordeaux, 1827. Member of 
the Academies of Bordeaux and Brussels. Medals at the Expositions 
of Vienna and Philadelphia. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor, of 
the Order of Christ of Portugal, and of that of St. Gregory the Great. 
Pupil of M. J. Gigoux. Painter and engraver, and of later years 
especially devoted to etching. He has published a "Traite de la 
Gravure a l'Eauforte," and has illustrated it himself in a charming 
manner. His oil-pictures are landscapes. Among his etchings are, 
" Rue des Marmousets, Old Paris," " View of Bordeaux," " Demoli- 
tion for lengthening the Boulevard St. Germain," " Demolition for 
lengthening the Hue des Iicoles," " View from the Bridge of Saint- 
Michel,' " View from the Bridge de la Concorde," " Chez Victor 
Hugo." — twelve small etchings of the house of Victor Hugo, re- 
markable for minute delicacy. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited 
"View in the Port of Quimper," "Bank of a River," and "In the 
Fields of Cenon, Gironde"; in 1876. "The Chickens," after Ribot, 
" The Pool of Ville d'Avray," after Corot, and " Marcoussis," after 
Corot. 

" No one ever etched so gracefully as Maxime Lalanne. The merit of gracefulness 
is what chiefly distinguishes him ; there have been etchers of greater power, of more 



32 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

striking originality, but there has never been an etcher equal to him in a certain deli- 
cate elegance, from the earliest times till now. He is also essentially a ti-ue etcher ; he 
knows the use of the free line and boldly employs it on due occasion. So far his work 
is very right, but it has the fault of too much system." — P. G. Hamerton, Etching and 
Etchers. 

L'Allemande, Fritz, (Ger.) Born at Hanau (1812-1866). An 
excellent painter of military subjects. He never painted a picture 
until he had visited the scene of the battle. The Emperor Francis 
Joseph commissioned him to decorate the reception-room of the 
chateau of Schbnbrunn. After that work, which proved his talent to 
be good, he was constantly employed upon important commissions. 
His " Episode in the Combat of Komorn " (seen at London in 1862) 
attracted attention and admiration. 

Lambdin, George Cochran, N. A. (Am.) Born in Pittsburg, 
Pa., 1830, but has lived since childhood in Philadelphia, with the 
exception of two years, 1868 to '70, spent in New York. He studied 
under his father, a portrait-painter of some repute. In 1855 he went 
to Europe, spending two years on the Continent, chiefly in Munich 
and Paris. In 1858 he sent to the National Academy, New York, a 
picture called " Our Sweetest Songs are those which tell of Saddest 
Thoughts," his first exhibited work. The original study of this is 
now in the Suydam Collection of the National Academy. Two years 
later he exhibited "The Dead Wife," which was selected by the 
Committee to go to the Paris Exposition of 1867. This was followed 
by " Twilight Reverie," " Ask Me No More," and kindred works, of a 
sentimental cast illustrative of young maidenhood. For some years 
afterwards he devoted himself exclusively to portraits of children, of 
which " The Little Knitter " (belonging to Mr. Adams of Boston) is 
among the best. During his New York residence, in 1868, he was 
elected a member of the National Academy. After a short visit to 
Europe, chiefly for the benefit of his health, in 1870, he settled at 
Germantown, near Philadelphia, cultivating in his garden fine roses 
and flowers, to the painting of which he has since turned his attention 
with marked success. 

Lambert, Louis Eugene. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor. Pupil of Delacroix. At the Salon of 1877 he ex- 
hibited "Portrait of Lido" and "During the Mass" ; in 1876, "En 
famille " and " Pepito, Toe, d'Artagnan," belonging to the Baroness 
Nathaniel de Rothschild; in 1875, "Jack, Sam, Shot," "The En- 
emy," and " L'Envoi " ; in 1874, " Installation Provisoire " and " The 
Hour of the Repast." This artist excels in painting small animals, 
such as kittens, cats, etc. At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited "The 
Cats of the Cardinal" and " Fallen Greatness." 

"The cats of M. Louis Eugene Lambert are as usual the most attractive and charac- 
teristic reproductions of animal life to be found at the Salon. One of his contributions 
this year is probably destined to as widespread a popularity as was obtained by his 
' Envoi en Provence,' that basketful of recalcitrant kittens that won such a success a 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 33 

few years ago. This year M. Lambert takes an historic flight, and, remembering the 
fact that Cardinal Kkhelieu was passionately fond of cats, he paints for our delectation 

the pets of the great statesman His other contribution is felicitously named 

' Fallen Greatness.' A tiger skin is spread upon the floor, and a sober mother cat and 
her family have taken possession of this relic of the king of the forest The languid dig- 
nity of the mother cat, with her glossy fur, pink nose, and reposeful attitude, is well 
contrasted with the irrepressible vivacity of her offspring." — A rt Journal, August, 1878. 

Lambinet, Emile. (Fr.) Born at Versailles (1810-1878). Chev- 
alier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Drolling. Made his debut at 
the Salon of 1833. "A Landscape" (1855) is at the Luxembourg. 
His views are those of his own country, such as, "The Seine at 
Bougeval," " Norman Meadows," " Coasts of Normandy," " The Val- 
ley of Arques," etc. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited " The Village 
of Quineville " ; in 1876, "Summer" and "Le Bas-Prunay." Mrs. 
H. E. Maynard of Boston has three landscapes by this artist in her 
collection. Two of his works were exhibited at the Salon of 1878. 

" Lambinet is a man of less power, but in his limited choice of lowland scenery nat- 
ural and simple, having a refined taste and defined execution, suggesting details by em- 
phasis of brush rather than by accurate finish. He fills his pictures with clear, bright 
light, rivaling Nature's tones as fully as pigments may. But it is a hazardous process, 
and no way so satisfactory as the lower tone of Corot, whose treatment of light is un- 
equaled. Those who follow Lambinet in this respect would do well to recall Leonardo's 
maxim in regard to pure white, ' Use it as if it were a gem.' Lambinet's landscape, 
although ever repeating himself, is fresh and fragrant, like a bouquet of flowers.' 1 — 
Jarves, Art Thortghts. 

Lami, Louis Eugene. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1800. Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor, 1837, officer since 1862. Pupil of Gros, Horace 
Vernet, and l'Ecole des Beaux- Arts. He has engraved on stone, made 
lithographs, and painted in water-colors and in oils. " A Supper in 
the Salle de Spectacle at Versailles " and " An Interior of a Church " 
(water-colors) are at the Luxembourg. He has given much time to 
water-colors, and seems most fond of that mode of representation. 
But he has also painted five or more battle-pieces, in oils, for the Gal- 
lery at Versailles, and has a facility of execution in whatever he 
undertakes. 

Lance, George. (Brit.) (1802-1864.) Pupil of Haydon and 
of the School of the Royal Academy. Lance was a very successful 
painter of still-life, his works being in the possession of many noble 
families of England. He executed a few historical and figure pieces, 
but was famous for his fruits and flowers. Among the former may be 
mentioned, " The Coquette," " The Lady in Waiting," and " Melanc- 
thon's First Misgiving of the Church of Rome." In 1860 he exhib- 
ited at the Royal Academy, "Full Ripe"; in 1861, "A Sunny 
Bank " ; and in 1862, " A Gleam of Sunshine." Three of his pictures 
(in the Vernon Collection) are in the National Gallery, London, — 
" A Basket of Fruit," painted in 1834 ; " Red Cap," exhibited at the 
British Institution in 1847; and "Fruit" (a pineapple, grapes, 
melon, etc.), painted in 1848. 
2* 



34 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

" Lance was occasionally blamed for exaggeration of color, but his delineation was 
delicate and his grouping agreeable." — Mrs. Tytler's Modern Painters. 

Landelle, Charles. (Fr.) Born at Laval, 1821. Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. Medal at Philadelphia. Pupil of Delaroche. 
Historical and religious painter ; has also executed many portraits. 
"The Presentation of the Virgin" (1859) is at the Luxembourg. 
His mural paintings are " Law," " Justice," and " Right," in the 
Palace of the Council of State (destroyed in 1871), six decorative 
panels for a salon in the Palace Elysee, some works at the Hotel 
de Ville (also destroyed), and the chapel of Saint-Joseph at Saint- 
Sulpice. Among his portraits are those of Alfred de Musset, the 
Countess Fitz-James, Mine. Achille Fould, Stackelberg, Admiral 
Baudin, ^Princess of Broglie, and many others. At the Salon of 
1877 he exhibited "Salmacis"; in 1875, "The Death of St. 
Joseph " ; in 1874, " A Reverie of Sixteen Years " ; in 1873, " A 
Young Serbian Gypsy" and "The Samaritan Woman"; in 1872, 
" L'Almee " ; etc. At the Johnston sale, New York, 1876, " The 
Egyptian Girl " (17 by 11) sold for $ 780 ; " The Greek Girl " (18 by 
14), for $ 800 . At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited a portrait of the 
Marquis de Saint-M. as an Arab Sheik, and " Ismenis, a Nymph of 
Diana." 

" This distinguished painter has a commonplace facility, which he dispenses in a per- 
petual repetition of himself. He is consecrated for the rest of his days to what is 
called character figures, young gypsies, Egyptian women, Moorish women, Ethiopian 
women. As he knows how to mix the right dose, and in very decent proportions, of the 
romantic and picturesque with gravity and classic correctness, he never fails to please 
the public, although he becomes weaker, thinner, and more faded day by day." — 
Ernest Duvergier de Hauranne, Revue des Deux Mondes, June, 1871. 

'* If, carried away by the sympathy which the artist inspires, one said that the deco- 
ration of the chapel of Saint-Joseph was a work of the first order, he might be accused 
of thoughtless enthusiasm ; but he would be unjust not to see in it one of those works 
which hold an equilibrium between disparagement and eulogy. M. Landelle, whom the 
public of the Salons knows so well, has wished to make himself appreciated on a 
larger scene. Without being presumptuous he had the right to make the attempt, as 
he has now the right to repeat it. The charming painter of Fellahs and Moors quitted, 
one fine day, the gallery, already long, of his Oriental beauties. He has elevated his 
art by ascending the steps of the church. Only an exigency could demand of him to 
leave forever the voluptuous seraglio that he has created and peopled ; but, now that 
he has penetrated the temple, he owes it to himself to return there to work and to 
purify his profane talent. His name, it is true, would not be more celebrated, but it 
would be more enduring." — Roger Ballu, Gazette des Beaux-Arts, February, 1878. 

Landseer, John, A. R. A. (Brit.) Celebrated engraver. Father 
of Edwin, Charles, and Thomas Landseer. Born in Lincoln (1761 - 
1852). Engraved vignettes for Macklin's Bible published in 1793, for 
Bowyer's History of England, views in the Isle of Wight after Turner, 
South of Scotland after James Moore, and a series of engravings of 
animals after Gilpin, Rubens, Rembrandt, Suyder, etc. In 1807 he 
was elected an Associate Engraver of the Royal Academy, and exhib- 
ited there as late as 1851 several sketches of Druidical temples on the 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 35 

Channel Isles. In 1806 he delivered a course of lectures on "Engrav- 
ing" before the Royal Institution, and in 1823 a course on "Engraved 
Hieroglyphics." He was the author of a book entitled " Saba:an 
aches," published in 1823, and of a valuable "Catalogue of the 
Earliest Pictures in the National Gallery," published in 1834. 

Landseer, Thomas, A. R. A., his son and pupil, is a well-known 
English engraver of the present day. Elected Associate of the Royal 
Academy in 18G8. Among his plates are Rosa Bonheur's " Denizens 
of the Forest," and (after Edwin Landseer) " Doubtful Crumbs," 
"The Sanctuary," "The Challenge," "Browsing," "Peace," "The 
Baptismal Font," and the portrait of the Queen. He has also con- 
tributed to the Royal Academy many original drawings in crayon, and 
(in oil) " A Deluge of Rain," " The Goat without a Beard," " Lion- 
Hunting," " Cattle," etc. 

"That Thomas Landseer the engraver was hut an Associate hy condescension, sat 
only at a side-table at state dinners of the Royal Academy, not cheek by jowl with artists 
[painters] like his brother Edwin and the already forgotten Charles, — this did not deprive 
him of his faculty as an artist or his right to be recognized as one. The two great Land- 
seers were John Landseer the father, only a Mine engraver,' and Thomas Landseer the 
son, a mere engraver also." — W. J. Linton, in Scribner's Monthly, June, 1878. 

Landseer, Charles, R. A. (Brit.) Son of John Landseer, and 
elder brother of Edwin, born 1799. He was a pupil of his father and 
of Haydon, entering the Royal Academy at the age of sixteen. His 
picture was exhibited in 1828. He was elected an Associate of the 
Royal Academy in 1837, and Academician in 1845. In 1851 he 
received the appointment of Keeper, a position he held until 1873. 
While he has never equaled in popularity his younger brother, as an 
historical painter he has been successful. Among his earlier works, 
four are in the National Gallery, " The Sacking of Basing House " 
(R. A., 1836), "The Pillaging "of a Jew's House" (R. A., 1839), 
" Clarissa Ilarlowe in the Sponging-House " (Society of British Artists, 
1833), and "Bloodhounds and Pups " (Brit. Ins., 1839). He is still a 
regular contributor to the exhibitions of the Royal Academy. In I860 
he sent " Trust " ; in 1861, " Births, Marriages, and Deaths" ; in 1865, 
m Savage discovering his Parentage"; in 1867, " Cromwell at the 
House of Sir Walter Stewart in 1651 "; in 1868, " Rustic Gallantry " ; 
in 1870, " Surrender of Arundel Castle in 1643"; in 1871, "Way- 
farers" ; in 1872, " The Hamlet of St. Martin-in-the-Fields" ; in 1875, 
" Dick " ; in 1876, " A Langum Fishwoman, Tenby " ; in 1877, " Pa- 
mela concealing her Correspondence between the Tiles." 

Landseer, Sir Edwin, R. A. (Brit.) Born in London (1802 - 
1873). Youngest son of John Landseer, a distinguished engraver, 
from whom his children inherited their decided artistic talent. Ed- 
win received his first lessons in drawing from his father, and at a very 
early age displayed great abilities as a sketcher and that love of the 
brute creation which has been displayed in his works. At the South 



36 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Kensington Museum are shown some of these wonderfully clever 
drawings, executed by him when a child of from five to ten years. In 
1816 he entered the Royal Academy, contributing at the same time, 
when only fourteen years of age, pictures to several of the public galler- 
ies throughout the country. He subsequently studied under Haydon. 
His "Dogs Fighting" (engraved by his father) was painted in 1818, 
and " The Dogs of St. Gothard discovering a Traveler in the Snow " 
(also engraved by the elder Landseer) was painted in 1820. From 
that time his success was established, and his popularity as an artist 
unequaled, until the day of his death, by that of any artist in Eng- 
land of the nineteenth century. In 1826 he was elected Associate of 
the Royal Academy, and Academician in 1831. He made his first 
trip to the Highlands of Scotland in 1826, and there acquired that 
bolder and freer style which distinguishes his maturer works, and 
there also first evinced his fondness for deer as subjects. Soon after 
this he painted " Night," " Morning," " The Sanctuary," " Children 
of the Mist," "The Return from Deer-Stalking" (1827), "The 
Illicit Whisky-Still" (1829), "Sir Walter Scott and his Dogs" 
(1833), " Peace " and " War " (1846), " The Dialogue at Water- 
loo " (1850), " Rough and Ready " (1857), and "The Maid and the 
Magpie" (1858). He was knighted in 1850. In 1855 at the Paris 
Exposition he received one of the two large gold medals awarded to 
Englishmen. The list of his works is very large, and many of them 
have been engraved. Fourteen of his pictures are in the National 
Gallery in London, including the " Alexander and Diogenes," " Peace " 
and " War," " Dignity and Independence " (painted in 1839), "The 
Sleeping Bloodhound," " Low Life " and " High Life," " Highland 
Music," " Shoeing the Bay Mare," and " The Dialogue at Waterloo," 
representing the Duke of Wellington explaining to the Marchioness 
of Douro, his daughter-in-law, the incidents of the great fight years 
after it had occurred. This is considered one of the best of the few 
figure-pieces he has painted. In the Sheepshanks Collection of 
South Kensington are sixteen of his works, — " Dog and the Shadow," 
" Suspense," " The Old Shepherd's Chief Mourner,"" " Comical Dogs," 
" A Highland Breakfast," " The Drove's Departure," and others. In* 
1864 he exhibited at the Royal National Academy, " Piper and Pair 
of Nut-Crackers " (sold for 1,000 guineas) and " Windsor Park " ; 
in 1865, "Prosperity." "Adversity," and "The Connoisseurs"; in 
1866, " Lady Godiva's Prayer," " The Chase," and " Odds and Ends" ; 
in 1867, " Her Majesty at Osborne " and " Wild Cattle of Chilling- 
ham " ; in 1868, " Rent Day in the Wilderness " ; in 1869, * Study of 
a Lion" and " The Swannery invaded by Eagles " ; in 1870, " Queen 
Victoria meeting the Prince Consort on his Return from Deer-Stalk- 
ing "and "The Doctor's Visit to Poor Relations at the Zoological 
Gardens" ; in 1872, "The Baptismal Font" and "The Lion and the 
Lamb" ; in 1873, "Tracker" and a "Sketch of the Queen," which 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 37 

was never finished. His pictures have brought very large prices : 
"Oxen at the Tank," ■ small pen-and-ink sketch, was sold alter his 
death for 300 guineas ; 4k Man proposes and God disposes " brought 
2,500 guineas in L864 A very large and complete exhibition of 
Landseer's etchings and sketches was held in London in 1875. He 
designed the sculptured lions at the base of Nelson's Monument, Tra- 
falgar Square, unveiled in 1867, but was not as successful in sculpture 
as in painting. 

"Take, for instance, one of the most perfect poems or pictures (I use the words as 
synonymous) which modern times have seen, ' The Old Shepherd's Chief Mourner.' Here 
the exquisite execution of the glossy and crisp hair of the dog, the bright, sharp touch- 
ing of the green bough beside it, the clear painting of the wood of the coffin, are lan- 
guage, — language clear and expressive in the highest degree It ranks as high art, 

and stamps its author, not as the neat imitator of the texture of a skiu or the fold of a 
drapery, but as the man of mind." — Rusk in's Modern Painters. 

- One of Stanfield's landscapes or of Landseer's hunting-pieces is worth all the mystic 
daubs of all the Germans." — Macaclay's Life ami Letters, Vol. II. Chap. XIV. 

" Landseer has great merit not only as a painter of deer and dogs and horses, but as 
an artist most skillful in his delineation of human figures, and of original genius in the 
representation of vast subjects in small isolated series of individualized parts conceived 
and wrought out with such powers of comprehension and concentration that in a single 
episode of ' Peace ' and ' War,' all of the blessings of the former, all of the horrors of the 
latter, are conveyed to the mind of the person who looks on these masterpieces. There is 
in Landseer's compositions an exquisite delicacy of organization, an acute sense of per- 
ception of all that is harmonious in nature or art, a nervous susceptibility of all im- 
pressions, pleasing or poetical, such as it would be difficult to find iu other artists." — 
Memoirs of the Countess of Blessington. 

" Landseer has been distinguished for his masterly handling of his art and the singular 
expertness with which he has been able to paint His pictures have been largely en- 
graved, and have commanded a large sale Hardly a house which contains an 

engraving at all is without one of a picture of Landseer." — Mrs. Tytler's Modern 
Painters. 

"As monumental sculptures these Lions of Landseer's in Trafalgar Square have been a 
mistake throughout ; badly planned, badly modeled, and badly cast." — Saturday Review, 
1807. 

"The noble Lions at the foot of Nelson's Column were added by Sir Edwin Landseer 
in 1867. Only one of them was modeled ; a slight variation in the treatment adapted 
the others to their ]>edestals. Their chief grandeur lies in their mighty simplicity." — 
Harp's li'n'btn Ixmdon, 1S78. 

Landseer, George. (Brit.) Son of Thomas Landseer. He died 
in 1878. A portrait-painter of some merit. He also exhibited land- 
scapes from time to time. 

Lane, B. J., A. R. A. (Brit) (1800 - 1872.) A grand-nephew of 
Gainsborough. He was articled in 1818 to Heath, the well-known line- 
engraver, but soon turned his attention to lithography, in which branch 
of his profession he was wonderfully successful, practicing it for many 
years, and reproducing many works of Landseer, Leslie, Lawrence, 
Gainsborough, and other artists. In 1827 he was made an Associate of 
the Royal Academy, and in 1837 he was appointed Lithographer to 
the Queem He devoted himself particularly to engraving on copper 



38 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

during the last years of his life, and was for some time superintendent 
of the etching class at the South Kensington Museum. 

Lang, Louis, N. A. (Ger.-Am.) Born in Wurtemberg, 1814. Son 
of an historical painter. He early showed a taste for art, and between 
the age of sixteen and twenty executed several hundred pastel por- 
traits of the people among whom he lived. In 1834 he went to Paris 
for the purpose of study ; spent some time at Stuttgart, and sailed for 
America in 1838, living in Philadelphia several years. He then re- 
turned to Europe, passing five or six years in Venice, Rome, Florence, 
and Paris. In 1852 he was made a member of the National Acad- 
emy of New York, making that city his home. He visits Europe fre- 
quently, and is at present (1878) in Florence.' He is a member of the 
Artists' Fund Society of New York, contributing to its sale in 1878, 
" Chasing Butterflies," " Fresh Cherries," and " Neapolitan Fisher 
Family." Lang sent to the National Academy, New York, in 1869, 
" The Stolen Child " and " Asleep in Prayer "; in 1870, " Fresh Flow- 
ers" and "An Old Mill at Greenwich, Ct."; in 1871, "Little Gra- 
ziosa among the Butterflies," " Blind Nydia," and " Jephthah's Daugh- 
ter." He sent to the American Centennial Exhibition of 1876 his 
" Landing of the Market-Boat at Capri." His " Mary Stuart distrib- 
uting Gifts " and the " Maid of Saragossa" are in the gallery of Robert 
L. Stuart. 

"Lang indulges in brilliant colors, and has executed several large and glowing pictures 
of our popular holidays ; he is fond of delineating female and infantile beauty with gay 
dresses and flowers, and has adventured somewhat in historic art. " — Tuckerman's Book 
of the Artists. 

"In Lang's studio in Rome are, 'A Bivouac of Circassian Slaves,' 'Mary, Queen of 
Scots,' 'Cleopatra,' ' Preziosa, or the Stolen Child,' and 'Cinderella.' .... The color 
of ' Cinderella ' is very rich and admirably managed, as well as the contrast between the 
haughty, conquest-anticipating sisters, and the gentle, beautiful one who serves them. " 
— Art Journal, September, 1875. 

Langerfeldt, T. O. (Ger.-Am.) Born in Buckeburg, Principality 
of Schaumburg-Lippe, Germany, 1841. Studied as an architect at the 
Polytechnical School of Hanover, and became a landscape-painter 
upon his removal to England, where he spent five years. He settled 
in Boston in 1868, and has since resided in that city, making a trip to 
Germany and the Netherlands in 1874. Some of Langerfeldt's ar- 
chitectural drawings in water-color are in the possession of the Super- 
intending Architect at the Treasury, Washington, D. C, and many of 
his views of New England scenery, exhibited at Boston and New 
York, are in the private galleries of those cities. There was an ex- 
hibition of his works in the gallery of the Boston Art Club in the 
winter of 1874, upon his return from Europe. For one of his archi- 
tectural water-color drawings he was awarded a prize at the Centennial 
Exhibition of 1876. 

" Mr. Langerfeldt's style is refreshing in its freedom and unconventionality. His col- 
oring is bright, harmonious, and agreeable ; and his manner combines aerial delicacy of 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 3D 

tone with a manly strength The collection is remarkable for its architectural 

features, great towera with queer turrets, gables, and picturesque excrescences breaking 
out in unexpected places : noblfl cathedrals, curious street scenes, picturesque roadside 
shrines, and pretty cottage* There are some admirable landscapes and wood interiors." 
— Boston Herald, November, W4. 

'• We particularly noticed a pair of Langerfeldt's water-colors, which were full of 
nature's spirit. The forest piece struck us as being very happy in its effect of luminosity. 
Mr. LangerfeldL goes to nature as his master, and while he may not master nature, as no 
artist can, he masters important features. He secures an out-door effect, which is seen 
in all his works."— Auto* Transcript, January 19, 187G. 

Lanoue, Felix Hippolyte. (Fr.) Born at Versailles (1812-1872). 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of V. Berlin and Horace 
Vernet. Landscape-painter. His " View of a Forest of Pines " is 
at the Luxembourg. Some of his works are at Versailles, at the 
church of Saint-Etienne-du-Mont, and in various public places. 

Lansil, Walter P. (Am.) Born in Bangor, Me., 1846. He 
studied art in his native city under J. P. Hardy, but has spent the 
greater part of his professional life in Boston. He was elected a 
member of the Bangor Art Association in 1876, of the Boston Art 
Club in 1877. He makes marine views a specialty. Among his 
most important pictures are, "Crossing the Georges' " (belonging to 
the Boston Marine Insurance Company), "Abandoned," "Sunset, 
Boston Harbor/' " Fishermen in a Calm," etc. 

"Walter F. Lansil's last important painting is still on his easel, awaiting the final 
touches. It is a view of Charlestown and that portion of the harbor which is embraced 
in a view from the southeast. The sun is setting in a glowing sky that is varied by 
fleecy clouds, tinged with crimson and gold. .... A shimmering light that is thrown 
by the sun upon the water is rendered with great success, and the masts of the shipping 
on the piers, in the middle distance, rising suggestively from the sun-bathed mists, add 
much to the poetry of the scene.'' — Boston Daily Evening Traveller, May' 2, 1878. 

Lansyer, Emmanuel. (Fr.) Born at l'lle Bouin (Vendee), 1835. 
365, ; n' ( .). and '73. Pupil of Courbet and Harpignies. Painter 
of marines and landscapes. Many of his motives are from Brittany. 
He has also painted, in the grand vestibule of the Palace of the Legion 
of Honor, a large picture called "View of the Palace of the Legion 
of Honor, taken from the Quai d'Orsay." At the Luxembourg is his 
" Landscape, — the Chateau of Pierrefonds" (1869). At the Salon of 
1-7- he exhibited " Flowering Fields, near Douarnenez " and a " Vue 
de la Cour du May an XV* rikU," for a salon in the Palais-de-Justice. 

Laoust, Andre-Louis- Adolphe. (Fr.) Born at Douai. Medals 
in 1-73 and '74. Pupil of Jouffroy. At the Salon of 1877 he exhib- 
ited "St. John with his Cross" and a portrait bust in bronzed plaster; 
in 187o", a medallion portrait ; in 1875, two portraits ; in 1874, "Am- 
phion," a marble statue, a group in plaster, " The Capture," and a 
bust in plaster ; in 1878, " Spes" (a statue in plaster) and a portrait 
bust. 

Lapierre, Louis Emile. (Fr.) Born at Paris about 1820. Chev- 
alier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Victor Bertin. Among his 



40 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

pictures are, " Twilight," " A Pond in the Forest of Champagne," 
" Interior of a Forest," " Setting Sun in Winter," etc. 

Lapito, Louis-Auguste. (Fr.) Born at Saint-Maur (1805- 
1874). Chevalier of the Legion of Honor and of the Order of Bel- 
gium. Pupil of Watelet and Heim. He traveled much on the Con- 
tinent of Europe. Perhaps his water-colors are more admired than 
his oils. His works are seen in public galleries in France, Holland, 
and Belgium. They are all landscapes. 

Lapostolet, Charles. (Fr.) Born at Velars. Pupil of Cogniet. 
At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited "Rouen "and "The Station at 
Auteuil." His pictures are all landscapes. At the Royal Academy, 
in 1872, he exhibited " Low Tide at Trouville." His " View of the 
Canal Saint-Martin at Paris, Winter, from the Bridge of the Street 
Buttes-Chaumont " (1870) is in the Luxembourg. At the Salon of 
1878 he exhibited " The Canal of the Giudecca, Venice." 

Lasch, Karl Johann. (Ger.) Born at Leipsic, 1822. Professor 
at Diisseldorf and member of the Academies at Dresden, Vienna, and 
St. Petersburg. Medals at Berlin, Dresden, Vienna, and Philadel- 
phia. Studied at the Dresden Academy under E. Bendemann, and 
at Munich under Schnorr and Kaulbach. In 1847 he visited Italy. 
Later, he painted portraits at Moscow. In 1857 he settled in Paris. 
In 1860 he removed to Diisseldorf. His pictures are of genre subjects, 
and he inclines to romantic and idyllic scenes. In the National Gal- 
lery at Berlin is the " Master's Birthday." 

Lathrop, Francis. (Am.) Born on the Pacific Ocean, two days' 
sail from the Sandwich Islands, in 1849. In 1860 he began the study 
of art under T. C. Farrar in New York. He went to Germany in 
1867, entering the Royal Academy of Dresden. In 1870 he settled in 
London, remaining three years in the studio of Madox Brown. He 
was for some time during his London residence with William Morris, 
in his establishment for the manufactory of artistic household goods, 
and was also an assistant of Spencer Stanhope. Since 1870 he has 
lived in the United States. He has painted portraits, furnishing, also, 
illustrations for Clarence Cook's " House Beautiful," and other publi- 
cations of Scribner & Co. He is a member of the Society of Amer- 
ican Artists, sending to its first exhibition, in 1878, portraits of 
Thomas and Ross R. Winans. He assisted in the decoration of 
Trinity Church, Boston, of which he designed the chancel. During 
the winter of 1878 he was engaged in decorating the interior of 
Bowdoin College Chapel at Brunswick, Me. 

Latonche, Louis. (Fr.) Born at Ferte-sous-Jouarre. A marine- 
painter. At the Cottier sale, New York, 1878, his " Normandy Coast- 
Scene " sold for $ 745. At the Paris Salon of 1878 he exhibited 
" The Beach at Berck " (Pas-de-Calais). 

Lauder, Robert Scott. (Brit.) Born in Edinburgh (1803- 
1869). He became a student of the Trustees Academy at the age 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 41 

of fifteen. About 1823 he went to London, studying for three years 
in the British Museum. He visited Italy in 1833, remaining until 
1838, in close observation and study, in Rome and Florence. He re- 
sided in London until 1850, when he settled in Scotland, and became 
principal instructor in the Trustees Academy. He exhibited fre- 
quently at the Royal Academy and the Royal Scottish Academy, of 
which latter institution he was made a full member in 1830. He 
was the author of many popular pictures, illustrative of Scottish 
history and romance, many of which have been engraved. Among 
these may be mentioned, " Meg Merrilies," " The Fair Maid of 
Perth," ''The Bride of Lammermoor," and "The Trial of Erne 
Deans." His " Christ teaching Humility " is in the Scottish National 
Gallery. By reason of ill-health he did not practice his profession for 
some years before his death. 

Lauder, James E. (Brit.) (1812-1869.) He studied under Sir 
William Allan in Edinburgh, and spent five years in study in Rome. 
He was made Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1842 
and Academician in 1849. In 1847 he received from the Committee 
for the Decoration of Westminster Hall a prize of i! 200 for his 
u Wisdom " and " The Unjust Steward." Among his most popular 
works may be mentioned, " Ferdinand and Miranda," " Lorenzo and 
Jessica," "The Toilet," "The Money- Lender," "Time Changes," 
" Gethsemane," "The Parable of the Ten Virgins," "James Watt and 
the Steam-Engine," " Walter Scott and Sandy Ormiston," many of 
which have been engraved. 

Laugee, Francois De'sire*. (Fr.) Born at Maromme, 1823. 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Picot and l'Ecole des 
Beaux-Arts. His picture of " Eustache Lesueur chez les Chartreux " 
(1855) is at the Luxembourg. " St. Elisabeth of France washing the 
Feet of the Poor " (1867) was purchased by the Emperor. Among 
his pictures may also be named, "The Candle of the Madonna" 
and "Going to Matins" (both scenes of the thirteenth century), in 
1-77 ; "The Angel who bears the Censer," in 1876 ; "The Young 
Housekeeper," in 1875 ; many portraits and mural paintings at the 
church of St. Peter and St. Paul at St. Quentin,.in the church of the 
Trinity at Paris (in the chapel of St. Denis). At the Salon of 1878 
he exhibited " An Old Man " and " An Old Woman," and a cartoon 
of his picture of St. Denis in the church of the Trinity. 

"The 'Martyrdom of St. Denis' is a drama which Laugdc has represented full of 
action, tumultuous, terrible. Even as a page of history alone, it interests and capti- 
vates. Behold the first impression which comes from this painting. The qualities 
which a further study discloses are purity of design, firmness of lines, clearness of mine 
en seine, and richness of coloring, sustained without weakness." — Roger Ballu, 
Gazette des Beaux- Arts, February, 1878. 

Launitz, Robert E., N. A. (Am.) Born in Russia (1806-1870). 
Studied under his father, a sculptor of some ability. In 1830 he 
came to America, and was made a member of the National Academy 



42 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

three years later. Among the better known of his works are the 
Pulaski Monument in Savannah, Ga., the statue of General Thomas 
at Troy, N. Y., and several fine monuments in Greenwood Cemetery. 

Laurens, Jean Paul. (Fr.) Born at Fourquevaux, 1838. Cheva- 
lier of the Legion of Honor, 1874. Medal of Honor, 1877. Member 
of the jury for the Exposition of 1878, and for the annual Salon. 
Pupil of Bida and Leon Cogniet. This painter made his debut at the 
Salon of 1863. His most important works are, " The Death of the 
Duke d'Enghien," at the Museum of Alencon ; " The Excommu- 
nication of Bobert the Pious" (1875), now at the Luxembourg; 
"Francis di Borgia before the Dead Isabella of Portugal"; "The 
Austrian Staff-Officers around the Death- Bed of Marceau " (1877), 
purchased by the city of Ghent for 40,000 francs ; " Death of Sainte- 
Genevieve " at the Pantheon ; " St. Bruno refusing the Gifts of Roger, 
Count of Calabria," in the church of Notre-Dame-des-Champs ; " Pope 
Formosa and Stephen VII."; " The Fishing at Bethsaida," at the Mu- 
seum of Toulouse ; " The Interdict," at the Museum of Havre ; " The 
Funeral of William the Conqueror," at the Museum of Beziers ; etc. 

The following extract refers to the picture of the " Death of Mar- 
ceau " : — 

" This magnificent picture is better than an apotheosis ; it is a transfiguration. The 
drawing of Laurens has never been more firm and well sustained, his arrangement never 
more perfect, and his execution more masterly. Perhaps he might be a little reproached, 
this severe and sober colorist, for certain effects of color, — a little bold, — that of the 
screen, for example, and the red cloak. But time will deaden them, and bring them into 
a religious harmony with the whole But of what import all these minute criti- 
cisms ? The universal suffrage, as just in art as in politics, has recognized and proclaimed 
immediately in this work, not only one of the incontestable glories of the modern school, 
but still more, one of the most noble pages of history which the immense, eternal, invin- 
cible French Revolution inspired." — Mario Proth, Voyage au Pays des Peintres, 1877. 

"The pictures of history, properly so called, become more and more rare at our annual 
expositions. The genre, landscapes, and portraits make up the largest part of the wor,ks 
contributed. So much the more necessary is it to notice the artists who go against the cur- 
rent bravely, and among them is J. P. Laurens, pupil of Bida, who has given two very 
remarkable pictures to this Salon of 1872. One of them, of a somber tone and of singular 
energy, represents the terrible and almost fantastic scene in which Stephen VII., having 
exhumed the body of his predecessor, Pope Formosa, bears it, reclothed with the pon- 
tifical vestments, into the Salon of Council ; then, when an advocate had been appointed 
to reply in the name of the dead Pope, he heaped upon the corpse adjurations and accu- 
sations. The scene is fierce and savage, and Laurens has thus treated it. The corpse 
of the dead Pope, with open mouth, the. skin already black, extended on the chair, the 
red gloves covering the fleshless hands, is as sinister as the dead of Valdes Leal that one 
sees at Seville. He is not the only Spanish painter this dismal canvas recalls. We 
might take the members of the Council of Laurens for the bishops or torturers escaped 
from a picture by Herrera. The face of the advocate of the dead, the menacing gesture of 
Stephen VII., the corpse itself in which the drama centers, the gray walls with their 
crosses of blood, the tripod, the sepulchral atmosphere of the scene, add to the impres- 
sion produced by this picture, — one of the best of the Salon." — Jules Claretie, 
Peintres et Sculpteurs Contemporains. 

" And one of the most important art movements of the present day is caused by a 
munificent expenditure of money for the decoration of the entire interior of the Pan- 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 43 

thcon by celebrated French artists, with scenes illustrative of the history of Sainte-Gene- 
vieve. The subject is national ; no foreign artist has ever attempted it with success. 
To M. Jean Paul Laurens a most important part of this work has l>een confided, — 
a space ten yards in length in the sight of the abside. At the Universal Exhibition 
M. Laurens shows nine of his well-known paintings, including the 'Excommunicated,' 
the ' Borgia,' the ' Execution of the Due d'Enghien,' und the ' Death of General Mar- 
i -eau," which took the medal of honor at the Salon of 1S77. The lugubrious themes which 
have always inspired the best efforts of this artist prepare one to learn that he has now 
chosen to represent the closing scene in the life of the saint The new work is stamped 
with the solemn grandeur of style, the simplicity of effect and broad handling character- 
istic of all his works, while the realism which has been to some repulsive is refined by a 
religious sentiment more elevated, but not less tragic. The dying saint is represented 
reclining on a couch. Her hands are raised to bless the company about her. During 
eighty years she had prayed and cared for the poor. Her arms, enfeebled by old age and 
by privation, are sustained by two young girls, who have reverently interposed a drapery 
between their hands and the form which is to them sacred. The numerous company 
around them, of every age and condition, is grouped with skill. The dignitaries of the 
Church occupy the center. A picturesque assemblage of the costumes of the fifth cen- 
tury indicates that the Greek, Latin, and Pagan religions had all yielded to her influ- 
enca Nearer the entrance beggars in their rags contrast with the richness of the 
principal group. It is right that this interesting historic composition should be painted 
in lasting materials on the very walls of the Pantheon, for it is a masterpiece and de- 
serves to endure." — London Daily New*, May 15, 1878. 

Lauters, Paul. (Belgian.) (1806 - 1875.) This artist was distin- 
guished for his excellent landscapes in water-colors. He was a Chev- 
alier of the Order of Leopold, and a Professor in the Academy of 
Brussels. He sometimes painted in oiL His works showed a delicate 
and refined perception of the beauties of Nature, rather than brilliant 
color or powerful execution. 

Lawman, Jasper. (Am.) Born in Xenia, Ohio, 1825. He be- 
gan his professional career at Cincinnati when a lad of fourteen. In 
1846 he removed to Pittsburg, Pa., where he has since resided. In 
1859 he went to Paris to study, remaining for a year under Couture. 
His pictures are owned in New York, Baltimore, Chicago, Philadel- 
phia, and elsewhere. Many are in the possession of Capt. William 
Ward, John Scott, Judge W. G. Hawkins, John W. Hampton, John 
Dakell, and other residents of Pittsburg. 

Lawrie, Alexander, N. A. (Am.) Born in the city of New 
York, IS:!S. He began his studies in the life and antique classes of 
the Academy of Design, and in the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine 
Arts. Later he went to Europe, studying under Picot in Paris and 
E. Leutze in Diisseldorf, working also in Florence. He occupied a 
studio in Philadelphia for some time, but has been a resident of New 
York during the better part of his professional life. He is a member 
of the Artists' Fund Societies of New York and Philadelphia, and was 
elected a member of the National Academy in 1866, to the annual 
exhibitions of which he is a constant contributor, sending landscapes, 
ideal figure-pieces, and portraits, in crayon and oil. In 1860 he ex- 
hibited "Autumn in the Hudson Highlands" (belonging to Henry 



44 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Marks) ; in 1870, " A Valley in the Adirondack^ " (belonging to N. 
T. Bailey) ; etc. His portrait of Judge Sutherland belongs to the New 
York Bar Association ; that of Gen. Z. Tower is in the Library of the 
United States Military Academy at West Point. He has also painted 
Gen. John F. Reynolds, Col. Josiah Porter, and other prominent men. 
He has been particularly successful in his portraits of ladies. Among 
his crayon heads, numbering in all about a thousand, the best known 
are those of Richard H. Stoddard, Thomas Buchanan Read, George H. 
Boker, and other literary men. His " Monk playing the Violoncello " 
and "Autumn in the Highlands " were at the Centennial Exhibition 
of 1876. 

" Lawrie exhibited a portrait of three-quarters length, which is simply admirable. Ad- 
mirable in execution, in the rich simplicity of the dress, in the fresh loveliness of the 
face, and in the union of boldness and strength with gentleness and delicacy." — Art 
Journal, May, 1S77. 

Lawson, Cecil G. (Brit) Born in Shropshire, 1851. Son of 
William Lawson a portrait-painter, under whom he studied. He has 
lived for some years in London. Among his more important works 
are, "In the Valley, — a Pastoral," at the Royal Academy in 1873 ? 
and the Grosvenor Gallery in 1878 ; " The Hop-Gatherers of Eng- 
land," exhibited at the Royal Academy and in Liverpool in 1875 ; 
" The Minister's Garden " and " Strayed. — a Moonlight Pastoral," at 
the Grosvenor Gallery in 1878; "The Dragon-Flies," never pub- 
licly exhibited ; etc. His pictures are in the possession of Viscount 
Powerscourt, Godfrey Fawsett, Louis Huth, Mrs. P. Flower, and 
others. 

"■ A distinctive place C. G. Lawson has undoubtedly taken as one of the first to at- 
tempt on a large scale the reconciliation of the realistic with the poetic treatment of 
nature. In ' The Minister's Garden,' for example, there is no want of painstaking fidelity 
to nature in the sturdy fir-tree, the roses, the hollyhocks, and the beehives in the fore- 
ground, nor in the meadows, swelling uplands, and distant hills, towards which we look 
from the garden which gives its title to the picture ; but at the same time the artist has 
thrown such a tender and peaceful sentiment into his work, harmonizing the bright colors 
of the foreground and choosing a moment of subdued light for the wide expanse of 
landscape, that he has fully justified himself in describing it as ' a tribute to the memory 
of Oliver Goldsmith.' It is just such a garden as fancy would choose for the Vicar of 
Wakefield to sit in." — London Examiner, May 4, 1878. 

" Much as we value ' The Minister's Garden,' we prefer to it Mr. Lawson's second and 
rather less large picture, ' In the Valley, —a Pastoral,' which we remember enjoying some 
years ago at the Royal Academy. This is pre-eminently graceful, and poetic in its grace ; 

it affects one like a snatch of delicate descriptive lyrical verse Even had we never 

before seen any productions by Mr. Lawson, what he now shows in the Grosvenor Gallery 
would prove to us indisputably his possession of the three-precious qualities, — strength, 
sweetness, and sentiment." — W. M. Rossetti in the Academy, June 1, 1868. 

Lawson, Wilfrid. (Brit.) Brother of Cecil G. Lawson. Began 
his professional career as a designer on wood for the illustrated periodi- 
cals, working for some time on the staff of the Graphic. He resides 
in London, and has exhibited in colors and black and white at the 
Royal Academy, Dudley Gallery, and elsewhere. 



ARTISTS OF Till-: NINETEENTH CENTURY. 45 

" Mr. Wilfrid Lawson has made himself distinctly the artist of 'The Children of the 
City.' In past year* be has shown us at the Academy one canvas in which the little 
street Arabs are making themselves as merry as maybe with shadow figures on the 
walls, and another in which a boy and a girl of the same pathetic race are. looking up 
wistfully at a tree, whose blossoms, guarded by the iron railings of a garden, suggest, like 
the children's oity-Wmnd lives, ' Imprisoned Spring,* the title of the work. This year 
the artist exhibits a third of the scries in Pall Mall. ' Dawn ' represents the interior of a 
wretched room in a London slum, where a dying girl, supported in her brother's arms, is 
lying on the floor, watching through the windows the hist gleams of light breaking on 
the city, — symbolic of the heavenly dawn about to beam upon her soul. This picture, 
like its predecessors, proves that Mr. Wilfrid Lasvson is not a mere sentimentalist, but 
a painter who is also a poet." — Muja;ine of Art, August, 1878. 

Lay, Oliver Ingraham, A. X. A. (Am.) Born in the city of 
New York, 1845. A painter of portraits and of genre pictures. De- 
voted himself to art in his early youth ; studied in the schools of the 
Cooper Institute and of the Academy of Design in his native city, 
where his entire professional life has been spent. He was also a pupil 
of Thomas Hicks for three years, and has been a constant exhibitor 
lor some time in the National Academy, of which he was made an 
Associate Member in 1876. He was elected a member of the Artists' 
Fund Society the same year. Among his portraits exhibited in dif- 
ferent seasons may be mentioned those of James Parton, Mrs. Eliza 
Riddle Field, Mrs. Jeremiah Hendricks of Red Hook, N. Y., John 
Rodgers of Albany, X. Y., John Delafield, Winslow Homer, C. C. 
Colman, C. C. Griswold, and Miss Fidelia Bridges (the last four 
belonging to the National Academy). Among his genre works are, 
" The Letter," " The Window " (owned by J. M. Toucey), and u The 
Two Friends " (in the collection of John H. Sherwood). 

"'The Letter,' by O. I. Lay, represents a dark-eyed, dark haired girl, sitting by an 
open window, through which is seen an apple-orchard in early bloom. She is engaged in 
writing upon her lap, in true feminine fashion. The story is nut a new one, but it is 
cleverly told. The face and figure are well and gracefully drawn, the position is natural 
and unconstrained, and the flesh-tints are admirable The drawing of the inte- 
rior, the bright colors of the Moorish rug on the floor, the little vase of spring flowers in 
the window, and the old chest of drawers with the quaint brass knobs, is excellent. ''— 
New York Araulioi, Deceinl>er 15, 1S77- 

Lazerges, Jean Raymond Hippolyte. (Fr.) Born at Nar- 
bonne, 1817. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of David 
d'Angers and Bouchot. Many of his subjects are religious. A " De- 
scent from the Cross " (1855) is at the Luxembourg ; another repre- 
sentation of the same subject is in the chateau d'Eu. " The Death of 
the Virgin " (1853) was painted for the chapel of the Tuileries, and 
was seen at the Exposition of 1867. Lazerges has executed works at 
the church of Notre Dame de Bon Secours, near Rouen, at a chapel 
of the convent of La Providence, in the same city, and the ceiling of the 
theater of Nantes. In 1877 he exhibited at the Salon, " Falma the 
Singer" and "The Moors in the Court of the Marabout on Friday, 
which is their Sunday''; in 1876, 'Caravan of Kabyles"; in 1875, 
"The Resurrection,'' " Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette at Versailles," 



46 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

and " Jesus led to Prison "; in 1874, " Stabat Mater "; in 1873, " The 
Christ of the Nineteenth Century"; etc. Lazerges is a musician, and 
has composed several songs. He has also written for journals, and 
published some books. 

Leader, Benjamin William. (Brit.) Born in 1831. Entered 
the schools of the Royal Academy in 1854, exhibiting " Cottage Chil- 
dren blowing Bubbles," his first picture, the same year. In 1855 he 
sent " A Bird-Trap "; in 1857, a "Stream from the Hills "; in 1860, 
"A Worcestershire Lane"; in 1863, "A Welsh Churchyard"; in 
1867, " Through the Glen "; in 1871, " The Stream through the Birch- 
Wood"; in 1872, "Wild Wales"; in 1874, "The Thames at Streat- 
ley "; in 1875, " The Wetterhorn "; in 1876, " An English Hayfield " 
and "A November Evening"; in 1877, "Lucerne" and "Lauter- 
brunnen"; in 1878, "Autumn in Switzerland" and " Summer-Time 
in Worcestershire." 

"Mr. Leader's 4 Country Churchyard ' [R. A., 64], taken apparently at Bettws-y-Coed, 
deserves notice for its brilliancy, and for the very truthful style of its architecture." — 
Palg rave's Essays on Art. 

Le Blant, Julien. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Medal of the third class 
in 1878, when he exhibited the " Death of General d'Elbee." In 
1877 he exhibited " La partie de tonneau." 

Lechesne, Auguste. (Fr.) Born at Caen, 1819. Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. He went to Paris to study, and first attracted 
attention by a frieze which he executed in the Maison d'Or. From 
this time he was constantly employed in decorating the hotels of Paris. 
He has sent to the Salons several works, and especially excels in the 
representation of animals. Larousse says : — 

" Lechesne of Caen does not understand animals like Barye, but he models his sub- 
jects with so much spirit and taste, and gives them so much animation and nicety, that 
their attraction is almost irresistible. It is not grand art, but it is the genre sculpture, 
appreciable by all, attractive and charming." 

At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited " A Dog dying on the Tomb of 
his Master." 

Le Clear, Thomas, N. A. (Am.) Born in Owego, N. Y., 1818. 
He displayed a talent for art as a child, and sold ideal heads painted on 
rough boards to his neighbors before reaching his teens. In 1832 he 
was taken by his family to London, Canada, where he painted portraits, 
but met with indifferent success. He settled in New York in 1839, and 
(with the exception of a few years passed in Buffalo) his professional 
life has been spent in that city. He was made a member of the Na- 
tional Academy in 1863. Among his earlier works are the "Marble- 
Players " (which belonged to the Art Union), the " Itinerant " (in 
the National Academy of 1862), and his " Young America." He has 
painted the portrait of Edwin Booth as Hamlet, Gifford and McEntee 
the artists, Daniel R. Dickinson, President Fillmore, Dr. Vinton (1870), 
Bayard Taylor, E. W. Stoughton (1877), Parke Godwin (at the Na- 






ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 47 

tional Academy, 1ST7, and the Paris Exposition of 1878), George 
Bancroft (in the Century dab), and William Page (in the Corcoran 
Gallery, Washington). He exhibits occasionally at the Royal Acad- 
emy, London, and the journals of that city have spoken well of his 
works, saying that they are among the best in the Academy, fine in 
color, graceful, pleasing in tone, with great individuality, a " sense of 
oneness, caused by a subtle rendering of all the parts in their just 
relation one with another,'' and that "they exhibited in a marked 
degree many of the rare qualities of great portraiture." 

•' To the native facility for imitation, Le Clear now unites remarkable power of char- 
acterization, a peculiar skill in color, and minute authenticity in the reproduction of 
latent, as well as superficial personal traits. In some cases his tints are admirably true 
to nature, and his modeling of the head strong and characteristic." — Tuckerman's 
Loo\- of the Artists. 

" The quiet, sulKlued tones of Le Clear's work [portrait of Page] in middle tint, its fine 
finish, and the grave dignity of the head, charm every beholder, so as to make him un- 
derstand why this noble portrait elicited such marked praise when exhibited in the 
British Royal Academy. Le Clear is fortunate in being so well represented in the Cor- 
coran Gallery, alongside of some of the best heads of Stuart, Harding, and Healy." — 
Art Journal, July, 1S78. 

Lecomte Du Nouy, Jules Jean Antoine. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 
1842. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Medals at London and 
Vienna. Pupil of Gleyre, Gerome, and Signol. "The Bearers of 
Bad News" (1872) is at the Luxembourg. "The Conversion of the 
Galley Slaves by Saint Vincent de Paul " is at the church of the 
Trinity at Paris. In 1877 he exhibited at the Salon, " The Door 
of the Seraglio" and his own portrait ; in 1876, " Homer Begging" ; 
in 1875, "The Honeymoon, Venice, Sixteenth Century " and " The 
Dream of Cosron " ; in 1874, " Eros " (at the Museum of Tours) and 
" The Butchers (Imaccllaj) of Venice." For private galleries he has 
painted, " The Merchant of Pompeii," " Christians at the Tomb of 
the Virgin," " The Repose of the Scherif," " Christmas Eve at Jeru- 
salem," " Chloe at the Fountain," etc. His portraits are good. Among 
them is that of Beranger de la Drome, for the Museum of Valence. 
His "Invocation of Neptune" (1866) is at the Museum of Lille. 
The " Love which Passes " (1869) is at the Museum of Boulogne. 
At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited " Christians at the Tomb of the 
Virgin at Jerusalem " and a portrait. 

Lecomte -Vernet, Charles-Hippolyte-Emile. (Fr.) Born at 
Paris (1821 — 1874)i Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of 
II. Vernet and Cogniet. Made his debut at the Salon of 1833. At 
the Salon of 1^74 lie exhibited " Penelope" and " Almee " ; in 1870, 
u A Young Fellah Girl" and "A Young Girl playing with an Owl " ; 
etc. 

Lee, Frederick Richard, R. A. (lirit.) Born towards the close 
of the last century, he began life as a soldier, seeing some active ser- 
vice. In 1818 he resolved to devote himself to art, and entered the 



48 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Royal Academy, exhibiting in its gallery in 1824, and regularly for 
nearly fifty years. He was elected an Associate of the Academy in 
1834, and Academician in 1838, and was placed upon the list of Hon- 
orary Retired Academicians in 1872. Among the better known of 
his earlier works (many of which have been engraved) may be 
noted "Showery Weather" (exhibited at the British Institute in 
1834) ; " Coverside," painted in 1839 (in conjunction with Land- 
seer) ; " Evening in the Meadows " (at the Royal Academy in 
1854, the cattle in the stream painted by Thomas Cooper, R. A) ; 
and a " River Scene," at the Royal Academy in 1855 (in which also 
the cattle are Cooper's), all of which belong to the National Gal- 
lery. His " Distant View of Windsor " and " Gathering Seaweed " 
are in the Sheepshanks Collection. In 1856 he sent to the Royal 
Academy, " Breakwaters at Plymouth " ; in 1858, " The Bay of Bis- 
cay " ; in 1860, " Summer " ; in 1865, " Garibaldi's Residence at 
Caprera" ; in 1867, " The Land we Live in " ; in 1868, " Far from 
the Busy Haunts of Men " ; in 1869, " Morning in the Meadows " ; 
in 1870, " The Land's End and Longships Lighthouses," and others, 
since which his works have not been seen at the Royal Academy. 

Leech, John. (Brit.) (1817 - 1864.) Was educated at the Char- 
ter House School in London, and was also a pupil for some time in the 
Royal Academy, where he exhibited a few pictures of a genre charac- 
ter, which were in no way remarkable. His sketches in " Bell's Life 
in London " were the first of his works which attracted attention to 
him as an artist. He was connected with Punch as early as 1841, 
remaining upon the active staff of that journal for twenty- three years, 
and receiving for his services, it was estimated, £ 40,000. Many of his 
sketches, enlarged and colored, were exhibited in London in 1861, 
drawing crowds of visitors and realizing some £ 5,000. The litho- 
graphs of these were very popular and extensively sold, as were 
his many contributions to Punch, when collected in book form. 
Among the great number of works illustrated by Leech are, " Jack 
Bragg," by Theodore Hook ; several novels by Albert Smith ; " The 
Story of a Feather," by Douglas Jerrold ; " Mrs. Caudle's Curtain 
Lectures " ; " The Comic Latin Grammar " ; " The Comic English 
Grammar " ; " The Comic History of England " ; " The Comic His- 
tory of Rome " ; Christmas numbers of the Illustrated London News ; 
Bentley's " Miscellany " for many years ; " Jack Hinton " ; " Punch's 
Pocket-Book," up to 1864 ; the earlier volumes of Once a Week ; 
" Young Troublesome " ; " Master Jacky in Love " ; " The Book of 
British Song " ; " Puck on Pegasus "; Blaine's " Encyclopaedia of Brit- 
ish Sports " ; " Paul's Dashes of American Humor " ; " Life of a Fox- 
hound " ; " The Christmas Carol " ; " The Cricket on the Hearth" ; 
" The Chimes." 

" John Leech is different from all of these, and taken as a whole surpasses them all, 
even Cruikshank ; and seats himself next, though below, William Hogarth. Well might 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 49 

Thackeray, in his delightful notice of his friend and fellow-Carthusian in the Quar- 
terly, say, " There is no blinking the fact that in Mr. Punch's Cabinet John Leech is the 
right-hand man. Fancy a Dumber of Punch without Leech's picture ! What would you 
give for it ?' This was said ten years ago (1Sj2). How much more true is it now ! . . . . 
It is this wholesomeness, and, to use the right word, this goodness, that makes Leech 
more than a drawer of funny pictures, more even than a great artist. It makes him a 
teacher and an example of virtue in its widest sense." — Dr. John Brown, in Spare 
Hours. 

" Nothing was more characteristic of Leech, and nothing was more enjoyable in his 
works, than the evident genial sympathy with which he entered into every phase of the 
many-sided English life of the hunting-field, the seaside, the ballroom, the drawing- 
room, the nursery John Leech had also a fine appreciation of English scenery, 

and in those bits of it which he introduced into his sketches he did it full justice, while 
he elevated by their artistic completeness the character of the sketches." — Rossetti. 

'• Very few artists, very few men of any profession, have been privileged to give the 
amount of pleasure which Leech conferred in very different quarters, and on very differ- 
ent ages To the infinite honor of Leech and of the promoters and proprietors 

of Punch, it was pleasure of the most innocent description." — Mrs. Tytler's Modern 
Painters. 

" His [Dickens'] opinion of Leech, in a word, was, that he turned caricature into 
character ; and would leave behind him not a little of the history of his time and its 

follies sketched with inimitable grace To represent Temale beauty as Mr. Leech 

represents it, an artist must have a delicate perception of it ; and the gift of being able 
to realize it to ns with two or three slight, sure touches of the pencil. This power Mr. 

Leech assesses in an extraordinary degree His wit is good-natured, and always 

the wit of a gentleman." — Forster's Life of Dickens, Vol. II. Chap. XVIII. 

" The out-door sketcher will not fail to remark the excellent fidelity with which Mr. 
Leech draws the backgrounds of his little pictures. The homely landscape, the sea, the 
winter wood by which the huntsmen ride, the light and clouds, the birds floating over- 
head, are indicated by a few strokes which show the artist's untiring watchfulness and 

love of nature No man has ever depicted the little 'snob ' with such delightful 

touch. Leech fondles and dandles this creature as he does the children. To remember 
one or two of these gents is to laugh." — Thackeray, in the London Times, June 21, 1862. 

Lefebvre, Charles. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1805. Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor. Pupil of Gros. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited 
" Daimio, — Costume of the Court of Japan" ; in 1816, " The Separa- 
tion of SS. Peter and Paul at the Moment when they were led to their 
Martyrdom " ; in 1875, " St. Anne instructing the Virgin Mary " ; 
in 1873, " Lucretia," etc. Charles Lefebvre has also painted some 
portraits 

Lefebvre, Jules Joseph. (Fr.) Born at Tournan, 1836. Cheva- 
lier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Leon Cogniet. He gained the 
grand prix de Rome in 1861, the subject being " The Death of Priam/' 
His u Nymph and Bacchus " (1866) is in the Luxembourg. In 1877 
he exhibited at the Salon, " Pandora" ; in 1876, " Mary Magdalene " 
and a portrait ; in 1875, " Chloe " and a portrait ; in 1874, a portrait 
of the Prince Imperial; in 1872, "The Grasshopper"; in 1870, 
" Truth " and a portrait, etc. At the Latham sale, New York, 1878, 
" The Grasshopper " (75 by 35) sold for $ 2,950. At the Salon of 
1878 he exhibited u Mignon " and a portrait of Mme. . 

Lefuel, Hector Martin. (Fr.) Born at Versailles, 1810. Com- 

VOL. II. 3 D 



50 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

mander of the Legion of Honor. Member of the Institute. This 
architect was a pupil of Huyot and l'Jicole des Beaux-Arts. He 
gained the grand prix de Rome in 1839. He was architect of the 
chateau of Meudon, also of that of Fontainebleau, and in 1854 re- 
placed Visconti at the Louvre. In 1855 he was much occupied with 
the Exposition. He was soon after appointed Chief Architect of the 
Louvre and the National Palaces. He is to be noticed for his embel- 
lishments of the Tuileries. In 1867 he was a member of the Im- 
perial Commission for the Exposition, and in 1873 was made a 
member of the Superior Commission of International Expositions. 
He made one of the jury at Vienna. He is also a member of the 
Superior Commission of the Fine Arts. He was President of the 
Institute in 1875. 

Legros, Alphonse. (Fr.) Born at Dijon. Slade Professor in 
University College, London. Medals in 1867 and '68. Pupil of M. 
Lecoq de Boisbaudran. This artist had no assistance in his educa- 
tion, and encountered many hardships before he was able to send a 
picture to the Salon ; it was a portrait of his father, exhibited in 1857. 
In 1875 M. Malassis published an account of Legros and his works, 
from which we give an extract : — 

" As it always happens, a literary man was the first to take notice of him. M. Champ- 
fleury, — who some years before had pointed out MM. Gustave Courbet and Francois 
Bouvin, — with his discriminating curiosity always on the alert, had remarked in the 
Salon of 1857 the portrait of a man (the artist's father), painted strongly and simply, and 
signed with the unknown name Legros. He wished to become acquainted with the 
painter ; fancying him as an honest, middle-aged artist, obscure, deserving, and occu- 
pied in the production of modest work, he found, to his surprise, a young man under 
twenty, full of fire and verve, already master of a style at once solid and subtle, engaged 
with justifiable self-reliance upon numerous works in course of execution or preparation. 
The kind visit of the celebrated writer remains as the pleasantest recollection of the 
painter's early days. It was like the first smile of fame." 

In 1859 " The Angelus " by Legros attracted much attention, es- 
pecially from artists ; it was purchased by an English amateur artist, 
Mr. Seymour Haden. Legros has resided nearly fifteen years in 
England, where he has received the honor and patronage which he 
failed to obtain in Paris ; and this consideration has at length extended 
itself to his native country, as will be seen by the fact that his " Ex- 
Voto " has been purchased for the Gallery at Dijon, " The Stoning of 
St. Stephen" for the Gallery at Avranches, "Monks at Prayer" 
for the Gallery at Alencon, a drawing of "St. Sebastian" for the 
Gallery at Lille, and the "Amende Honorable" (1868) for the 
Luxembourg. The works of this artist are more frequently ex- 
hibited in England than in France. Many of them go directly from 
his studio to the purchasers. The following are among his more 
important pictures : " The Pilgrimage," at the Liverpool Gallery ; 
" The Spanish Cloister " and the " Benediction of the Sea," at Mr. 
Eustace Smith's ; " The Baptism," belonging to Sir George Howard. 






ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 51 

"The Coppersmith," belonging to Mr. lonides, was at. the Salon of 
L875, together with the M Demoiselles du Mois de Marie," belonging 
to M. Mieville. Legros has etched a large number of plates, and his 
works taken altogether are very numerous. At the Grosvenor Gallery 
Exhibition, 1S77, he exhibited u Four Studies, Portraits" (executed in 
two hours each) before the pupils of the artist in the Slade School, 
a Portrait of Thomas Carlvle, a A Landscape," "The Coppersmith," 
"The Spanish Cloister,'' and "The Baptism." (The last three are 
mentioned above.) In 1878 he sent to the Grosvenor ten studies and 
finished paint i: 

" France is a country of very strange contrasts, and this contrast is noticeable amongst 
others, thai whilst many French people spoil themselves by the utmost extreme of affec- 
tation, many other French people are just as remarkable for the entire absence of affec- 
tation : so that their simplicity is more simple than ours, and their directness more 
direct This contrast' has been very strikingly manifested in the French art of the last 
half-century. Side by side, in the public exhibitions, with art of the most pretentious 
extravagance, grew up another school of art which discarded pretension altogether. 
was any realism so remarkable for simplicity of purpose as that of the genuine 
French rustic school. I do not mean the realism of the revolutionary realists, who called 
themselves so, but of that school which was entirely emancipated from classical author- 
ity, and used its liberty for the plain expression of its sentiment, not for the illustra- 
tion of a theory. These artists were neither influenced by the authority of the classics 
nor by the force of the reaction against them ; they worked in a calm corner of their 
own, safe from the flux and reflux of the great currents of their time. M. Legros is one 
of them ; but instead of going among the oxen and the laborers in the fields, he prefers 
the solemnity of the village church, or the cathedral' aisle, or the quiet monastery ; and 
there he will watch his models, who know not that they are watched, and who reveal to 
him the secret of their meditations." — Hamertox, in The Port/olio, August, 1873. 

" Bold and strong in his style, sometimes even to brutality, he is a proof that the 
artist never ceases to be tme ; his first attempts testified precisely to that conscientious 

research, to that obstinate lahor which he brings to the interpretation of nature 

_ros has never flattered either the taste or the tendencies of his time ; it is thus 
that he has remained himself, and that in each one of his impressions he has subordi- 
nated the form to an original and powerful thought."— Charles Guellette, Gazette des 
Ikuiu-Arts, April, 1S76. 

Leharivel-Durocher, Victor Edmond. (Fr.) Born at Chanu, 
1816. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Belloc, Ramey, 
and A. Dumont. His "To Be and to Seem to Be" (1861) is at the 
Luxembourg. Among his works are, " A Group of Angels," on the 
tomb of Archbishop Pierres in the church of Saint-Sulpice ; " Saints 
Genevieve and Theodechilde," for the church of Sainte-Clothilde at 
Paris ; monument to the three brothers Eudes, for the city of Argen- 
tan ; " Glory," for the court of the Louvre ; a statue of Visconti for 
his tomb ; "St. Mary Magdalene," for the church of Saint-Augus- 
tin at Paris ; " Tragedy " and " Comedy " (bas-reliefs in stone), for 
the grand staircase of the Theatre Francais, etc. The list is much too 
long to be given here. His works are to be seen in many cities, and 
he has also executed numerous portrait buetl and statues as well as 
other sculptures for private houses. To the Salon of 1878 he con- 
tributed a marble statue of " St. Theodechilde." 



52 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Lehmann, Charles Ernest Rodolphe Henri. (Ger.) Born at 
Kiel, 1814 (now a naturalized citizen of France). Member of the 
Institute. Officer of the Legion of Honor. Professor at l'Ecole des 
Beaux-Arts. Member of the Superior Council of the Fine Arts. 
Pupil of his father and of Ingres. His subjects are religious and his- 
torical, and he has taken many motives from modern poets. His 
reputation £3 a portrait-painter is great. His " Grief of the Oceanides 
at the Foot of the Rock to which Prometheus was chained " (1850) is 
at the Luxembourg. Among his works are, " An Assumption of the 
Virgin " for the church of Saint-Louis at Paris, decorative works at 
the church of Saint-Merri, at the chapel of the Institute for the Young 
Blind, a chapel at the church of Saint-Louis-en-1'Ile, at the church 
of Sainte-Clothilde, at the palaces of the Luxembourg and of Justice, 
etc. His portraits are numerous, and of notable men and women. 
We may also mention his "Arrival of Sarah at the Home of the Young 
Tobias," " The Education of Tobias," " Jeremiah," " Venus," " Un- 
dine," " Hamlet," " Ophelia," " The Dream of Love," etc. 

" He began with the strongest men of the modern French school, — with Ingres, 
Delacroix, Scheffer, and Delaroche, — and he has always manifested himself at the level 
of the most conscientious art and the best criticism. He comes directly from Ingres 
by his style, and with Ingres he made the study of the brin his chief care. His point of 
departure from the spirit of Ingres' work is in his sentiment, which establishes his re- 
lation with Scheffer. He is not a typical artist, but for that very reason far less likely 
to provoke the hostility and depreciation which always accompany the development of a 
representative and pronounced talent. He is so studied, so conscientious, — he is such 
a fine draughtsman, and so finished in his manner, — that he has never been exposed to 
the criticism which made a noise of words, words, words, about the great name of Dela- 
croix, and left the correct and interesting Delaroche undisturbed. Lehmann and Dela- 
roche were fellow-students under Ingres ; but in Lehman and Ingres classicism was 
grafted on German mysticism, and it is this union of the positive classic with the poetic 
sentiment of the North which makes many of his works as strange as they are lovely. 
Lehmann often gleaned after Delacroix and Scheffer. He followed both in German and 
English poetry, painting a ' Hamlet ' after Delacroix, and painting a ' Mignon ' after 
Scheffer. His • Hamlet ' is described as elegant and contemplative. Greek trage- 
dies and myths and Jewish and Catholic legends have afforded subjects to this most ac- 
complished and indefatigable artist His portraits are celebrated, and rival those by 
Ingres and Flandrin. His portrait of the Princess Belgiojosio is one of the most re- 
markable of modern portrait studies, and has been characterized as a striking and studied 
work. But color is so little sought for, and so little felt by the painter, that the effect of 
the head is described as unreal, — as a head in moonlight or as a scene in dreams,— 
and it is on this side of elegant and exquisite fantasie that Henri Lehmann has been at 
once the most charming artist, while to some he has seemed feeble in his hold upon 
nature. His portrait of Liszt is equally celebrated with his portrait of the Princess 
Belgiojosio, and ranks with Flandrin's heads. It has been called 'a very rare creation, 
and surprisingly beautiful,' by one of the best French critics. Of late years, Lehmann's 
style, formed in Rome under Ingres, has changed somewhat ; it has lost its pallor and 
strangeness, — the charm of his work to some of his admirers, — and has become suf- 
fused with color. Edmond About says it is now warm, like the best examples of Leo- 
pold Robert. But we may add that Robert was hardly a colorist, and that what About 
calls warmth a Venetian probably would call rankly hot." — Eugene Benson, Appletons' 
Art Journal, February 26, 1870. 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 53 

Lehmann, Rudolf. (Ger.-Brit.) Born near Hamburg, 1819. 
Son of a miniature-painter, from whom lie inherited his taste for art 
and received his first instructions, and brother of the preceding. 

Went to Paris in 1834, studying for two years, and spending a like 
period in Munich, where, for a time, he was a pupil of Kaulbaeh. 
In 1839 he went to Borne, in which city he has passed many winters, 
sending to the Paris Salon of 1841 a picture for which he received a 
gold medal. He turned his attention to the painting of the figures 
of Italian women with considerable success, and won the praise and 
friendship of Thorwaldsen, Ary Scheffer, Delaroche, and other famous 
artists. He went to England for the first time in 1850, making 
many subsequent visits before he finally settled there in 1866. 
Among his early works are, " Sixtus Quintus blessing the Pontine 
Marshes" (in the Paris Salon of 1847, and now in the Museum of 
Lille), "St. Sebastian/ 5 "St. Cecilia," "Haidee," "Graziella" (for 
which he received the gold medal in Paris in 1854), " Early Morning 
in the Pontine Marshes " (R. A., 1860), "Tasso returning to Sorrento," 
" Foundling Hospital, Rome," and " A Roman Serenade " (belonging 
to the Prince of Wales). Since he has lived in England he has sent 
to the Royal Academy " The Fortune-Teller " and " The Favor of an 
Answer requested," in 1868; "After the Fire," in 1869; "Out of 
the World," in 1870 ; " May we come in ? " (portraits of his own 
family), in 1871 ; "Confessions," in 1872; "Ave Maria," in 1874; 
"Alma and her pet Kittens" and "Robert Browning," in 1875; 
"After the Sitting," in 1876 ; and many portraits. 

" Mr. Lehmann's works now take a prominent place, as they deserve, in the exhibi- 
tions of the Royal Academy. It is not difficult to recognize in them the influence of his 
continental training, and especially of his long residence in Rome. His figures always 
show the feeling they are intended to express, while his coloring is rich yet chastened." 
— Art Journal, June, 1S74. 

Lehoux, Pierre-Adrien-Pascal. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Medals 
in 1873 and '74. Prix du Salon, 1874. Pupil of Cabanel. At 
the Salon of 1877 he exhibited "St. Stephen, Martyr"; in 1876, 
"The Constellation of the Bouvier" ; in 1874, "St. Lawrence, Mar- 
•tyr." now at the Luxembourg. At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited 
M Surprise " and " The Wrestlers." 

Leibl, H. W. (Ger.) Munich. This artist is prominent in Mu- 
nich, and his works can be studied, together with those of his fellow- 
artists, in the Pinakothek of that city, where are placed the works of 
the so-called new school to which he belongs. To the Paris Expo- 
sition of 1878 he sent " Some Peasants " and a portrait. 

" Leibl reveals in painting the rough-featured, roughly clad Bauerein, or peasants of 
the Bavarian hamlets, and the results are sometimes quite marvelous. He can also 
give you, if he chooses, the delicate beauty of a lady's hand with a truth to nature that 
throws enthusiastic young artists iuto raptures. But he does not often so choose, and 
this leads us reluctantly to say that the essential coarseness of his character prevents 
him from being as great an artist as his abilities might otherwise have made him. The 



54 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

greatest artists generally combine with strength a certain refinement, apparent in their 
works, if not in their manners. Beauty in the ordinary sense of the term has no attrac- 
tions for Leibl. Even amidst the homely uncouthness of German peasantry handsome 
men and comely maidens are to be found. He seems to go out of his way to give us the 
most repulsive specimens of both sexes that he can find." — Benjamin's Contemporary 
Art in Europe. 

Leighton, Frederick, E. A. (Brit.) Member of the Academy of 
Florence. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Born 
at Scarboro', 183C. Studied drawing as a lad in Rome. Student 
of the Royal Academy of Berlin in 1845, and studied later in Flor- 
ence, Brussels, Paris, Frankfort, and Rome. He first exhibited, in 
England, " Cirnabue's Madonna carried through the Streets of Flor- 
ence " (R. A., 1855), which attracted great attention in London, and 
was purchased by the Queen. He exhibited his " Triumphs of 
Music," in 1856 ; " Sunrise, Capri," in 1860 ; " Star of Bethlehem," 
in 1862 ; " Girl feeding Peacocks," in 1863 ; " Orpheus and Eury- 
dice," in 1864 ; " David " and " The Widow's Prayer," in 1865 ; " The 
Painter's Honeymoon," in 1866 ; " Venus disrobing for the Bath " 
and the " Spanish Dancing-Girl," in 1867 ; " Jonathan's Token to 
David," in 1868. He was elected Associate of the Royal Academy in 
1865, and Academician in 1869, when he contributed " Electra at the 
Tomb of Agamemnon" and " St. Jerome" (his diploma work). In 1871 
he exhibited "Hercules wrestling with Death"; in 1872, "After 
Vespers"; in 1873, "Weaving the Wreath" and "The Industrial 
Arts of Peace" ; in 1874, "Old Damascus"; in 1875, "Little Fa- 
tima" ; in 1876, "The Daphnephoria " and "Teresina"; in 1877, 
" The Music-Lesson," " Study," and " An Athlete strangling a Python " 
(in bronze). This last was secured by the Academy authorities for 
2,000 guineas, under the Chantrey Bequest, and was pronounced by 
the London Art Journal (August, 1877), " nobly classic in feeling, 
yet full of such realistic details as modern anatomical knowledge de- 
mands." Mr. Leighton has recently (November, 1878) been elected 
President of the Royal Academy. He has been knighted by the 
Queen. 

" The ' Dante in Exile ' [R. A., 1864] is a piece of refined drawing (with some little man- 
nerism, perhaps, in the proportions), and of carefully studied attitude, and has little to* 
fear from English rivalry. The subject was a noble one to attempt, and we are glad 
that Mr. Leighton had the courage to undertake it." — Palgrave's Essays on Art. 

"The 'Summer Moon ' and 'Interior of a Jew's House,' by Mr. Leighton, are works 
well deserving of special commendation. The former is exquisitely poetic in sentiment, 
rich and suggestive in tone, and admirable in grace of composition. The ' Interior of a 

Jew's House' is a complete poem from the ancient world The figures are painted 

with rare skill and grace, the drawing is admirable, and the archaeological learning, which 
seems to be a matter of special pride in art to-day, is most thorough." — Prof. Weir's 
OJlcial Report of the American Centennial Exhibition 0/1S76. 

" Mr. Leighton's ' Music-Lesson ' [R. A., 1S77] is the most striking bit of art work in 
the whole Exhibition. . . . What makes this picture valuable in our eyes is, first, the per- 
fect oneness of the conception, the unity of action and sentiment ; and, second, the 
preciousness of the art with which he has carried out the idea.'' — Art Journal, July, 
1877. 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENT CRY. 55 

"Frederick Leigh ton is distinguishing himself in the treatment of classical subject* 
as well as i>ortraiture. Such drawing of the human figure divine as iu ' Daphncphoria' 
is rarely excelled. "— Bkntamix's Contemporary Art in Europe. 

.ghton's young naked athlete, with his limbs separated and firmly fixed on the 
ground, struggles with a terpen! which is entwined about one of his haunches. With 
one arm behind he preserves his body from the danger of the formidable clasp, while 
with the other in front of him he throws out and holds at a distance the terrible head, 
grasping the neck with his strong hand. The general outline is grand, and it is a beau- 
tiful classic study, such as one sees in the drawings of the same artist" — Anatole dk 
Mostaiglos, GaMtt* des Beaux-Arts, July, 1S7S. 

Leitch, W. L (Brit.) Born in Glasgow, studying there under 
Knox. He has been for many years a resident of London and mem- 
ber of the Institute of Painters in Water-Colors, of which society he 
was elected Vice-President, succeeding Louis Hughe in 1870. He was 
at one time teacher of painting to Queen Victoria, and has furnished 
illustrations for many well-known books. Among his water-color 
drawings are. u Peat Moor near Balmoral," " On the Teviot," " Even- 
ing," "Distant View of Cn-thd, Dumfrieshire," " The Valley of the 
Tweed from Berwick Castle," " Lago Maggiore," " Murano near 
Venice,"' etc. At the Loan Exhibition at Glasgow in 1878 were his 
" Bethlehem," " Church of the Holy Sepulcher," " Highland Raid," 
and " Windsor Castle." 

Le Jeune, Henry, A. R. A. (Brit.) Born in London, 1820. 
Entered the schools of the Royal Academy at the age of fourteen. 
In 1841 he gained the gold medal for historical painting, his subject 
being " Samson bursting his Bonds," exhibited at the British Insti- 
tute in 1S42. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy, in 1840, 
"Joseph interpreting the Dream of Pharaoh's Butler." In 1845 he 
was appointed Master of the School of Design ; in 1848, Curator of 
the Royal Academy School of Painting. Among his early works are, 
"Ruth and Boaz," in 1845 ; "Lear and Cordelia," in 1849; "The 
Sermon on the Mount," in 1851 ; " The Vision of Queen Catherine," 
in 1857 ; " The Sisters of Lazarus," in 1861 ; and in 1863 (when he 
ted Associate of the Royal Academy), " Early Flowers." In 
1864 he exhibited " The Wounded Robin " ; in 1867, " The Ride" ; 
in 1809, "Rather Shy" ; in 1872, "Great Expectations" ; in 1874, 
"Innocence"; in 1875, "A Bite" and "My Little Model"; in 
1876, "Cinderella" ; in 1-77. u Music" ; in 1878, "The Low- Born 
Lass" and "Spring Flowers." 

"The best performance ever exhibited by Henry Le Jeune is 'Much Ado about 
Nothing' [R. A., 18731 a fishing-party of three children seated catching minnows on an 
old river sluice. The color, the gro upin g, the execution, and the surroundings of this 
small company entitle it to rank among the most beautiful pieces of art of its kind 
that have ever been produced." — Art Journal, June, 1873. 

Le Keux, Henry. (Brit.) (1787-1869.) Executed a great 

number of plates ; among others, "Summer Lake" (aft ».*r Turner), 

:dce" (after Pr.ut), "Embarkation of St. Ursula" (after Claude), 

and illustrations for Button's "Cathedrals," R ma, "The 



56 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 



Beauties of England and Wales," etc. He retired from active work 
in his profession about 1840. 

Leland, Henry. (Am.) Born at Walpole, Mass. (1850-1877). 
Taken as a child to Boston. He showed a talent for drawing at 
an early age, but received no instruction in art in America, although 
as an amateur he painted several creditable portraits. He was en- 
gaged in mercantile pursuits in Boston until 1874, when he resolved 
to become an artist by profession, and went to Paris, entering the 
studio of Bonnat. Here his progress was so rapid that in one year 
from the commencement of his studies he sent a portrait to the Salon 
(1875) which was accepted. In the summer of 1875 he visited Boston, 
when he painted portraits of his father and mother, which were sent 
to the Centennial Exhibition in 1876. He continued in Bonnat's school 
of drawing after his return to Paris, occupying a studio of his own for 
painting, and devoting himself closely to his profession. To the Salon 
of 1876 he sent a full-length portrait of Mile. D'Alembert, daughter 
of Count D'Alembert, which was highly praised by the Paris press. 
To the Salon of 1877 he sent " Italian Girl " and "Chevalier, Time 
of Henry III." One of his latest productions, and probably his 
best work, " Expectation," was painted for a Boston gentleman. It 
represented an interior, furniture of white and gold (time of Louis 
XV.), with a lady in white satin costume. It was praised by Bonnat, 
and was exhibited in the Gallery of the Society of American Artists 
in 1878. In 1877 Leland went to Italy, painting "A Courtyard in 
Venice " while in that city. He painted his own portrait and a " Court 
Lady " (time of Henry III.), which was left unfinished at the time of 
his death ; while at work upon it, December 5, 1877, in his studio, 
he met with an accident, dying in a few moments. Mr. Leland's works 
show careful and conscientious study, accuracy of drawing, fine color- 
ing, and the strength which might be expected from a constant student 
of Bonnat for three years. Shortly after Mr. Leland's death the Bos- 
ton Transcript said : — 

" Mr. Leland's picture is full in the display of artistic genius. In it is a lady in a 
white satin dress standing near the center of a room before a piano. She is in the act of 
unbuttoning a glove, and her attention has been attracted towards the front and opposite 
part of the room from which she stands, so that a full view of the face is obtained as she 
turns her head to greet the expected comer. .... All the shadows are softly diffused 
into the various parts of the room, and are in perfect keeping with the strong high lights. 
The face is frankly painted and expressive, the pose of the head easy and natural. Tlie 
texture of the dress as it falls in graceful folds and train is, as it should be in order to 
give the proper effect, exceedingly well drawn. The painting is in its every part the 
most faithful in its appearance of truth of tone and execution that has been exhibited 
in this city for some years." 

Leleux, Adolphe. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1812. Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor. He studied his art absolutely alone. He traveled 
in France and Algiers, and met with remarkable success in his pictures 
of manners and customs, which is principally due to his exactness of 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 57 

representation. Hie " Wedding in Brittany " (1863) is at the Lux- 
embourg. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited "A Salon of Crenille" 
and " The Family of a Maker of Wooden Shoes in Lower Brittany." 
Among his pictures are, " A Market-Day at Finistere," " Spring 
Flowers," " A Funeral in Brittany," " Arab Women in the Desert," 
" Bedouins attacked by Dogs," etc. At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited 
" Washerwomen in Berry " and " The Departure." 

Leleux, Armand. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1820. Chevalier of the Le- 
gion of Honor. Brother of Adolphe Leleux. Pupil of Ingres, whom he 
accompanied to Rome, where he remained two years. A genre painter. 
He had an official mission to Spain in 1846, and has also traveled 
in Germany and Switzerland. The " Interior of the Pharmacy of the. 
Convent of the Capuchins at Rome " (1863) is at the Luxembourg. 
Among his works are, " A Village Barber in Switzerland," " The Eve 
of the Fete " (Swiss), " The Alpine Hunter," " Scenes in the Black 
Forest," " Gypsies," " Interior of a Forge," etc. At the Salon of 1878 
he exhibited "The Letter of Recommendation" and "A Woman 
winding Skeins." 

Leloir, Jean Baptiste Auguste. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1809. 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Picot and l'Ecole des 
Beaux-Arts. His decorative works are at the churches of Saint-Ger- 
main-1'Auxerrois and Saint- Merri at Paris, and at that of Saint-Leu 
Taverney and the church of Saint- Jean at Belleville. Among his pic- 
tures are, " The Holy Family in Egypt," " A Martyr," " Marriage of the 
Virgin,*' " Daphnis and Chloe," " Death of Homer," " Marguerite in 
Prison," " Ruth and Naomi," " Captive Athenians at Syracuse," etc. 
To the Salon of 1878 he contributed " Horace a Tibur." 

Leloir, Alexandre Louis. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. Pupil of his father. At the Salon of 1875 he 
exhibited " The Grandfather's Fete " ; in 1874, " The Slave." At the 
Johnston sale, New York, 1876, his "Temptation of St. Anthony" 
(28 by 39) sold for $2,100. To the Salon of 1878 he contributed 
" The Betrothal." 

Leloir, Maurice. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Pupil of his father and 
brother. "Medal of the third class, in 1878, when he exhibited " The 
Last Journey of Voltaire to Paris"; in 1877, " Robinson Crusoe " ; in 
1876, " The Marionnettes." 

Lemaire, Philippe-Henri. (Fr.) Born at Valenciennes, 179^. 
Member of the Institute. Officer of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of 
Cartellier. He gained the grand prix de Rome in 1821. He made his 
debut at the Salon of 1831. His " Head of the Virgin " (1846) is at 
the Luxembourg. His chef-d'oeuvre is the decoration of the front 
of the Madeleine. The works of Lemaire are seen in many public 
places. In 1852 he was elected to the Corps Legislatif in the De- 
partement du Nord. 

Lemaire, Hector. (Fr.) Bom at Lille. Pupil of A. Dumont 
3* 



58 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

and Falguiere. Medals in 1877 and '78, and prix du Salon in 1878, 
when he exhibited a plaster group of " Samson betrayed by Delilah " ; 
in 1877, " Maternal Love" and a " Souvenir " (bust, plaster) ; in 1876, 
a plaster group, " The Bath." 

Lematte, Jacques-Francois-Fernand. (Ft.) Born at Saint- 
Quentin. Medals in 1870, '73, and '76. Pupil of Cabanel. At the 
Salon of 1877 he exhibited a portrait and " The Widow " ; in 1876, 
"Orestes and the Furies" and a portrait ; in 1874, "The Rape of 
Dejanira" ; in 1878, "A Nymph surprised by a Faun" and a portrait 
of Mile. S. 

Lenbach, Franz. (Ger.) Born at Schrobenhausen, a Bavarian 
village, and the son of a carpenter, whom he assisted in his work ; all 
the time developing his taste for drawing by making sketches of the 
men and animals which he saw about him. At length he obtained 
permission from his father to go to Munich. His allowance was fif- 
teen cents a day ! He presented himself to Piloty, who arranged for 
him to enter the Academy. When his course was finished he re- 
turned to his home, and painted, " with a sort of intoxication," the 
peasants as in his childhood. His " Sleeping Shepherd " of the gallery 
of the Baron Schack was painted at this time. Piloty soon sent the 
young painter to Rome at his own expense. After his return he was 
made a Professor at Weimar, where he was associated with Reinhold 
Begas and Bocklin. They all soon resigned their offices, and Lenbach 
returned to Munich. He went again to Italy and to Spain, and made 
many fine copies after Titian, Velasquez, and Murillo. At Paris, in 
1867, he received a medal of the third class. He is to-day very cele- 
brated, and has become the painter of princes and emperors. His pic- 
ture of the Emperor of Austria was at the Vienna Exposition of 1873. 
At the Paris Exposition of 1878 several of his portraits were seen. 

" M. Lenbach expresses in a high degree the striking features of a face, the vivacity, 
the humid depth of the eyes, the accent of the mouth or the ear, the character ; and 
allows himself to freely rest on such or such a trait which pleases him. His execution 
is singular, — he is not careful to turn a drawing correctly, and leaves transparencies in 

his shadows But lie has a full and profound impression of the man, and of the 

dominating traits of his face and his whole manner. His portraits of women have much 
grace, and a charm of sentiment ; although one must seek these qualities beneath a 
melange of remembrances of Rubens and Jordaens, and under a light which is a little 
pale. But leaving aside sentiment, and his manner of representing what he sees, he is 

an artist An onion-peel, says one ; a great varnished aquarelle in the manner of 

Piloty, says another ; painting buttered, garnished witli parsley, & la maitre-d'hotel, shall 
I add ! All that you wish. The artist who calls himself Lenbach is a personality, a man 
of the first rank." — Duranty, Gazette lies Beaux-Arts, July, 1878. 

Lenepveu, Jules-Eugene. (Fr.) Born at Angers, 1819. Mem- 
ber of the Institute and Officer of the Legion of Honor. Director of 
the Academy of France at Rome in 1873. Pupil of Picot. " The 
Martyrs in the Catacombs," Salon of 1855, is at the Luxembourg. He 
decorated the chapel of Saint Anne in the church of Saint-Sulpice, 
Paris. This was completed in 1864. He has also executed decora- 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 59 

tive works in his native city. His easel-pictures are historical and 
religious subjects, and portraits. Among them are a " Venetian Wed- 
ding," " Pius IX. at the Sistine Chapel," " Moses succoring the 
Daughters of Midian," etc. 

Lepic, Ludovic-Napole"on. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Medal in 1877. 
Pupil of Cabanel and Wappers. His pictures at the Salon of 1877 
were, "The Broken Boat" and "The Tempest"; in 1876, "The 
Inundation of the Quay Bercy, March 16, 1876 " and " A Calm in 
the Bay of Somme " ; also, three etchings of " Scenes on the Banks 
of the Scheldt " ; in 1875, " Peche de nuit an chien de mer" and a 
" Boat of Boulogne " ; in 1874, "Springtime" and " The Deluge " 
(a triptych) ; in 1878, "The Departure, — High Tide " and "The Re- 
turn, — Low Tide." 

Lequesne, Eugene-Louis. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1815. Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honor. Medal at London. Pupil of Pradier, who 
before his death confided to him the completion of the " Victories " 
of the Tomb of Napoleon at the Invalides. His portrait statues and 
busts are numerous. He has executed decorations at the Louvre, 
and the new church of Saint-Augustin at Paris. His monumental 
Fountain in the grand Place of Nevers and a " Winged Griffon " at 
the Museum of Amiens are among his important works. At the 
Salon of 1876 he exhibited "Gaulois au poteau," plaster statue ; in 
1874, " That of which the Young Girls dream," plaster statue ; etc 

Le Roux, Charles-Marie-Guillaume. {Fr.) Born at Nantes, 
1814. Officer of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Corot. At the Salon 
of 1877 he exhibited "A Farm in Vendee" and " The Banks of the 
Loire and the Basin of the Basse-Indre at Low Tide " ; in 1876, 
" High Tide at Prefailles " and a " View at the Soulliers" ; in 1875, " A 
Marsh, — Sunrise," " The Bourg of Batz and the Croisic, — Storm," and 
" The Approach of a Squall on the Coasts of Brittany " ; in 1878, 
" The Vista of the Chestnut- Trees at the Soulliers " and " At the 
Soulliers, — Morning." 

Le Roux, Hector. (Fr.) Born at Verdun. Medals in 1863, '64, 
and '74. Pupil of Picot. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited " The 
Danaides" and u The Vestal Claudia Quinta" ; in 1876, "The Obse- 
quies of Themistocles " and "The Trial of a Vestal" ; in 1874, "The 
■A Tuccia." At the Johnston sale, New York, 1876, the " Fu- 
neral in the Columbarium " (54 by 39) sold for $ 725. At the Cor- 
coran Gallery is the "Vestal Tuccia," which gained a second medal at 
Paris in 1874. His "Funeral in the Columbarium of the House of 
the Caesars" (1864) is at the Luxembourg. At the Salon of 1878 
was his " Pallas Minerva on the Acropolis of Athens " and " The 
Little Orphans." 

* Hector Le Roux, whose studio is at 12 Rue de Navarin, one of the principal artists 
in Paris, used to live at Rome There, in his delightful retirement on the Via Quattro 
Fontaue, in a charming apartment now occupied by Charles Caryll Coleman, the studio 



60 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

of which opened on a beautiful garden full of orange and lemon trees, thick with vines, 
Le Roux painted some of his most important and beautiful pictures, — the "Tuccia,* 
which is in the Corcoran Gallery at Washington ; ' The Vestal Fire relighted by a 
Miracle,' in Mrs. Herriman's gallery at Rome ; the important and remarkable ' Danai- 
des,' which was in the last Salon ; etc. Beside these and other valuable art works, the 
names of which I cannot recall, he also made, during his long residence in Rome, a num- 
ber of studies, most poetical and happy subjects for future pictures Le Roux 

has been medaled again and again, and decorated for his beautiful works. His paint- 
ings, many of them, have been taken by the government, and are in the various museums 
of France : one is at the Luxembourg, the beautiful ' Funeral at the Columbarium of 
the House of the Caesars, Porta Capena, at Rome ' ; it was one of the leading pictures in 
the Salon of 1864. His 'Messalina in the Suburra,' a terrible but wonderfully strong 
picture, gained one of his medals some years ago ; it is to be at the Universal Exposition 
next spring ; when Meissonier, who is on the jury, saw its name in the list Le Roux sent 
in, he remembered it and expressed much satisfaction. Le Roux sent to the jury a list 
of six names of pictures for the coming Exposition, —all were admitted, — 1. 'An An- 
cient Serenade ' ; 2. ' Summer Triclinium ' ; 3. ' Fire of Vesta relighted by a Miracle ' ; 
4. 'Messalina in the Suburra'; 5. 'Toilette of Minerva Poliade'; 6. 'The Danai'des.* 
He is preparing for the spring Salon two new pictures, — one is of two young Roman 
girls of ancient times visiting the tomb of their parents ; the other is more important 
in subject, and very interesting and poetical in detail. It is ' The Miracle recorded by 
Pausanias of the Descent of the Statue of Minerva Poliade from Heaven.' .... It is 
represented most poetically. It is before the great city of Athens and its splendid temples 
existed. The young Greek virgins are assembled together at sunset on the summit of 
the hill ; beyond is the sea and the Troad, a lovely bit of landscape, with soft sky ; a 
grove of olive-trees rises on the second plane ; the tender atmosphere of a Greek sunset 
pervades the picture. On the front plane to the left is the dark statue of the goddess 
which has descended from heaven ; the firmly planted, archaic feet are just touching the 
great stone summit on which her famous temple was afterwards erected. This archaic 
figure is most impressive. The girls are in various attitudes, expressive of their emo- 
tions. You see that it is a solemn and awful moment ; to them is being revealed a 
sacred mystery that they are to reveal to humanity. One girl has thrown herself face 
downwards on the rocky base below the statue ; others are veiling their faces in awe : 
one, a noble, dignified young virgin, stands in front of the olive grove, full of courage 
and reverence ; she announces and proclaims the marvelous miracle : this one is, of 
course, the future first high-priestess, and the surrounding girls are her sisterhood or 
band of vestal virgins. This picture is painted in a moderate size, well fitted for a 
salon or parlor. I trust some American patron of the arts may secure it at the Salon 
of next spring." — Paris Letter of Miss Anne Brewster, October, 1877. 

Le Roux, Eugene. (Fr.) Born at f .Paris. Medals, 1864, '73, and 
75. Pupil of Picot. At the Salon of 1876 he exhibited " The Letter 
of Recommendation" ; in 1875, " An Ambulance during the Siege of 
Paris" ; in 1874, " An Old Amateur." His " New-Born, — Interior 
of Lower Brittany " (1864) is at the Luxembourg. 

Leslie, Charles Robert, R. A. {Brit-Am.) Born in England 
(1794-1859). Taken to America in 1799, he received an ordinary 
school education in Philadelphia, and was apprenticed to a bookseller 
in New York. In 1811 he returned to England, and entered the 
schools of the Royal Academy, studying also under West and Wash- 
ington Allston. He painted during his early career in London, " Saul 
and the Witch of Endor," " Anne Page and Slender," " May-Day in the 
Reign of Elizabeth," and " Sir Roger de Coverley." He was elected 



J 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 61 

an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1821, and Academician in 1825. 
In l s 31 he accepted the appointment of Professor of Drawing at the 
Military Academy at West Point, but relinquished it the following 

year, and returned to England. In 184s he was made Professor of 
Painting at the Royal Academy, holding the ofKce until 1851. His 
lectures were subsequently published. Many of Leslie's works are in 
the Sheepshanks Collection. His u Uncle Toby and Widow Wadman " 
(R. A., 1831) and " Sancho Panza in the Apartment of the Duchess " 
(R. A., 1844) are in the Vernon Collection of the National Gallery, 
London. His u Columbus and the Egg," " Gulliver introduced to the 
Queen of Brobdignag," " Library at Holland House," " Queen Vic- 
toria receiving the Sacrament at her Coronation," " Jennie Deans and 
Queen Caroline," " Christ and the Disciples at Capernaum," are well 
known by the medium of engraving. His " Cooke as Richard III.," 
" Murder of Rutland by Clifford," and others are in the Philadelphia 
Academy of Fine Arts. James Lenox owns his portrait of Washing- 
ton Irving. 

" The more I learn of art, the more respect I feel for Mr. Leslie's painting as such and for 
the way in which it brings out the expressional result he requires. Given a certain quan- 
tity of oil color to be laid with one touch of pencil, so as to produce at once the subtlest 
and largest expressional result possible, and there is no man now living who seems to me 
to come at all near Mr. Leslie, his work being in places equal to Hogarth for decision, aud 
here and there a little lighter and more graceful." — John Buskin. 

" From this time [1833] Leslie produced a succession of masterly works, — masterly in 
every respect, perhaps, except their coloring, in which a dull red or burnt sienna tint is too 
prevalent. This is, however, not the case with the' Sancho Panza ' and other early works. 
He is seen to great advantage in the Sheepshanks Collection." — Wornum's Epochs of 
Painting. 

"Leslie's first successful attempt was a likeness of Cooke the tragedian, taken at the 
theater. He soon copied admirably, and became, like most of his fraternity, early occu- 
pied with portraits. After teaching drawing for a short time, he resigned the appoint- 
ment, returned to England, and enjoyed the liberal encouragement which no other coun- 
try is so well adapted to yield the kind of genius by which he is distinguished. She 
claims him as her own, but, although born there, his parents were American, and his 
first lessons in art were received on this side the water. " — Tuckerman's Book of the Artists. 

Leslie, George D., R. A. (Brit.) Born in 1835. Son of Charles 
R Leslie of the. Royal Academy, whose pupil he was. George D. 
Leslie entered the schools of the Royal Academy in 1854, and sent 
his first picture, " Hope " (now the property of Lord Houghton), to 
the British Institution in 1857. In 1859 he sent to the Royal Acad- 
emy, " Reminiscences of the Ball," " Matilda" (from Dante) ; in 1865, 
"The Defence of Lothian House"; in 1867, "The Cbusins" ; in 
1868 (when he was made Associate of the Royal Academy), he ex- 
hibited "Home News," "The Empty Sleeve," and "The Boat- 
House" ; in 1870, " Fortunes" ; in 1872, " Lavinia " and " An Elope- 
ment " ; in 1874, " The Nut-Brown Maid"; in 1876, "Roses" and 
"Violets"; in 1877 (when he became Academician), he contributed 
"Cowslips" and "The Lass of Richmond Hill," his diploma work ; 
in 1878, « Home, Sweet Home." His " Celia's Arbor " was at Phila- 



62 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 



delphia in 1876; "Fortunes," "School Revisited," "Pot-pourri," 
" Lavinia," and " Celia's Arbor " were in Paris in 1878. 

" It must be a great delight to Mr. Leslie to see his son George D. Leslie do such good 
vfork as this ' Reminiscence of the Ball.' There is not a prettier piece of painting on 

the walls, and very few half so pretty I shall look anxiously for Leslie's work 

next year, for he seems to have truly the power of composition, and that is the gift of 
gifts, if it be rightly used. He colors very well already. - Ruskin's Notes on the Pictures 
of the Year, 1S75. 

" George D. Leslie has painted nothing so complicated in combination of figures and 
landscape as in this picture [' Fortune,' R. A., 1870J. It illustrates both his merits and 
defects in a conspicuous way. The purity and beauty of the faces, the taste of the 
dresses, the grace of the figures, and the felicity of the grouping, with the amenity of the 
landscape, give a charm to it which was widely and directly felt." — Tom Taylor in 
English Painters of the Present Day, 1876. 

" It would be difficult, as a rule, to find on the walls of any gallery figures more unaf- 
fectedly refined and more winning in their attractiveness than those George D. Leslie 

places on his canvases The painter understands thoroughly the sources of a delicate 

beauty proper to a refined type of English girlhood ; and he has the power, genuinely 
artistic of its kind, to bring all of the materials of the composition in accord with the 
dainty spirit that inspires it ; for even the landscape portions of his pictures seem as if 
painted under the influence of the same graceful feeling and purity of taste, so as to 
present a perfect harmony between the outside world, and those who for the time at 
least occupy the scene.'' — Art Journal, June, 1877. 

Leslie, Robert C. (Brit.) Son of Charles R. Leslie, and younger 
brother of George D. Leslie, inheriting much of the artistic talent of 
his family. He devotes himself particularly to marine views, and has 
had a studio for some years at Southampton, exhibiting frequently at 
the Royal Academy, at the Dudley Gallery, and elsewhere. Among 
his later pictures may be noted, " Beachey Head," " Daybreak on the 
Atlantic," " A Calm off the Foreland," " A Gale," " A Last Shot at 
the Spanish Armada in the North Sea," etc. 

"All that Robert Leslie has executed of this kind [sailor life, shipping, and the sea] 
has shown a genuine love and pure feeling for Nature, a thorough mastery of the tech- 
nical elements of his subjects, and a consistency in all parts of his pictures such as in 
this particular walk of art only exact knowledge can secure. These qualities give a dis- 
tinctive value and interest to Robert Leslie's pictures, which as yet [1870] have hardly 
the recognition their merits entitle them to." — Tom Taylor, in English Painters of the 
Present Day, 1870. 

•"Daybreak on the Atlantic' [R. A., 1877] is a fine and solid example of true and 
learned modeling of waves, expressing the movement of a ship with rare felicity, note- 
worthy for just treatment of the atmosphere and broad sober color." — London Athe- 
nceum, May, 1877- 

Leasing, Charles Frederic. (Ger.) Born at Wartenberg, Silesia, 
1808. Member of the Academy of Berlin. Knight of the Order of 
Merit. Medal of first class at Paris. Pupil of the Academy of Ber- 
lin under Dfihling and Rosel. The father of this artist always ob- 
jected to his being a painter, but when at seventeen years of age he 
gained the prize of the Academy by his picture of " The Cemetery in 
Ruins," he met with no more opposition ; and under the influence of 
Schadow, who had become interested in him, he rapidly advanced, 
lie read the history of Bohemia, and painted " The Sermon of the 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 63 

Hussites," which gained him honors in Paris and criticisms at home, 
where the story of Huss excited violent passions. But the artist only 
replied by still other pictures, such as " Huss before the Council of 
Constance," " Huss going to the Funeral- Pile " (in New York), "A 
Hussite Preaching " (in the National Gallery, Berlin), and others of a 
similar character. Among his historical subjects are, "Luther burn- 
ing the Bull of the Pope," "Discussion of Luther and Eck at Leip- 
sic," " Pope Pascal II. Prisoner of Henry V.," etc. Of landscapes we 
mav mention, " The Cloister in the Snow," " View taken in the 
Eifel," "A Wood-Chapel," <k Ritterburg," the famous "Oaks of a 
Thousand Years " (engraved by Steifensand), and many picturesque 
views, ruins, convents, Gothic chateaux, and wild forest scenes. The 
Berlin National Gallery has a large number of his works. The 
" Luther and Eck " is in the gallery at Carlsruhe, and cost £ 2,333. 
To the Paris Exposition of 1878 he contributed " A Landscape " (be- 
longing to the Gallery of Berlin). 

"A painter vigorous, truth-seeking, and naturalistic as Lessing, might reasonably be 
supposed to find delight in Nature's ways. Lessing, indeed, has been deemed by some 

persons greater as the painter of landscape than of history All the landscapes I 

have seen by Lessing have been accentuated with predetermined purpose. The fixed 
and the forcible intent manifest in the artist's historic compositions speaks out scarcely 
less decisively and intelligibly in his portraiture of inanimate nature, which thus be- 
comes, as it were, vocal under his touch Lessing, it will be seen, is a keen ob- 
server of character, an accurate student of physiognomy. He delineates human nature 
with a breadth which pertains to the species, and in a detail that distinguishes the indi- 
vidual And this it is that gives to the works of Lessing their pre-eminent real- 
ity ; this it is that endows them with strong power of appeal, and brings them in close 
corresi>ondenee with the pronounced and positive spirit of the age. Lessing's pictures 
are no unsubstantial visions, no feverish dreams, or ecstatic swoonings ; they are real as 
life, true as nature, and manly as the grand historic characters they seek to honor." — 
J. Beavington Atkinson, Art Journal, September, 1865. 

Leu, August Wilhelm. (Ger.) Born in Miinster, 1818. Royal 
Professor and member of the Academy of Berlin. Member of the 
Academies of Vienna, Amsterdam, and Brussels. Medals at Berlin. 
Studied at the Dusseldorf Academy under Schirmer. Traveled in 
Norway, Switzerland, Bavaria, and Italy. At the National Gallery 
of Berlin is his " View of a Swiss Lake." At Vienna, in 1871, he ex- 
hibited " Am Grundelsee " ; and at Berlin, in 1876, " Rocca Bruna, 
near Nice," " A View of Capri," and a " View near Kandersteg." To 
the Paris Exposition of 1878 he sent " Lake Oeschinen in the Canton 
of Berne " (belonging to the National Gallery of Berlin). 

Leutze, Emmanuel, N. A. (Ger.- Am.) Born in Wurtemberg, 
Bavaria (1816-1868). Taken as a child by his parents to Philadel- 
phia, he early displayed artistic talents. By the sale of numerous 
drawings he realized enough to carry him to Europe in 1841, when he 
went to Dusseldorf entered the Academy there, and painted his 
" Columbus before the Council of Salamanca " (which was purchased 
by the Dusseldorf Art Union). He also painted, during his stay in 



64 ARTISTS OF TEE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Germany, " News from Lexington," " Mrs. Schuyler firing the Wheat- 
Fields," and similar works of an ideal or historical character. He also 
studied in Italy, and returned to America in 1859, after which time he 
made frequent visits to the art centers of Europe. He was made a 
member of the National Academy in 1860. He painted many pic- 
tures taken from French, German, Spanish, as well as American his- 
torical subjects. Among the better known of these are, " Columbus 
in Chains " (exhibited in Brussels, for which he received from the 
King of the Belgians a silver medal), " Cromwell and his Daughter," 
" John Knox and Mary Stuart," and " Western Emigration" (which 
is in the Capitol at Washington). His " Elaine " was in the Na- 
tional Academy in 1867. After his death, in 1868, were exhibited 
there the " Mother's Visit " (belonging to H. G. Marquand), the 
" Storming of Teocalli, Mexico," " Settlement of Maryland by Lord Bal- 
timore," the "Iconoclast " (belonging to R. M. Olyphant), and portraits 
of General Grant, W. Whittredge, Louis Lang, and himself (the last 
presented to the Academy by John Taylor Johnston). His " Mary 
Stuart hearing the First Mass at Holyrood after her Return from 
France " (belonging to John A. Riston) was at the Paris Exposition 
of 1867. " Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn " belongs to W. T. Wal- 
ters of Baltimore, and his " Christmas Mummeries " to Mrs. Abner 
Mellen. 

"Emanuel Leutze is the representative painter of the American branch of the Diissel- 
dorf school, and stands the highest in popular esteem. He manifests some originality 
of thought, much vigor, overmuch dramatic force, and has abundance of executive skill, 
but is spasmodic and unequal. Tours de force delight him. He has the vicious coloring 
of the Diisseldorf school in its fullest extent. The rotunda painting in the Capitol of 
the ' Star of Empire ' is his most ambitious work. This, the well-known • Washington 
crossing the Delaware,' the 'Storming of Teocalli, Mexico,' and the portrait of General 
Burnside, are striking examples of his epic style." — Jarves, Art Idea. 

'* His admirers are fond of him, and his enemies very severe. The character of Leutze 
was worked out in his pictures with wonderful exactness. He was a hero-worshiper ; 
he was fond of adventure, and of wild, gleeful fun ; he was more given to vivid sensation 
than to sentiment or refinement ; he acted out Emerson's words, ' There is hope in ex- 
travagance, there is none in routine ' ; he was brave and cordial, and swept on to his end 
with a rush, like a spring waterfall, happy in freedom, and in haste for the end of its 
course. All this is in his pictures, and while we love the works of others more, we may 
gain much pleasure from his." — Mrs. C. E. Clement, Painters, Sculptors, Architects, and 
Engravers. 

L3vy, Emile. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1826. Chevalier of the Le- 
gion of Honor. Studied at l'Ecole des Beaux- Arts under Abel de 
Pujol and Picot. He gained the grand prix de Rome in 1854. In 
1855 he sent to the Exposition a picture of "Noah cursing Canaan," 
which was purchased by the government. His " Death of Orpheus " 
(1866) is in the Luxembourg. In 1877 he exhibited the " Meta 
sudans, or the Fountain where the Wrestlers of the Circus made 
their Ablutions," and a portrait ; in 1876, " The Willow " and " A 
Bather " ; in 1875, " The Brook," " The Boat, — an Idyl," and a por- 
trait ; in 1874, "Love and Folly" ; in 1873, " The Path, — an Idyl" 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 65 

and " A Child " ; in 1S72, " The Letter " and " A Young Girl bear- 
ing Fruit "' ; etc Levy has executed decorative works in the church 
of the Trinity, at the Cercle de PUnion artistique, the ceiling of the 
theater of the Bouffes Parisiens, and in several hotels, etc. At the 
Salon of 1878 lie exhibited k> Caligula." 

LeVy, Henri Leopold. (Fr.) Born at Nancy, 1840. Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Picot, Cabauel, and Fromentin. 
In 1865 he exhibited K Hecuba finding the Body of Polydorus on .the 
iore" ; in 1867, " Joash saved from the Massacre of the King's 
Sons " ; in 1869, " Captive Hebrews weeping over the Ruins of 
Jerusalem » ; in 1872, M IKrodias" ; in 1873, "Christ in the Tomb" ; 
in 1874, " Sarpedon " (in the Luxembourg) ; etc. His " Christ in the 
Tomb " was much remarked. In 1875 and '76 he was engaged 
in decorative paintings, and has sent nothing to the Salons since 

" The color of Henry Levy is much praised To our eyes it is not that of a frank and 
sincere colorist, it is that of a man of taste who wishes to produce some picturesque 
effects. Without ever reaching great power he turns easily to mannerism. Thus his 
angel's wings, instead of being white or of one color, are diversely and brilliantly 
tinged. In the draperies, in the nude bodies, in the backgrounds, even, one feels an in- 
cessant preoccupation with the attempt to avoid the commonplace. Moreover, there is 
a heaviness, a defect in harmony ; the air does not circulate freely about his personages. 
Levy is, in point of color, an intelligent pupil and feeble imitator of Delacroix, as he is 
in design, composition, and style an eclectic pupil of the great masters. He has neither 
an inspired genius, nor, perhaps, even the temperament of a painter ; he is, neverthe- 
less, one of the most distinguished representatives of that young, romantic renaissance 
which essays to revive among us the traditions of the grand school." — Ernest 
Duvergier de Hauranwe, Revue des Deux Mondes, June, 1873. 

Lewis, John Frederick, R. A. (Brit.) (1805 - 1876.) Son of F. 
C. Lewis the engraver, whose pupil he was. He began his art career by ' 
a series of animal studies, which he engraved himself. He painted, in 
_. "Deer-Shooting at Becthus, Essex" ; in 1826, " Deer-Shooting 
in Windsor Forest " ; and was elected member of the Society of Painters 
in "Water-Colors in 1828. He subsequently spent some years in 
study in Spain, Italy, Greece, Turkey, and the East, painting his 
" Spanish Bull- Fight," " Monks preaching at Seville," " Easter- Day 
at Rome," and other pictures. He returned to England in 1851. In 
1855 he was elected President of the Water-Color Society, an 
office he held for three year?, exhibiting at its gallery, in 1856, his 
" Frank Halt in the Desert of Mount Sinai," called by Ruskin " the 
climax of water-color drawing." He exhibited at the Royal Gallery, 
in oil, in 1856, " The Meeting in the Desert " ; in 1859 (when he was 
made Associate of the Royal Academy) he exhibited " Waiting for 
the Ferry-Boat, — Upper Egypt"; in 1865, " A Turkish School, — 
Cairo" ;"in 1866, " The Door of a Cafe in Cairo " (his diploma work, 
deposited on his election as an Academician) ; in 1868 he exhibited 
" An Armenian Lady " ; in 1872, " The Prayer of Faith shall save the 
Sick" ; in 1874, " In-Door Gossip" and " Out-Door Gossip, Cairo " ; 



66 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

in 1876, " Midday Meal, Cairo" and "On the Banks of the Nile,— 
Upper Egypt." He was made an Honorary Member of the Royal 
Scottish Academy in 1853. 

" Mr. Lewis' ■ Frank Halt in the Desert' [R. A., 1863], substantially a reproduction 
in oil of his magnificent drawing in the water-color exhibition a few years back, is 
wrought out with such subtle truth of design, and colored with a skill so extraordinary, 
that one can hardly help wishing these powers devoted to a subject of larger interest 
Here the whole scene is in shadow, yet full of pervading light." — Palgrave's Essays 
on Art. 

" If ' The Frank in the Desert of Mount Sinai ' stands the test of time, it will one day 
be among the things which men will come to England from far away to see, and will go 
back to their homes, saying, ' I have seen it ! ' as people come back now from Venice, 
saying, ' I have seen Titian's *' Peter Martyr ! " ' " — Mrs. Tytler's Modern Painters. 

" There cannot be the slightest doubt that in losing Lewis we have lost one of the 
most powerful and original of English artists." — London Athenanim, September, 1876. 

"Lewis' style combined all attainable brilliancy with the utmost finish." — Art 
Journal, October, 1876. 

Lewis, Frederick C. (Brit.) (1813-1875.) Son of F. C. 
Lewis, an eminent English engraver, and younger brother of J. F. 
Lewis, R. A. He became an artist at a very early age, studying 
under Sir Thomas Lawrence. He went to Persia in 1844, through 
Asia Minor and to India, where he remained for many years, painting 
the ceremonies and customs of the natives, his pictures being fre- 
quently engraved. He was a great traveler, and is said to have vis- 
ited every quarter of the globe. 

Lewis, Edmonia. (Am.) Born in the State of New York. She 
has in her veins Indian as well as African blood. Displaying a natu- 
ral genius for sculpture, and comparatively untaught, she first exhib- 
ited in Boston, about 1865, a portrait bust of Colonel Shaw, which 
attracted much attention. This was followed by " The Freedwoman," 
a statue, after the completion of which, in 1867, she went to Rome, 
where she has since resided. Very few of her works have been sent 
to America. To the Centennial Exhibition she contributed, in marble, 
" The Death of Cleopatra." Her " Old Arrow-Maker and his Daugh- 
ter," " Asleep," and terra-cotta busts of Sumner, Longfellow, John 
Brown, and others, are known to the visitors of her studio in Rome, 
but to her own country only by photography. Mrs. Laura Curtis 
Bullard of New York owns her " Marriage of Hiawatha." The Mar- 
quis of Bute bought her " Madonna with the Infant Christ," au altar- 
piece. 

" Among Miss Lewis' other works are two small groups illustrating Longfellow's poem 
of Hiawatha. Her first, ' Hiawatha's Wooing,' ' represents Minnehaha seated, making a 
pair of moccasins, and Hiawatha by her side with a world of love and longing in his eyes.' 
In the marriage they stand side by side, with clasped hands. In both, the Indian type 
of feature is carefully preserved, and every detail of dress, etc., is true to nature ; the 
sentiment is equal to the execution. They are charming bits, poetic, simple, and natu- 
ral, and no happier illustrations of Longfellow's most original poem were ever made than 
these by the Indian sculptor." —Revolution, April, 1871. 

'• This was not a beautiful work [' Cleopatra '], but it was a very original and very striking 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 67 

one, and it deserves particular comment, ns its ideal was so radically different from thaso 

adopted by Story mul Gould in their statues of t!ie Egyptian Queen The effects of 

death are represented with sueh skill as to be absolutely repellent Apart from all ques- 
tions of taste, however, the striking qualities of the work are undeniable, and it could 
only have been produced by a sculptor of very genuine endowments." — Great Avierican 
Sculptors. 

Leys, Baron Jean Auguste Henri. (Belgian.) Born at Antwerp 
(1815 - 1869). Made Baron in 1S62. Commander of the Order of 

Leopold. Oliicer of the Legion of Honor. Member of the Academy 
of Antwerp. Originally intended for the Church, this artist was so 
controlled by his love of art that he entered the studio of F. de Braek- 
eleer, his brother-in-law, in 1830, and three years later brought him- 
self into notice by his picture of "The Pillage of Antwerp in 157G." 
This was followed by " A Fight between the Citizens of Ghent and 
a Party of Burgundians * and " The Massacre of the Magistrates of 
Louvain in 1379." In 1837 his "Rich and Poor," exhibited at Ant- 
werp, was bought by the government. "Rembrandt's Studio" was 
sent to Brussels the same year, and was purchased for a gallery in 
Ghent. His "Interior of an Inn Yard" (1842) is in the Museum of 
Frankfort. The " Renewal of Public Worship in the Antwerp Cathe- 
dral after the Disturbances of the Iconoclasts" is in the Brussels Mu- 
seum. A picture of the same subject (24 by 31) was sold by Mr. 
Latham, New York, 1878, for $ 1,600. After 1846 he exhibited noth- 
ing of importance until 1851, when "The Fete given to Rubens by 
the Gunsmiths of Antwerp " showed the change which his manner had 
undergone. The absurd name of Pre-Raphaelite is perhaps well 
enough understood to allow it to be used for the sake of conciseness, 
in order to give an idea of what this newer manner of Leys is. In 
1854, which may be called his best period, he exhibited, at Brussels, 
" La Promenade de Faust," now in the Brussels Museum ; " New 
Year's Day in Flanders," bought by M. Fould ; and " Les Trentaines 
de Bartel de Haze." To the English International Exhibition of 
1862 he sent " Luther singing in the Streets of Eisenach." Soon after 
Baron Leys was commissioned to decorate the great hall of the Hotel 
de Yille of Antwerp, which he did in a series of pictures illustrative of 
the eventful history of that city. Want of space forbids a description 
of these works. Baron Leys has sometimes executed smaller subjects. 
Among his other works are many excellent etchings. His pictures 
are very numerous, and are scattered all over Europe. Many have 
been reproduced by some of the various modes of engraving. " The 
Promenade without the Walls," " New Year's Day in Flanders" (1855), 
and " Franz Floris going to a Fete given by the Confreres of St. 
Luke" are among his chefs-d'oeuvre. He has also made some litho- 
graphs. At the Oppenheim sale, Paris, 1877, "Interieur de Luther 
a Wittenberg " sold for 23,500 francs. At a sale in London, 1876, 
"Backgammon Players" sold for .£903. At a sale in Brussels, 1874, 
"The Declaration" sold for £1,060. The same work, one month 



68 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

later, at Christie's, brought 1,110 guineas. At the Paris sale, 1868, 
" Fetes in Honor of Rubens n sold for £ 964. At the Sale Wittering! 
Paris, 1876, " The Studio of Rembrandt," important water-color, 
brought 1,920 francs. At the Plint sale, London, 1862, " Capestro,' 
the Carpenter of Antwerp, preaching in his Wood- Yard * brought 
£850. In the Berlin National Gallery is a "Religious Service in 
Holland, Seventeenth Century," " Holland Society in the Seventeenth 
Century," and " Diirer in Antwerp painting Erasmus." 

"Leys is not only this year the grand and illusory colorist we all know ; he reveals 
himself as a thinker and a poet ; his pictures are not. as some critics insinuate, — with 
whom French gray is the perfection of art, - laborious copies of the mediaeval age ; they 
are surprising and powerful works, created by a deep knowledge of the epochs he would 
represent. With Leys one entirely lives in the sixteenth or seventeenth centurv, and 
these periods he would not have you understand by the materialism of art, such as cos- 
tumes, furniture, and architecture Leys goes much beyond this ; he searches into 

the very depths of an epoch ; he revives its moral and intellectual life, which he knows 
how to reflect in the physiognomy of his characters." — A Critique of the Brussels Exposi- 
tion of 1854:. 

"The genius of Baron Leys, however, is of so diversified a character that he can mold 
it into any form, and adapt it to any purpose, — to the humorous or the pathetic, to the 
grandeur of history or the incidents of ordinary social life ; and his pencil portrays, with 
equal truth, vigor, and delicacy, the art of an age long passed away, and that of his own 
time." — James Dafforne, Art Journal, July, 1866. 

Lier, Adolf. (Ger.) Born in Herrnhut, 1826. Member of the 
Academies of Munich and Dresden. Medals at Vienna and Berlin. 
Studied at Dresden Academy and under Richard Zimmermann in 
Munich. At Paris he was under Jules Dupre. Has traveled in Italy, 
England, and Scotland. At the National Gallery, Berlin, is " Evening 
on the Iser." To the Paris Exposition of 1878 he contributed " An 
Autumn Evening on the Banks of the Iser " (belonging to the National 
Gallery, Berlin). 

" Adolf Lier is inspired by a subtle sympathy with Nature. He has a fine feeling for 
her various aspects. To him she seems to sing the everlasting minor hymn of the ages 
that sweeps sadly over the sear fields in the plaintive, melancholy days of October, when 
the birds are flown, the flowers are faded, and the dying year, drawing to its end, sym- 
bolizes the brevity of life below." — Benjamin's Contemporary Art in Europe. 

Lima, Victor Meirelles de. (Brazilian.) Of Rio de Janeiro. 
Medal at Philadelphia, where he exhibited "The Naval Battle of 
Riachuelo," " The Brazilian Ironclad Fleet passing by Humaita," and 
" The First Mass in Brazil." 

Lindeneher, Edouard. (Fr.) Born at Vaugirard (Seine), 1837. At 
the age of thirteen this artist entered the atelier of Fanniere, a "sculp- 
tor in gold," and has remained always with this his first and only in- 
structor. In connection with Fanniere, as his collaborates, Lindeneher 
has received several medals. He has designed for various bronze- 
makers, has sold his models, and his works have appeared with the 
signatures of his employers, never with his own. Of late, however, 
he has become more widely known through the vases and other pieces 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. G9 

of Haviland faience which he has made ; these are separately modeled 
by him and never molded, and each one hears his name. The special 
excellence of the works of Lindeneher is their truth fulness to Nature. 
She loses nothing, and is never exaggerated, but is reproduced with 
her own sweet grace by this earnest student and conscientious artist. 
Lindenschmit, Wilhelm. (Ger.) Born in Munich, 1829. Pro- 
r at the Royal Academy of Munich, and member of the Academy 
of Berlin. Medal at Berlin, 1870. Historical painter. S. G. W. 
Benjamin says : — 

" He is inspired by noble thought nnd high artistic qualities in rendering character, 
e.spei ially in historic compositions. His scenes in the career of Luther are marked by 
singular power, and entitle him to rank among the foremost living artists of Germany." 

Among his works are, " Ulrich von Hutten " (now at the Museum 
at Leipsic), several pictures from the life of Luther, " The Foundation 
of the Order of the Jesuits," and " The Pleasures of the Convent." 
At the Berlin Exposition in 1876 he exhibited " Martin Luther be- 
fore Cardinal Cajetan, Augsbourg, 1518," "Martin Luther brought by 
his Parents to the School of the Gray Friars at Magdebourg," and "An 
Episode in the Child-Life of Queen Elizabeth, 1536." There was an 
exhibition of pictures by Munich artists in Boston in April, 1878> 
where the " Venus " by this artist was much noticed. 

" Lindenschmit struggles and struggles, but cannot get out of the dirty brown tone 
that he has acquired in Belgium into a healthy, free atmosphere. There is an oppres- 
sive heaviness in all his figures which seems to rob them of tie use of their limbs. They 
lack life and motion, they all look jaundiced and ill ; red cheeks and a healthy complexion 
are unknown in Lindenschmit's pictures, yellow and leather-colored faces are seen on 
young and old. If we compare Lindenschmit's plain, homely, unpretentious manner 
with Karl Becker's showy costume pictures, we shall see the intrinsic merit of the 
works of Lindenschmit in spite of their faults of color."— Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst, 

Lindholm, B. (Russian.) Of Helsingford, Finland. At Philadel- 
phia he exhibited a picture of "A Steamer in Floating Ice," and re- 
ceived a medal. To the Paris Exposition in 1878 he contributed 
" Pasturage " and " A Road in the Forest." 

Linnell, John. (Brit.) Born in 1792. He early evinced a taste 
for art, and when not more than twelve years of age became a pupil 
of Benjamin West, studying later under Varley in London. In 1807 
he sent his first picture to the Royal Academy, and for a period of 
:ty years he has been a regular contributor to its exhibitions. 
He began the practice of his art as a miniature and portrait painter, 
in later years turning his attention to landscapes, in which branch he 
baa won considerable distinction, painting, during his long career, 
many hundreds of pictures which are in the public and private col- 
lectiona of England. Among the Vernon pictures in the National 
Gallery are two specimens of LinnelPs work, " Wood-Cutters" (men 
felling timber in Windsor Forest), and " The Windmill," which was 
at the Royal Academy in 1847. Among his earlier works are, "The 



70 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Timber- Wagon," " Eve of the Deluge," " Barley-Harvest," " Under 
the Hawthorn," " Christ and the Woman of Samaria," " The Last 
Gleam before the Storm," etc. In 1868 he sent to the Royal Acad- 
emy, "Crossing the Brook" ; in 1869, "The Lost Sheep" \ in 1870, 
" Sleeping for Sorrow " ; in 1871, " Shelter" ; in 1872, " The Ford" ; 
in 1873, "The Coming Storm"; in 1874, "Wood-Cutters" ; in 1875, 
"Woods and Forests"; in 1876, "The Hollow Tree"; in 1877, 
"Autumn"; in 1878, "The Heath." 

" The forest studies of John Linnell are peculiarly elaborate, and in many points 
most skillful." — Ruskin's Modern Painters. 

Linnell, James Thomas. (Brit.) Son of John Linnell, inherit- 
ing not a little of his father's talent. He first exhibited at the Royal 
Academy, in 1850, "Temptation in the Wilderness," followed, in 
1851, by "Job and the Messengers"; " Mountain-Path," in 1857; 
"Wheat-Field," in 1858; " Haymakers," in 1862; " South Coast," in 
1864; "Moonlight Road," in 1867; "Plowing," in 1868 ; "Reaping," 
in 1870 ; " Moon is Up," in 1871 ; "A Country Road," in 1873 ; the 
" Mower whets his Scythe," in 1874 ; " Sunset over the Moors," in 
1875 ; "Dartmoor," in 1876 ; "Cherry Blossoms," in 1877. 

Linnell. William. (Brit.) Son of John Linnell. He possesses 
much of the family genius, and has exhibited regularly landscape 
pictures in the Royal Academy for some years. In 1861 he sent 
"Collecting the Flock, — Evening"; in 1862, "The Gleaner's Return"; 
in 1863, " Over the Muir among the Heather "; in 1864, " Banks and 
Braes" ; in 1866, "The Sheep from the Goats"; in 1867, "The 
Heights of Abruzzi " ; in 1869, " Peasants on the Mountains on their 
Way to Rome " ; in 1871, "Rest by the Way " ; in 1873, " Over the 
Heath"; in 1874, "Through the Barley"; in 1875, " Hoppers on 
the Road" ; in 1877, "The Hay-Field " and "In the Leafy Month of 
June " ; in 1878, " The Peasant's Homestead." In 1862 he went to 
Italy, spending his winters until 1867 in Rome. His summer home 
is in Surrey. 

"This is a landscape, however, and if it were more lightly painted, we might be very 
happy with it [' Hoppers on the Road ']. William Linnell cares no more than his father 
for brush dexterity ; but he does no worse now in that part of the business than every 
one else. And what a relief it is for any wholesome human sight, after sickening itself 
among the blank horrors of dirt, ditch-water, and malaria, which the imitators of the 
French schools have begrimed our various exhibition walls with, to find once more a 
bit of bine in the sky and a glow of brown in the coppice, and see that ' Hoppers ' in Kent 
can enjoy the scarlet and purple like empresses and emperors." — Ruskin's Notes of 
the Academy, 1875. 

Linton, "William. (Brit.) Born in Liverpool, towards the end 
of the last century. Died, 1876. Brought up to mercantile pursuits 
in his native town, he devoted himself to art in his leisure moments, 
and finally decided to adopt it as a profession. He settled in London, 
and, traveling extensively, he executed many landscapes and pic- 
tures of a genre character. He exhibited his first work in 1819, " The 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 71 

Joiners Shop," followed by " Italy," "Lake Lugano," " Bay of Na- 
ples," "Rains of Pawtum," ''Temple of Minerva at Rome," "Venice," 
M The Tiber," " Lam-aster," " Marias at Carthage," "Jerusalem at the 
Time of the Crucifixion," and others, many of which have been en- 
graved. " The Temple of Pactum,'' bequeathed by Mr. Linton to 
the British people, is in the National Gallery, London. 

Linton, William James. (Brit.) Born near London, 1812. He 
studied under G. \V. Bonner, an English engraver, and quickly estab- 
lished for himself a reputation as an excellent draughtsman on wood. 
During his long career he has furnished many tine illustrations for 
books and periodicals, both in the United States and in Europe. In 
1846 and '47 he illustrated " History of Wood-Engraving " for the Illus- 
trated London News ; in 1800, " Works of Deceased British Painters'' 
for the Art Union of London ; in 1869, Holland's " Katrina " ; in 
1877, Bryant's " Flood of Years " ; in 1878, " Thanatopsis," etc. 
Since 1867 he has been a resident of the United States, living for 
some years in New York ; he finally settled in New Haven, Ct., 
where he has opened a large engraving establishment. He is a mem- 
ber of the Artists' Annuity Fund of England, a member of the American 
Society of Painters in Water-Colors, and an Associate of the National 
Academy of Design, New York. He paints occasionally in water- 
colors, but his artistic fame will rest upon his exquisite engraving. 
Mr. Linton is known also as an editor and author. In 1851, with 
others, he founded the London Leader ; in 1855 was manager of 
Pen and Pencil, and has contributed to the Nation, Spectator, West- 
minster Review, etc. In 1865 he published a volume entitled 
" Claribel and other Poems " ; he is the author of a Life of Thomas 
Paine. " The Engraver, his Function and Status," by Linton, ap- 
peared in Scribner's Monthly, June, 1878. 

Mrs. Linton is the writer of a book called " The Lake Country," 
published in 1864, which was illustrated by her husband, who fur- 
nished both the drawings and engravings. 

" Messrs. Ticknor & Fields have also published a pretty little juvenile entitled 'The 
Flower and the Star.' the joint composition of the pen and pencil of Mr. W. J. Linton, 
the well-known English engraver, which pen and pencil we are tempted to apostrophize 
in the words of Milton, viz. ' blest pair of Sirens.' There are six stories in Mr. Linton's 
little quarto, all original, .... and there are, we should judge, three or four timet U 
many illustrations aa there are stories ; and most exquisite they are. In the first place, 
they suggest the designs of no other artist, American, English, French, or German ; in 
the second place, they are wonderfully graceful, fantastic, and airy. Mr. Linton's foliage, 
and, indeed, his scenery generally, is almost beyond our praise, if only for the reason 
that we are at a loss whether to bestow it on the artist or the engraver." — Albion. 

" Mr. Linton is known as the l>est of living engravers, and as an artist of remarkable 
ability. The illustration of this charming little story will more than sustain his reputa- 
tion in this respect, and the story itself ['The Flower and the Star'] ought to make 
him widely known as a writer who understands just how to write Tor children." — New 
York Citizen. 

"There are several wood engravers of remarkable talent, but none succeed in giving 
to the wood-block more than was placed upon it by the draughtsman. The.r greatest 



72 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

success is attained in leaving the drawing no worse than they found it More can be 
done if you happen to have a little real genius, and Mr Linton is happy in the possession 
of that quality. " — Pall Mall Gazette. 

Linton, James D. (Brit.) Born in London, 1840. He received 
his art education in St. Martin's School of Art, Longacre, and under 
Mr. Leigh on Newman street, spending his professional life in his 
native city. He has been a member of the Institute of Painters in 
Water-Colors since 1867, contributing regularly to its annual exhibi- 
tions. Among his more important works are, " Washing the Beggars' 
Feet on Maunday Thursday," in 1874 ; ; < Lotus-Eaters " and " Off 
Guard," in 1875 ; " The Cardinal Minister," in 1876 ; " Ave Maria," 
in 1877 ; <; Emigres," in 1878 ; and " The Flag of Truce," never ex- 
hibited. His " Washing the Beggars' Feet " was at the Philadelphia 
Exhibition of 1876 ; " Off Guard," " The Cardinal Minister," and 
" Ave Maria," at Paris, in 1878. 

"In Linton's 'Volumnia' the figures are well arranged, the face of Volumnia reveal- 
ing much of the fiery nature ascribed to her, whilst that of Virgilia combines sweetness 
with grief. ' His Eminence the Cardinal ' was one of the most important and striking 
works in the Exhibition of the Institute of Water-Color Painters last year." — Art Jour- 
nal, May, 1S77. 

Liparini, Ludovico. (Ital.) Born at Bologna (1800-1856). Pro- 
fessor in the Academy of Venice, of which he was also a pupil. He 
traveled in Italy and studied the old masters. His pictures were por- 
traits and historical subjects, and are seen in the galleries of Italy. 
Among the most important are, the " Death of Bozzaris," the " Last 
Hours of Marino Faliero," the " Horatii taking the Oath," and a por- 
trait of Pius VII. 

Lippincott, William H. (Am.) A native of Philadelphia. He 
has been for some time a resident of Paris, studying under Bonnat. 
He devotes himself to portraits and pictures of child-life, exhibiting 
in the National Academy of New York and the Paris Salons. To 
the latter in 1878 he sent " Lolotte" (belonging to Dr. G. D. Cochran) 
and a portrait of " Miss Ethel." To the Philadelphia Exhibition of 
1876 he sent "The Duck's Breakfast " ; to the Paris Exposition, 1878, 
two portraits ; and in the same year to the Society of American Artists 
in New York and to the Mechanics' Fair, Boston, he contributed " The 
Little Prince." 

Lloyd, Thomas. (Brit.) Contemporary English landscape-artist, 
residing in London. He contributes to the Royal Academy, and to 
the Society of Painters in Water-Colors, of which he was elected an 
Associate in 1878. Among his works, in oil, are, " Nearly Home," 
" An Hundred Years Ago," " A Pastoral," " Evening," etc. In water- 
colors he has exhibited, " Fast falls the Eventide," " Up the River," 
" So Tired," " Shade," " Sunshine," and others. 

"In the 'Pastoral' [R. A., 1877] the lighting up of the hill beyond is remarkably 
like nature, and ' Nearly Home ' is very faithful to rural circumstances as well as nat- 
ural fact This artist is making rapid strides, and bids fair to become one of our 

great landscape-painters." — Art Journal, August, 1877. 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 73 

Lockhart, W. E. (Brit.) Born in Dumfrieshire, 1846. He 
entered the Trustees Academy in 1860, studying under Robert Scott 
Lauder. In 1863 he went to Sydney, and in 1867 to Spain, exhibit- 
ing in 1868 his first Spanish picture, " The Lovers' Quarrel.'' He 
has made frequent visits to Spain, spending some months in 1875 on 
the island of Majorca, where he painted his " Orange Harvest" He 
was elected an Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1871, a 
full Member in 1878, and also in the latter year an Associate of the 
Society of Painters in Water-Colors. His studio is in Edinburgh. 
Among his works may be mentioned, " The Muleteers' Halt," " The 
Queen's Entry into Edinburgh in 1876," " St. Andrews," "A Scene 
from the Legend of Montrose," " The Interior of Roslyn Chapel," 
etc. To the Royal Scottish Academy in 1878 he sent " The Bride 
of Lammermoor," " Gil Bias and the Archbishop of Granada," " Sun- 
set at St. Andrews," etc. ; to the Water-Color Exhibition, London, 
1878, " The Trongate, Glasgow," " Summer Palace at the Hague," 
" The Jackdaw of Rheims," and others. 

Loefftz, Ludwig. Munich. Medal at the National Exhibition, 
M unich. A few years since this artist was a paper-hanger. He has 
now a school for drawing. He is one of the important men in the 
rising German school. His color, drawing, and composition are 
praised by critics familiar with his works. At the Paris Exposition 
of 1878 he exhibited " A Cardinal," belonging to Mme. de Gradinger, 
Munich. 

Loison, Pierre. (Fr.) Born at Mer, 1821. Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor. Pupil of David d'Angers. He made his debut at 
the Salon of 1845. His bronze figure of " Victory, — the Day after the 
Combat" (1869) is at the Luxembourg. The statue of "Clovis" is 
at the tower of Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois. A bas-relief of " Agri- 
culture distributing Crowns to the Children of La Beauce and La 
Sologne " is at the grain-market of Mer. Several statues by Loison 
are in the churches of the Trinity and of Saint- Ambrose. " Venus " 
and " Navigation " are at the Tuileries. He has executed many por- 
traits, and a variety of poetical and mythological subjects. At the 
Salon of 1877 he exhibited "ACanejmora offering Fruits"; in 1875, 
two portrait busts ; etc. 

Lombardini, Gaetano. (Ital.) Born at St. Arcangelo, in Ro- 
magna (1801- 1869). A devoted student, he gained prizes in every 
competition. Canova was his master for a time, and gave his appro- 
bation to the "Hercules strangling Antaeus," by Lombardini. A fine 
work, a monument with the figure of an aged paralytic, is in the 
cemetery of Cesena ; a fine figure of Christ, in the same place, is con- 
sidered by artists as sufficient to give him fame. This sculptor is a 
brave patriot, and has served his country well. 

Long, Edwin, A. R. A. (Brit.) He has resided in London for 
many years, exhibiting reguhrly at the Royal Academy, of which he 

VOL. II. 4 



74 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

was made Associate in 1876. Among his pictures are, " La Posada/' in 
1864 ; " Lazarilla and the Blind Beggar," in 1870 ; " The Suppliants," 
in 1872; " Babylonian Marriage Market," in 1875; " Bethesda," in 
1876 ; " An Egyptian Feast," in 1877 ; " The Gods and their Makers " 
and " Henry Irving as Gloucester," in 1878. 
[No response to circular.] 

" 'The Babylonian Marriage Market' is a picture of great merit, and well deserving 
purchase hy the Anthropological Society. The varieties of character in the heads are 
rendered with extreme subtlety, while as a mere piece of painting the work is remarkable 
in the modern school for its absence of affectation. There is no insolently indulged in- 
dolence nor vulgarly asserted dexterity. The painting is good throughout and obtru- 
sively powerful." — Ruskin's Notes of the Academy, 1875. 

" • The Egyptian Feast ' will at once attract attention as the only subject-picture of 
the year of great importance, and in this the interest is archaeological rather than human. 
The picture which* represents the close of a banquet with the guests seated in a semi- 
circle, while two slaves drag a mummy round to remind them of death, has many fine 
qualities, and shows much study and improvement in the painter." — Saturday Review, 
May, 1877. 

" Mr. Long's treatment of the human form halts midway between two modes of design 
not consistent. It is too artificial to have the familiar charm proper to a painting of 
genre, and it is not sufficiently select in its choice of gesture, not serious enough in its 
conception of beauty, to satisfy the requirements. In depicting upon the faces of the 
assembled guests [in ' An Egyptian Feast'] the varied emotions aroused by the image of 
death, the painter's invention sinks still further below the demands of his subject. 
There is variety of feeling, but it is everywhere expressed with too much emphasis ; and 
the gravity of the few who closely surround the bier is almost mechanically contrasted 
with the gayety of others removed from its influence in a manner suggestive of well- 
planned theatric effect." — Pall Mall Gazette, May, 1877. 

" Of Mr. Long's work, whether in composition or portrait, only one opinion will be 
held this year, probably, and this will pronounce that the artist, after the slight weak- 
ness of last year's work, has put out all his power of drawing and modeling, and has 
gained greatly in sureness. The extreme refinement in color in * The Gods and their 
Makers ' is very pleasing ; different tones of flesh are relieved only by darker or lighter 
blue-greens, except in the case of the negress who wears a red necklace, the only bit of 
primary color in the picture. This group of Egyptian girls is full of fun and charm ; the 
background tones are delicately varied. ' Henry Irving as the Duke of Gloucester ' is 
altogether a noble portrait. " — Magazine of Art, June, 1878. 

Longfellow, Ernest W. (Am.) Born in Cambridge, Mass., 1845. 
Son of Henry W. Longfellow. Landscape and portrait painter. His 
professional life has been spent in Boston, with frequent visits to 
Europe. He passed the winter of 1865 and '66 in Paris in work and 
study, and the summers of 1876 and 77 in Villiers-le-Bel under Cou- 
ture." A number of his works were exhibited and sold in Boston in 
1876. His " Coast Scene, Nahant " was at the National Academy in 
1871 ; "A View in Essex County, Mass. " in 1875. He sent to the 
Philadelphia Exhibition, in 1876, " Old Mill at Manchester, Mass." 
J. Duff owns his " Italian Pines in Cannes." His "John and Priscilla," 
exhibited at Williams & Everett's, Boston, in 1875, attracted much 
attention. It represents the Puritan youths strolling on the bench, the 
water rolling its breakers nearly to their feet, and the sun setting brill- 
iantly in the background. It was one of his earlier efforts at figure- 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 75 

painting, a branch of the art to which of late he has more particularly 
turned his attention. The Art Journal of July, 1877, say.s : " Ernest 
Longfellow is one of our rising young artists. It is evident that his 
special talent lies in landscape art." Very few of his figure-pieces 
i»r portraits have as yet been exhibited. 

Loop, Henry A., N. A. (Am.) Born at Hillsdale, N. Y., 1831. 
Settled in New York City in 1850, studying for a year with Henry 
Peters Gray. In 1856 he went to Paris, where he entered the atelier 
of Couture, remaining six months, and spending, subsequently, a year 
in study in Rome, Venice, and Florence. He went abroad again in 
1867, visiting the Continental art cities and remaining about eighteen 
months. With these exceptions his professional life has been spent 
in New York. He was elected a member of the Academy of Design 
in 1861. He is a member also of the Artists' Fund Society. Among 
his ideal works are, " Undine," in the National Academy in 1863 ; 
" Clytie," in 1865 ; "The Improvisatrice " and " Italian Minstrel," in 
1869 ; " Lake Maggiore," in 1870 ; " The White Rose," in 1871 ; " Idle 
Fancies," in 1874 ; " Venice," in 1875 (belonging to John J. Cisco) ; 
u Aphrodite " (belonging to C. P. Huntington) and " JEnone " (to 
Oliver Harriman), in 1877 ; " Hermia," " Marina," and a portrait, in 
1878. 

Loop's " Italian Minstrel " was in the Paris Salon of 1868 ; his 
" Aphrodite " in the Centennial Exhibition of 1876. Among his 
portraits are those of J. M. Ward, W. Whittredge, and Dr. Reisig of 
New York. 

"A picture rby H. A. Loop] of 'Undine ■ standing by the water, whose child she was, 
is full of varied loveliness, the ethereality of the sprite being finely given by a luminous 
quality of flesh which makes the delicate, graceful body half transparent, and by a man- 
agement of the pale golden hair with the shrouded light behind it that almost gives one 
the sensation of a phosphorescent glow. Few pictures of the supernatural exhibited 
here have ever exceeded this ' Undine ' in sweetness of conception or subtlety of man- 
agement" — New York Evening Post, June 1, 1863. 

" Loop's full-length portrait of J. P. Townsend [N. A., 1876] is a firmly painted and 
expressive work. The likeness is admirable, and in spirit and expression it is not ex- 
celled by any work in the Exhibition." — Art Journal, May, 1876. 

Loop. Mrs. Henry A., A. N. A. (Am.) Born in New Haven, 
1840. She began her art studies under Prof. Louis Bail, in her na- 
tive city ; later, entered the studio of her husband in New York, 
and spent two years at work and in study in Rome, Paris, and Venice. 
Her professional life has been spent in New Haven and New York. 
She was elected an Associate of the National Academy in 1875, and 
has for some years been a frequent contributor to its exhibitions. 
Among the more important of her works are portraits of Professor 
Larned and Professor Hadley of New Haven ; of Miss Alexander, 
Ifin Harriman, Mts. Joseph Low, and others in New York; and 
ideal figures, entitled "Baby Belle" (owned in Newburg, N. Y.), 
"Little Runaway" (owned by Mr. St. John of New York), "A 
Bouquet for Muinina " (in the possession of a lady in Detroit), etc. 



76 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

" We have not many better portrait-painters than this lady [Mrs. Loop] in our country. 
That she had ability was evident in the first picture she exhibited, and from the first she 

has steadily and solidly improved Mrs. Loop's picture is an honest, unpretending 

work, well drawn, naturally posed, and clearly, solidly colored. There is not a trace of 
affectation about it ; the artistic effects are produced in the most straightforward way. 
The weak point is the eyes, which, to our thinking, want lighting up a little ; they are 
good in color and expression, but not liquid enough." — C. C, in New York Tribune, 
April 24, 1874. 

" Mrs. Loop is certainly the leading portrait-painter among our lady artists. Indeed, 
so highly respected is her brush that she has been chosen to furnish pictures of some of 
our former chief custom-house officers, whose portraits were voted to hang on the walls 
of their rotunda. She is vigorous, conscientious, aud perceptive." — Chicago Times, 
May 25, 1875. 

Loose, Basile de. (Ger.) Born at Zeele. 1809. Studied under 
his father, and at the Antwerp Academy. In 1835 he went to Paris. 
Settled at Brussels. In the National Gallery at Berlin are his " Scene 
at an Inn " and " A Family Scene in Holland." At the Leipsic Mu- 
seum are " A Dance of Children " and " The Lace-Maker." 

Lossow, Arnold Hermann. {Ger.) Died at Munich (1805- 
1874). This sculptor was one of Schwanthaler's best pupils, and exe- 
cuted much work for Louis I. of Bavaria. His friezes and statues at 
the Walhalla and Glyptothek are greatly admired. 

Lossow, Friedrich. (Ger.) Born at Munich (1838- 1872). Son 
of the preceding. He was an animal-painter, and there was a vein 
of humor running through his pictures which was very attractive. 
Among his works are, " A Hound with her Young," " A House Dog," 
several pictures with rats, "A Country Scene," etc. His drawing 
was better than his color. Perhaps his best works are his illustrations 
for books and publications, which are numerous. 

Lough, John Graham. (Brit.) Born in the latter part of the 
eighteenth century. Died, 1876. Son of a small farmer of Northum- 
berland, apprenticed to a stone-mason in his native country, he became 
an ornamental sculptor and builder at Newcastle. Studied the El- 
gin marbles in the British Museum, and first exhibited at the Royal 
Academy, in 1826, " The Death of Turnus," in bas-relief. " Duncan's 
Horse," a more famous work, appeared in 1832. In 1834 he went 
to Italy, spending four years. Among his works are, " Night's Swift 
Dragon," " The Mourners," " Midsummer Night's Dream," and the 
statue of the Queen (in the Royal Exchange, London), of Prince Al- 
bert (at Lloyd's), the Monument to Southey (at Keswick), and a colos- 
sal statue of" George Stephenson (in bronze, at Newcastle-on-Tyne). 
His " Milo and Samson " belonged to the first Duke of Wellington. 

Louvrier de Lajolais, Jacques- Auguste-Gaston. (Fr.) Born 
at Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Gleyre and 
J. Noel. At the Salon of 1876 be exhibited "For a Fete" and "A 
Difficult Passage." 

Low, Will H. (Am.) Born in Albany, N. Y., 1853. A pro- 
tege of E. D. Palmer the sculptor, from whom he received encourage- 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 77 

ment and advice. He worked for the illustrated papers in New York 

from 1 ST 1 to '73, when he went to Paris ami entered the studio of 

me, remaining a few months. Later, he studied with Carolus 

Duran fur four Tears, returning to America in 1877. He is a member 

of the Society of American Artists. Among his most important works 
are, "Windy Weather" (1875), belonging to Arthur Ilaseltine, Lon- 
don ; M Reverie, — Time of the First Empire " (Paris Salon, 1876, and 
the National Academy, X. Y., 1877), belonging to J. B. Thatcher of 
Albany ; portrait of Mile. Albani (Paris Salon, 1877), belonging to 
Robert Higgins of Albany; "Among the Daisies," belonging to Sir 
Walter Simpson of Edinburgh (at the Paris Exposition of 1878) ; etc. 

Lucas, John. (Brit.) Born in London (1807- 1874). As a lad, 
he was apprenticed to an engraver, but devoted his leisure hours to 
study, and began the practice of his profession in 1829 as a portrait- 
painter. Many of the most distinguished people of England were 
among his subjects. Among his better known works have been four 
pictures of the Prince Consort, several of the Princess Royal, of the 
Duke of Wellington, King of Hanover, Rogers the poet, Gladstone, 
anil others. He also painted a portrait group of Stephenson, Locke, 
Brunei, and other eminent engineers in consultation over the Menai 
Bridge. Some sixty of John Lucas' portraits have been engraved. 

Luccardi, Vincenzo. (Ital.) Born at Gemona (1811-1876). 
Knight of the Orders of St. Gregory the Great, and of the Piano. 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Professor in the Academy of St. 
Luke and other Italian institutes. Prizes at Florence and Yienna. 
Nine medals at Yenice. Studied at Venice, and settled at Rome. 
Among bis best works are, " Cain," " The Deluge," " Raphael and 
the Fornarina," " Hagar and Ishmael," " Cleopatra," and " Aida." At 
Munich, in 1870, he exhibited a u Venus " and " The Four Seasons." 

Lucy, Charles. (Brit.) Born near Herford (about 1804-1873). 
At an early age he went to London to study art, but, leaving for 
Paris after a short time, entered l'Ecole des Beaux-Arts, studying also 
under Paul Delaroche. He subsequently became a pupil of the Royal 
Academy, London. He was a constant exhibitor at the Royal Acad- 
emy of original historical paintings, besides making many realistic 
copies of the old masters, residing for upwards of sixteen years near 
Fontainebleau. In 1860 he sent to the Royal Academy, London, 
"Lord Saye and Sele arraigned in 1451 before Jack Cade" ; in 1863, 
"The Reconciliation between Gainsborough and Sir Joshua Reynolds " ; 
in 1865, "Garibaldi at the Tomb of Ugo Foscolo " ; in 1867, "The 
Intercepted Embarkation of John Hampden and his Friends " ; in 
1868, " The Forced Abdication of Marie Stuart at Lochleven Castle" ; 
in 1869, " Noontide Repose" and a portrait of Mr. Gladstone ; in 1871, 
'•Charlotte Corday returning to Prison after her Condemnation " ; in 
lumbal at the Monastery of La Rabida" ; in 1873, "The 
Parting of Lord William and Lady Russell in 10S3." 



78 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

" Mr. Lucy's ' Reconciliation of Reynolds and Gainsborough,' like other pictures of this 
thoughtful and conscientious artist, interesting and unaffected in idea, does not aim at 
richness or relief, — qualities which, however, a painter can rarely afford to dispense 
with." — Palgrave's Essays on Art. 

" If Mr. Lucy failed to acquire a distinguished name in the roll of painters, it was 
not for want of perseverance or from the absence of talent, although it might not have 
been of the highest order. In noticing his exhibited works during many past years we 
have endeavored to render justice to the merits of his pictures, which seldom or never 
failed to be popular, as much for the interest attached to the subjects he selected as for 
the pleasing and conscientious manner in which they were carried out." — Art Journal. 
July, 1873. 

Luminals, Evariste- Vital. (Fr.) Born at Nantes, about 1818. 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Medal at Philadelphia. Pupil 
of Cogniet. He paints both in oil and in water colors ; and has 
painted a few portraits and made many sketches. At the Salon of 
1877 he exhibited "A toute volee" and "A Prisoner in Flight" 
(oils), and " The Tame Bull " and " Pirates " (water-colors) ; in 1876, 
" The Consequences of a Duel in 1625" ; in 1875, " King Morvan " 
and "A Flock carried off to the Enemy." " The Reluctant Bather" 
is in the collection of Mrs. H. E. Maynard of Boston. 

"Formerly Luminais affected the contrasts and the play of light and shade on pictu- 
resque costumes and uneven ground ; at present he seeks rather the movement and ac- 
tion of the human figure, and places at the service of bold conscientious drawing the 
prestige of large execution and brilliant color. " — J. Grangedor, Gazette des Beaiuc-Arts, 
July, 1868. 

Lundgren, Egron. (Swede.) (1816 - 1875.) Received his art 
education in Paris, where he lived and studied for four years. He 
painted also during four years in Italy, and for five years in Spain. Was 
made a Knight of the Order of Gustavus Vasa by the King of Sweden. 
Settled in London in 1853, and was upon the staff of Lord Clyde in 
India, where he made many valuable sketches. He was one of the 
leading members of the Society of Painters in Water-Colors, contrib- 
uting to their gallery in London, in 1873, " Italian Music," " The 
Traveling Companions," and "A Child's Head" ; in 1875 (the year 
of his death), " Rafaela " and " Children Playing." 

Lupton, Thomas Goff. (Brit.) (1790 - 1873.) He was appren- 
ticed to a mezzotint engraver at an early age, and during his career 
has engraved the portraits of many distinguished men after the lead- 
ing portrait-painters of his day, besides " Sunrise, — Fishing off Mar- 
gate " and "Eddystone Lighthouse," after Turner, and other important 
landscapes of eminent artists. 

Lynn, Samuel Ferris. (Brit) Native of Ireland. Died, 1876. 
Studied in Belfast under his brother, an architect, and in the Royal 
Academy, London. In 1857 he received the silver medal for the best 
study from life, and in 1859 the Academy gold medal for the best 
historical composition. Resided in London until 1875, and was a 
constant exhibitor of portrait and ideal statues, statuettes, and busts. 
Among these may be mentioned, " Evangeline," " The Death of Pro- 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 79 

cris," " Master Magrath " (the famous hound of Lord Lurgan), " The 
First Prayer/' ami portraits of many eminent contemporary Irishmen. 

Macallum, Hamilton. (Brit.) Born at the Ky Us of Bute, 1843. 
He entered the Royal Academy, London, in 1865, and has a studio 
in the English metropolis. Among his works are, "Shrimping," 
H Waiting for the Ebb,'' " The Kyles of Bute," etc. His " Gathering 
Seaweed on the West Coast of Scotland n was at the Paris Exposition 
of 187a 

Macbeth, Norman. (Brit.) A native of Aberdeen. Portrait- 
painter, spending his professional life in Edinburgh, where his work 
is highly regarded. He has been for some years an Associate of the 
Royal Scottish Academy. He has executed many presentation por- 
traits of distinguished clergymen, and others, for the public institutions 
of Scotland. Among his sitters have been Dr. Guthrie, Dr. John 
Bruck, Dr. Begg, Dr. Cunningham, etc. He exhibits frequently in 
London. His portrait of Sir John Steell, R. S. A., was at the Royal 
Academy in 1877, and at the Royal Scottish Academy the following 
year. He sent a portrait of William Forrest, A. R. S. A., to the Paris 
Exposition of 1878. 

Macbeth, R W. (Brit.) Born in Glasgow, 1848. Son of Nor- 
man Macbeth, A. R. S. A., a Scottish portrait-painter. R. W. Macbeth 
studied in the Royal Academy, and has since practiced his profession 
in London. He was elected an Associate of the Society of Painters in 
Water-Colors in 1871, exhibiting there and in the Royal Academy- 
pictures generally genre in character, and relating often to modern life. 
In 1877 he sent to the Royal Academy, " Potato Harvest in the Fens "; 
in 1878, " Sedge-Cutting in Wicken Fen, Cambridgeshire, — Early- 
Morning " (both in oil). Among his water-color drawings may be 
mentioned, " Linked Names," " Land at Last," " News," "A Winter's 
Walk," " Motherly Indulgence," " The Morning Post," " The Ghost 
Story," " Lady Bountiful," etc. His " Evening Hour " and " Favor- 
ite Customer " were at the Glasgow Loan Exhibition of 1878. To 
the Paris Exposition of 1878 he sent the " Potato Harvest in the 
Fens " and his " Lincolnshire Gang." 

" R. W. Macl^th's ' Potato Harvest in the Fens ' maintains its well-earned prestige 
as one of the principal attractions of the present Academy Exhibition." — A rt Journal, 
August, 1877. 

" Macbeth's ' Lincolnshire Gang ' is powerfully rendered in color, drawing, and com- 
position." — Benjamin's Contemporary Art in Europe. 

Macbeth, James. (Brit.) Son of Norman, and brother of R. W. 
Macbeth. He is a native of Scotland, but has resided for some time 
in London, exhibiting his paintings, landscapes, figure-pieces, and por- 
traits at the Royal Academy, the Royal Scottish Academy, the Dudley 
Gallery, and elsewhere. His "Sunny Day in the Highlands " was at 
the Royal Academy in 1878. To the Paris Exposition, the same year, 
he sent " Garelochon the Clyde " and "The Moor at Whittle field " 



80 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

(in oil), and " Sunday Evening, Chelsea Hospital Gardens " (in water- 
colors). 

MacCallum, Andrew. (Brit.) Born in Nottingham, 1828. Stud- 
ied in the Government School of Art in his native city, and went to 
London in 1849, when he became a student in the School of Design 
in Somerset House. He went to Manchester in 1851 as a teacher, and 
was sent in 1853 to Italy, visiting Milan, Florence, Venice, Naples, etc, 
selecting examples of all kinds of mural paintings for the South Ken- 
sington Museum. He returned to England in 1858, turning his atten- 
tion to painting and opening a studio in London. He had previously, 
however, contributed to the Royal Academy several Venetian sketches. 
In 1868 he exhibited " The Approach of the Malaria, Ancient Rome," 
followed in other years by " A Moorland Queen " (bought by John 
Phillip, R. A.), " The Four Seasons," " The Harvest of the Wood," 
" The Vanguard of the Forest," " Rheingrafenstein, on the Rhine," 
" Rome from Monti Mario," " A Sand-Drift, Egypt," " Sunrise, Plain 
of Thebes," " Charlemagne Oak, Forest of Fontainebleau," a series of 
views near Balmoral (painted for the Queen), etc. An exhibition of 
thirty-five of his works in London, in 1866, attracted much attention. 
His " Sultry Eve " was at the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia 
in 1876. 

" The power and weakness of contemporary landscape-painters have never been more 
strikingly exemplified than in the works of MacCallum. Nobody ever drew the strength 
of a birch-tree or the lightness of a beech with more entire understanding of the nature 
of the tree, and the giants of the forest were never celebrated by a hand more faithful 
or laborious But, notwithstanding Mr. MacCallum's great power of observa- 
tion and memory and realization, he has no spiritual power. Not one of his pictures 
ever affects us when we stand before it or haunts us when we have left it." — Hameb- 
ton, English Painters of the Present Day. 

" Although Mr. MacCallum is essentially a tree-painter, and revels in the glories of 
the wood and the forest, he has produced works that prove his labors have not been 
limited to such subjects ; his sylvan life has been alternated with glacial mountain 
scenery, with the architecture of Venice and other places, and with the arid deserts of 
the East. In some of the latter works we see the influence of poetic feeling which is 
generally absent in his other pictures ; here he is real and naturalistic, material and sci- 
entific." — James Dafforne, London Art Journal, December, 1877. 

Maccari, Cesare. (Ital.) Born at Siena, 1840. Pupil of Luigi 
Mussini. He gained the prix de Rome, and studied in that city. He 
affects the coloring of the Venetian school. His first important 
work, " Fabiola," belongs to Dupre of Florence. His " Melody " fol- 
lowed, and is exceedingly beautiful. The " Descent from the Cross " is 
a grand composition, and shows a masterly handling of light and shade. 
The frescos on the ceiling of the royal chapel of the Sudario in Rome 
add greatly to the fame of Maccari. They were a commission from Vic- 
tor Emmanuel. For the palace of the Quirinal in Rome he executed 
a- fresco of the " Triumph of the Three Graces," and for the chapel of 
the cemetery at Campo Veramo, Rome, a lunette, " Tobias burying 
the Dead." At Philadelphia, in 1876, were two of his works (be- 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 81 

longing to J. Raymond Olaghorn), " Fond Memories" and "Music 
hath Charms," for which he received a medal. 

MacCulloch, Horatio. (Brit.) Born in Glasgow (1805 - 1867). 
"Educated in his native city, studying art under John Knox, a well- 
known landscape-painter. A picture exhibited in Glasgow, in 1828, 
first brought him into prominent notice. His " View of the Clyde," 
painted in 1829, attracted some attention in Edinburgh. He was 
elected an Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1834, and full 
member in 1838, exhibiting frequently at the gallery until his death. 
Among the better known of his works, which are still very popular in 
his native country, are, "A Deer Forest in Skye," " My Heart 's in the 
Highlands," " Old Bridge over the Avon, near Hamilton," " Druidical 
Stones by Moonlight," and many other views of Scottish scenery. 

MacDonald, James Wilson Alexander. (Am.) Born at Steu- 
benville, Ohio. He early developed a taste for art, drawing carica- 
tures of some merit while still a school-boy. In 1840 he saw, for the 
first time, a bust in plaster, that of General Washington, his admira- 
tion and study of which led him to resolve to become a sculptor. In 
1844 he settled in St. Louis, spending his days in a business house 
and his nights in the study of art. Here he received encouragement 
and some instruction from Alfred Waugh, an artist of that city. He 
made his first bust in 1846, a portrait of his business partner, in 
clay. Later, he studied anatomy under Professor McDowell. He 
went to New York in 1849, where he studied one year. In 1854 
he executed his first work in marble, a bust of Thomas H. Benton, 
said to have been the first likeness in marble, cut from life, west 
of the Mississippi. Later, he made his first ideal work, a bust of 
Joan of Arc, followed by a full-length figure, called "Italia." In 
1865 he settled permanently in New York. Among his busts are 
those of Charles O'Conor, ordered by the New York Bar and pre- 
sented to the Supreme Court of the State ; of John Van Buren ; of 
James T. Brady (posthumous), in the New York Law Library ; and 
many more. He is the possessor of Houdin's original model of Wash- 
ington, from which he has made a heroic-sized bust in bronze, re- 
peated several times. His colossal head of Washington Irving is in 
Prospect Park, Brooklyn ; his colossal bronze statue of Edward Bates, 
in Forest Park, St. Louis, was unveiled in 1876 ; the statue of Fitz- 
Greene Halleck, in Central Park, New York, was unveiled in 1877 by 
President Hayes ; his colossal equestrian statue of Gen. Nathaniel 
Lyon is now in the bronze foundry (1878). At present he is engaged 
on the statue of General Custer, a figure eight feet high, said to be his 
best work, and to be erected at the Military Academy of West Point. 
He has also at his studio models for busts of William C. Bryant, 
Peter Cooper, and Thurlow Weed. Mr. MacDonald has also painted 
portraits and landscapes in oil, and has written analytical criticisms on 
some of the most important American artists, besides lecturing upon 
4* F 



82 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

artistic and scientific subjects, especially those connected with the 
proportions of the human form and u artistic anatomy." 

MacDowell, Patrick, R. A. (Brit.) Born at Belfast (1799- 
1871). In 1811 he went to London with his mother, where he was 
apprenticed to a coach-builder for some years. About 1815 fortune 
placed him as a lodger in the house of a French sculptor, where he 
turned his natural artistic talents to pleasant account, and began his 
art career by the modeling of small original figures in clay, which 
met with a ready sale. Later, he modeled portrait busts and ideal 
figures of a larger size ; the first of the latter to attract attention 
being Moore's " Loves of the Angels." This was followed by a " Scene 
from Ovid," " Bacchus and a Satyr," and a " Girl Reading," which 
was at the Royal Academy in 1837, and subsequently executed in 
marble. In 1841, when he was elected Associate of the Royal Acad- 
emy, he exhibited " Girl going to Bathe " ; in 1842, " Girl at 
Prayer" ; in 1845 (when he was raised to the rank of Academician) 
he sent " Cupid " ; in 1850, " Virginius and his Daughter " ; in 1851, 
" Psyche" ; in 1858, " Day-Dreams " ; in 1865, " Eve " ; and " The 
Young Mother," in 1867. Among the statues executed by Mac- 
Dowell are Viscount Exmouth at Greenwich Hospital, Earl of Bel- 
fast (in bronze) at Belfast, Earl of Chatham in the House of Parlia- 
ment, and busts of Lord Dufferin and others. 

Macdowell, Susan Hannah. (Am.) Born in Philadelphia, 
1851. Received her art education in the Pennsylvania Academy of 
Fine Arts, and under the instruction of Prof. C. Schusselle and 
Thomas Eakins. Her pictures, which are portraits, composition por- 
traits, and animals, have been exhibited, and are generally owned in 
Philadelphia, where her professional life so far has been spent. 

MacLeay, Kenneth. (Brit.) Died, 1878. A native of the High- 
lands of Scotland, he was educated in Edinburgh, and spent the greater 
part of his professional life in that city. He was for many years a 
member of the Royal Scottish Academy, and at the time of his death a 
Trustee and Auditor of that Institution. In his early days, and un- 
til the introduction of the photograph, he was very successful and very 
popular in Scotland as a miniature-painter, numbering many of his 
distinguished countrymen among his subjects. He painted in water- 
color for the Queen a large series of portraits of the different High- 
land clansmen in full costume, which attracted much attention when 
exhibited. To the exhibitions of the Royal Scottish Academy, in late 
3'ears, he occasionally contributed miniatures and landscajjes. 

Maclise, Daniel, R. A. (Brit.) Born in Cork, Ireland (181 1 - 1870). 
Was for a time a bank clerk in his native city, but began painting as 
a profession in 1827, studying in the Cork School of Art. In 1828 
he entered the Royal Academy, winning, in due course, all its 
medals for proficiency in the different branches. He went to Paris 
in 1830. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy, in 1832, " Puck 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 83 

disenchanting Bottom"; in 1833, "All Hallow Eve"; in 1834, 
-Captain Rock," and in isr>, "The Vow of the Ladies and the Pea- 
cock,'' when he was elected Associate of the Academy. In 183(> he 
exhibited " Macbeth and the Witches * ; in 1840, when he was elected 
Academician, he painted " Meme Christinas in the Baron's Hall : ' 
and u Malvolio and the Countess."' Besides his genre paintings, in 
which his subjects were taken from " Gil Bias," the " Vicar of Wake- 
field,'' Scott's novels, etc, and in which his success was decided, he 
devoted himself to portraiture and historical painting. His "Death 
of Nelson at Trafalgar" and " Meeting of Wellington and Blucher at 
Waterloo'' (the latter 45 feet by 13 feet) hang in the Royal Gallery 
of the New Houses of Parliament, and through the medium of en- 
graving are familiar on both sides of the Atlantic. His " Play Scene 
from Hamlet " and " Malvolio and the Countess " are in the National 
Gallery, London. His " Scene from Midas," one of his earlier works, 
belongs to the Queen. He was not a frequent exhibitor at the Royal 
Academy in his later years. He sent, however, in 1866, " Here 
Nelson fell " and " Dr. Quain " ; in 1867, " A Winter Night's Tale " 
and " Othello, Desdemona, and Emilia " ; in 1868, " The Sleep of 
Duncan" and u Madeline after Prayer" ; in 1869, "King Cophetua 
and the Beggar- Maid " ; and in 1870, " The Earls of Desmond and 
Ormond," his last exhibited work. He was Foreign Member of the 
Royal Academy of Arts in Stockholm. 

" Of Maclise's genius in his chosen art I will venture to say nothing here, but of his fer- 
tility of mind and wealth of intellect. I may confidently assert that they would have made 

him, if he had been so minded, at least as great a writer as he was a painter His 

was only the common fate of Englishmen, and when the real story of the fresco-paint- 
ing of the Houses of Parliament comes to be written, it will be another chapter added 
to our national misadventures and reproaches in everything connected with art and its 
hapless cultivators." — Forster's Life of Dickens, Vol. III. Chap. XX. 

M May 2lst, 1835. — Accompanied Mr. Forster to Mr. Maclise's lodgings, — found him a 
young, prejKjssessing, intelligent man, anxious to paint my picture. Saw his large one 
of ' Captain Rock,' and several smaller of great merit. Agreed to sit to him 

" March 21sr, 1840. — Called on Maclise, and saw again his grand picture of ' Macbeth.' 
The figure of Lady Macbeth, which I had not seen before, I thought the ideal of the 
character. It is a noble conception. His picture of Olivia I can look at forever ; it is 
beauty, moral and physical, personified." — Macready's Diary and Reminiscences. 

" Young Maclise studied not only in his profession in galleries and studios, but for it 
in anatomical schools, and even in dissecting-rooms ; and likewise in libraries he made 

himself thoroughly acquainted with tlie history of art and artists The artist who 

painted 'Malvolio smiling on Olivia ' and the 'Banquet Scene in Macbeth' has conde- 
scended to lend his talents to the illustration of magazines and annuals." — Memoirs of 
the Countess of Blessi ngton. 

"Maclise was a man of undoubted original genius, and of an earnest and laborious 
life. .... He is said to have been very far-sighted, and to have prided himself on 
drawing remote objects with a clearness impossible to more restricted eyes. His power 
as a draughtsman greatly excelled his power as a colorist." — Mrs. Tvtler's Modem 
Painters. 

Mac Nee, Sir Daniel. (Brit.) Born near Stirling, 1805. Educated 
at the Trustees Academy in Edinburgh under Sir W. Allan. He 



84 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

turned his attention particularly to portrait-painting, exhibiting regu- 
larly at the Royal Scottish Academy and at the Royal Academy in 
London, having for his subjects many of the most distinguished of his 
countrymen, among others, Lord Brougham (in the Parliament House, 
Edinburgh), Viscount Melville, Norman McLeod, Marquis of Lome, 
Duke of Buccleuch, Hugh Blair, etc. For many years he was a resi- 
dent of Glasgow. He is a member of the Royal Scottish Academy, 
was elected its President in 1876, and was knighted by the Queen the 
same year. 

Macy, W. S. (Am.) He has lived in Munich about four years, 
studying under Velten. To the National Academy, New York, in 
1877, he sent "Lake Stanberg," "Early "Winter," etc.; in 1878, 
" Hurrying up before the Rain " and " At the Ford." To the first 
Exhibition of the Society of American Artists, in 1878, he contributed 
" Forest Scene in Bavaria." His " Meadows near Munich " and 
" Autumn, Royal Park, Munich " were at the Mechanics' Fair Exhi- 
bition, Boston, in 1878. To the Paris Salon of 1878 he sent " Near 
Munich." 

[No response to circular.] 

Madou, Jean Baptiste. (Belgian.) Born at Brussels (1796-1877). 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor, and of the Order of Leopold.- Mem- 
ber of the Academies of Brussels and Antwerp. Professor of Drawing 
in the Military School of Brussels. Pupil of Francois, and the Brus- 
sels Academy of Art. In 1814 Madou was compelled to go into busi- 
ness, but in 1818 he resumed his art studies. He was employed by 
government in making maps, but in 1820, when lithography was in- 
troduced into Belgium, he devoted himself to that art, and in the next 
twenty years executed an immense amount of work in this department : 
" Picturesque Views in Belgium " (202 plates), " Scenes in the Life of 
Napoleon " ( 144 plates), " Souvenirs of Brussels " (12 plates), " Mili- 
tary Costumes," " Scenes of Society," etc. Of course this work was a 
preparation for his subsequent painting. His subjects are pure genre, 
and are not numerous, which adds to their value. Among them are, 
" The Sketch," " Jan Steen and his Friends," " The Stirrup Cup," 
" The Young Squire of the Village," " The Artist's Amusement at an 
Inn," " The Bandit," etc. At the Oppenheim sale, London, 1864, " La 
dame a la ferme" brought 260 guineas. At a sale in London, 1874, 
"Reading the Gazette" sold for ^£892. At the Latham sale, New 
York, 1878, " Interior of a Flemish Cabaret " (18 by 23) sold for 
$ 1,400. Several of his works were sent to the Paris Exposition of 
1878. 

*' He unquestionably stands at the head of the genre painters of Belgium ; his works, 
whether in lithography, in water-colors, or in oils, show a power of composition, a 
truthfulness, and a delicacy of touch, combined with solidity, that will bear comparison 
with the best that have come down to us from the old painters of the Dutch and Flemish 
schools." — Art Journal, February, 1SG& 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 85 

Madrazo, Don Frederic Madrazo Y Kunt (Span.) Born at 
Madrid, According to the catalogue of the Salons. Vapereau says that he 
was born at Rome, and baptized at St. Peter's. Officer of the Legion of 
Honor. He received his earliest instructions from his father. 
Madrazo, and studied later at Paris under Winterhalter. Madrazo is 
court painter at Madrid, and in 1835 he established there an artistic 
Review. Among his historical portraits are those of "Godfrey de 
Bouillon.,''' the same u when proclaimed King of Jerusalem " (at Ver- 
sailles), '* Marie-Christine in the dress of a Religieuse at the Bed of 
Ferdinand VII.,"' " Queen Isabella," "The Duchess of Medina-Cceli," 
and others. His portraits of the Spanish aristocracy are far too nu- 
merous to mention. He has sometimes exhibited his pictures at the 
Royal Academy, London. His portrait of Fortuny, who was his son- 
in-law, was much admired at the Paris Exposition of 1878, where he 
thibited three other fine portraits. 

Madrazo, Louis. (Span.) Brother of the above, and also a pupil 
of his lather. At the School of Fine Arts of Madrid he took the grand 
prize in 1848. His " Burial of St. Cecilia," belonging to the Museum 
of Madrid, received honorable mention at Paris in 1855. 

Madrazo, Ricardo. (Span.) Pupil of his father. At the John- 
ston sale, New York, in 1876, " The Interior of Santa Maria at Rome" 
(23 by 39) sold for $ 4,600. At the Paris Salon of 1878 he exhibited 
u A Well near Venice." 

Magaud, Dominique Antoine. (Fr.) Born at Marseilles, 1817. 
Two medals at Paris, and numerous others at the Provincial Exposi- 
tions. Member of the Academy of Marseilles and Director of l'j£cole 
des Beaux- Arts of that city. Correspondent of the Institute since 
1874. Pupil of the Art School of Marseilles and of Leon Cogniet. 
His works are very numerous, many of them being in the public gal- 
leries and edifices of his native city. At the Salon of 1878 he exhib- 
ited a picture called " War." 

Magni, Pietro. (Ital.) Born at Milan (1816-1877). In his 
death Italy has lost one of her greatest artists. Among his principal 
works are, " Angelica Bound," " Sappho," " Reading Girl," and a 
Napoleon I. The monument to Leonardo da Vinci, in the Piazza 
della Scala, Milan, was erected in 1872, and is a fine work; the Fon- 
tane della Nabresina at Trieste is also much admired; his large group 
of the "Opening of the Suez Canal " is grand; and his latest works, a 
statue of " Oristidei " and an ideal figure called " Complacency," were 
intended for the Exposition of this year (1878) at Paris; the last was 
seen there. 

Magnus, Eduard. (Ger.) Born at Berlin (1799- 1872). Member 
and Professor of the Academy of Berlin. Medal at Paris in 1 E 
Pnpfl linger. He traveled in France and Italy. His early 

pictures of the " Return of the Pirate " and " The Blessing of the 
Grandson " brought him good reputation. At the National Gallery, 



86 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Berlin, are the " Return of the Fisherman " and a " Study of Female 
Heads." His pictures are of genre subjects and portraits. 

Magrath, William, N. A. (Am.) Has occupied a studio in New 
York lor many years. Devotes himself to landscapes and figure- 
pieces, generally of Irish peasant life. He was an early member of 
the American Society of Painters in Water-Colors, and was elected 
Associate of the National Academy in 1874, and Academician in 1876. 
He exhibited, in 1869, " Irish Peasantry returning from the Fair "; in 
1870, "The Road to Kenmair"; in 1871, "The Reveille"; in 1873, 
"The Empty Flagon"; in 1874, "Reveries" and "Faltering Foot- 
steps "; in 1876, " Rustic Courtship " (belonging to Robert Gordon) 
and " Contentment "; in 1877, " Girl Spinning " and " Paddy's Pets "; 
in 1878, "Adirondack Slopes : ' and "A Golden Prospect ": all in oils. 
In water-colors he has exhibited " Out of the Gloom," " The Wilds of 
Connemara," " No Place like Home," " The Dairy-Maid," " The Fish- 
erman's Daughter," " Irish Interior,— Girl winding Yarn," " Gathering 
Kelp," " On the Threshold," etc. To the Exhibition at Philadelphia, 
in 1876, he sent, in water-colors, " Mussel -Gatherers " (belonging to 
Robert Gordon), "Nora" (belonging to J. T. Williams), "An Irish 
Thatched Cottage," and " On the Hillside." 
[No response to circular.] 

Maignan, Albert. (Fr.) Born at Beaumont. Pupil of J. Noel 
and Luminals. At Philadelphia he exhibited " Helen at the Foun- 
tain " and " The Sentinel," and received a medal. At the Paris Salon 
of 1877 were his " Frederic Barbarossa at the Feet of the Pope " and 
a portrait of Mme. F. At the Luxembourg is his "Departure of 
the Norman Fleet for the Conquest of England " (1874). At the 
Salon of 1878 he exhibited " Louis IX. consoling a Leper " and " The 
Admiral Carlo Zeno." 

Maillet, Jacques Leonard. (Fr.) Born at Paris, about 1827. 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor, and of the Order of Leopold. 
Pupil of 1' Iicole des Beaux-Arts and of Feuchere and Pradier. When 
twenty-four years old he went to Rome, having gained the prix de 
Rome. At the Luxembourg are his " Agrippina and Caligula," sent 
from Rome in 1853; also "Agrippina bearing the Ashes of Germanicus " 
(1861). His works may be seen at the Louvre, the Tuileries, and 
several churches of Paris, while his funeral monuments, his graceful 
figures, and charming groups are in many places. At the Salon of 
1877 he exhibited " Caesar," a plaster group, and a portrait bust in 
marble; at the Salon of 1876, " Love and a Satyr " (plaster) and " Eury- 
dice," statuette interra-cotta; in 1878, terra-cotta statuettes of young 
women of Syracuse and Corinth. 

Maindron, Etienne-Hippolyte. (Fr.) Born at Champtoceau, 
1801. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of David d' Angers. 
His " Velleda " of 1839 was placed in the garden of the Luxembourg, 
and a repetition of it in 1855 was placed in the Gallery of the Luxem- 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 87 

liourg. " Sainte Genevieve disarming Attila " is in the church of that 
saint at Paris (Pantheon). At the Cathedral of Sens are thirty-two 
status and figures, and ■ colossal "Christ." A bas-relief is at the 
Cathedral of Rheims ; B " Saint Gregory of Valois," at the Made- 
leine ; etc. At the Salon of 1874, the year in which he was decorated, 
he exhibited a marble statue called " France Resigned," and in 1878, 
two marble busts. 

Maisiat. Joanny. (Fr.) Bom at Lyons. Medals in 1864, '67, 
and '7:2. Pupil of l'Kcole del Beaux-Arts of Lyons. At the Salon of 
1 -77 he exhibited " The Washerwomen of Vignely" and "A Branch 
ot Plums" ; in 1876, " On the Banks of the Marne" ; in 1875, " A 
Basket of Peaches and Raisins," " Red and White Roses," etc. Two 
of his pictures are in the Luxembourg. 

Makart, Hans. (G'er.) Born at Salzbourg, 1840. Professor at 
Vienna. Member of the Munich Academy. Medal at Philadelphia. 
Studied at Munich, in the school of Piloty. He has been frequently 
in Italy, and sent a picture of M Roman Ruins " to the Exposition of 
1867 at Paris. At Vienna, where he settled, he has a large studio, 
and here commenced his first historical picture, " Catherine Cornaro," 
now at the Berlin National Gallery, for which 50,000 marks was paid 
(£2,500). The reputation of this artist dates from about 1868. At 
the International Exposition at Munich in 1869, he exhibited u L'Es- 
quiase." Among his earlier works are, " The Seven Capital Sins," 
" The Pest at Florence," " The Dream of a Man of Pleasure," and 
" Nymphs coming to touch the Lute of a Sleeping Singer." His 
" Romeo by the Body of Juliet " is at the Belvedere in Vienna. 
Among his other works are, " Leda," '•' Modern Cupids," " Cleopatra," 
" Entrance of the young Emperor Charles V. into Antwerp," and 
"The Gifts of Sea and Earth." A portrait by this artist, belonging 
to E. B. Haskell, was exhibited at the Mechanics' Fair, Boston, 1878. 
His " Entrance of Charles V. into Antwerp " and two portraits were 
seen at the Paris Exposition of 1878. 

"Makart is tlie Richard Wagner (some say Offenbach) of German painting. His repu- 
tation dates hack but a year, and already he lias enthusiastic partisans and detractors. 

I have seen four works of his It would be presumptuous to attempt to form a 

definite judgment of this artist after four works, following each other so nearly, but it is 
allowable to seek in these world the elements of which his system and his success are 
composed. The ' Nymphs,' of the Schack Gallery, 186U have taught the public and tho 
artist himself that he was incapable of drawing or painting grand figures. ' The Sketch,' 
of the present Exposition (International Exposition of Munich, 1869], confirms this obser- 
vation ; more, it extends it to the figures of smaller dimensions. The torsos, the arms, 
the legs, are equally incorrect, and as for the hands, the artist has almost spirited them 
away in order to eoneetl his want of anatomic science. These experiences have clearly 
shown the author that he cannot succeed in grand painting. He has bravely chosen his 
part upon this OOUTtetJon. Renouncing the manners of the vulgar, he has OMgbt a kind 
of genre which demands neither a knowledge of drawing nor of painting, hut uniquely a 
sort of general taste for the association of colors ; and this genre he has found. The 
'Sketch' exhibited helps us to put our finger on all the resorts of this knowing and in- 
genious mechanism which he has imagined. An architectural taming, in the form of a 



88 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

buffet, closed in three compartments ; a circle of women and a triumphal cortege, the hero- 
ines of which form some very picturesque groups ; various emblems, scientific or artistic 
instruments, utensils of the menage, etc., are painted on the different parts of the buffet, 
and testify to a remarkable understanding of the laws of decoration. The golden tone 
on which the figures are shown, the brown tone of the branches and the flowers, and the 
tone, sometimes red and again white, of the flesh parts, make a marvelous harmony, 
of a dazzling richness and a musical charm, —the assemblage offers all the poesy of au- 
tumn and the falling leaves. Evidently Makart has his palette to himself, and has 
imitated no one. He lias discovered a precious vein. Will he be able to explore it? 
Has he stuff enough in him to make fruitful and to ripen the germs of the first attempts, 
or will he be blinded by his first success, and believe that he has arrived at the end ? . . . . 
The forms of these heroines who fluctuate between the softness of childhood and the 
roundness of ripened age, the forbidding expression of the heads, authorize but too well 
the reproach of immorality which has been addressed to this art. Not only does Makart 
debase the human body to the role of simple ornament, but he accords to it no more im- 
portance than to the hangings and the flowers ; more than this, he changes it, and gives 
it a dull and cadaverous tint to make it set off the golden or purple tones. This painting 
is then unhealthy in whatever point of view it is put, and it must be condemned, let the 
skillfulness of the author and his conviction regarding his system be what it may." — 
Eugene Muntz, Gazette des Beaux-Arts, October, 1869. 

"Makart reminds us of certain virtuosos who know everything, but cannot command 
the technique to express themselves. Nevertheless, we must constantly speak of his 
brilliant endowment ; we appreciate it, but deplore the want of an elementary training, 
the absence of a strong, comprehensive design. Flowing verses, rich rhymes, make a 
poem ; what worth, however, has the most charming poem without that more lovely 
element which Schiller calls the beautiful soul ? Makart's color is brilliant, satisfying, 
melting ; shall we ever be able to give the same praise to his conception and drawing ? " 
— Eugen Obermayer, Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst, 1871. 

" Taken as a whole, and with due acknowledgment of the courage needed for such an 
attempt, and the talent with which it has been conducted, the picture seems to me a 
recall of the manner and the artifice, rather than the essence, of the style it affects. 
What was theatric and grandiose in the art of Veronese has passed into the art of Herr 
Makart, but the simplicity that made the earlier splendor credible has fled. The labori- 
ous invention of costume, the genuine charm of color, do not suffice to take from the 
work its incurable artificiality. The painter has attempted to reproduce there elements 
of an epoch that cannot survive. He has let go the permanent truth that was in his 
master, and has been content to invent what Veronese imitated ; and thus the work is, 
in the true sense of the term, theatric, for it seeks for the kind of illusion that is desired 

on the stage But although the work of Herr Makart seems to me so far in its 

essence a failure, it nevertheless deserves consideration for the brilliant technical quali- 
ties it displays. There are few painters of the present day who have enough daring to 
handle such vast material, to dispose fearlessly and with proper relation so large a num- 
ber of figures ; and there are still fewer who possess the skill in execution which renders 
Herr Makart's picture a surprising, and in some sense, admirable performance." — 
J. W. Comyns Carr (critique upon "The Nobles of Venice paying Homage to Catherine 
Cornaro "), The Portfolio, February, 1875. 

" Herr Makart, by birth Austrian, but trained under Piloty, is imbued with the ro- 
mance and voluptuousness of Venezia. He is, in fact., the Veronese of Vienna. It is 
more than doubtful if Paul Veronese had not enthroned 'Venice crowned by Glory,' 
whether Herr Makart would have ever painted ' Venice doing Homage to Catarina Cor- 
naro,' a grandiose composition, which, when displayed in London, was looked upon less 
as grave history than as phantasmagoria. The painter, as seen in the great Exhibition 
of Paris, becomes still more formless and florid when he emblazons the festive ' Entry 
of Charles V. into Antwerp.' It may be feared that this triumphant artist is hurrying 
to his fall. No amount of genius can pardon ill drawing, or excuse au execution which 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 69 

from bravura passes into effrontery. Heir Makart is one of those sensuous painters, 
nowadays becoming numerous in j, r re;it cities, who, carrying to fruition the desires of 
luxurious living, decorate their studios Dp to the high pitch of their pictures. The door 
opens, and at once it is seen that the former austerity of German manners has given 
place to the allurements now permitted in the ' Faris of Eastern Europe.'" — J. Beav- 
inotox Atkikson, The Port/olio, 1919. 

Malchin, Karl Wilhelm Christian. (Ger.) Born at Kropelin, 
1838. Pupil of the Art School at Weimar under Professor Hagen. 
Since 1874 he has traveled considerably, and paints and etches. At 
the Berlin National Gallery is his " Northern German Landscape 
with Sheep "(1877). 

Mancinelli, Giuseppe. (Ital.) Born at Naples (1813-1875). 
Member of many academies. He received also many honors. He 
gained the stipend with which to go to Rome at the Academy of 
Naples. In 1850 he won the position of Professor in the Academy 
of Naples, in a concours, by his cartoon of " Jacob blessing his Chil- 
dren." Among his best works are, " St. Carlo Borromeo," for the 
church of St. Carlo all' Arena ; a " St. Francesco di Paolo," for Ferdi- 
nand II. ; a " Madonna degli Angeli," for the church of Tripoli ; a 
" Christ in the Garden," for a church at Syracuse ; a " St. Clara," 
for the Cathedral of Spoleto ; and a " Death of St. Augustine," at 
Piedigrotta. 

Mancini, Antoine. (Ital.) Born at Naples. Pupil of Lista and 
Morelli. At the Paris Salon of 1877 he exhibited " The Little Moun- 
tebank " ; in 1 876, " The Little Scholar," belonging to Landelle. 
His picture of " Tired Out " brought $ 210, at the Cottier sale, New 
York, 1878. At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited " The Fete of St. 
Januarius at Naples." Several of his works were seen at the Paris 
Exposition of 1878. 

Manet, Edouard. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1833. In spite of his 
love for art, his family were determined that he should not be an 
artist, and when seventeen he was forced by them to go to Rio 
Janeiro ; after this voyage he visited Italy and Holland, and finally 
entered the atelier of Couture, where he remained six years. In 1860 
he painted the " Man drinking Absinthe." For several years his 
works were refused at the Salons. He exhibited his " Breakfast on 
the Grass" (which Vapereau says "united, pell-mell, nudities and 
modern costumes ") at the Salon of refused pictures, and at length, in 
1 867, made an exhibition of his works alone. By this means he was 
placed before the public, and was discussed and rediscussed most 
vigorously. M. Emile Zola published an elaborate biography, study, 
and critique of Manet, and praised him much. The following works 
xamples of his style : "The Dead Man," "Child with a 
1," "Olympia," "A Young Lady" (1868), and "The Spanish 
Ballet." Manet is also an etcher, and has made plates of " La Yi 
au lapin," of Titian, " Portrait of Tintoretto," by himself, and 
" Les petits cavalier-,'* by Yela^piez, three pictures at the Louvre. 



90 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

"... . Manet, the painter-in-chief of ugliness, which in sincere self-delusion he ex- 
alts into a worship. It seems to be a fixed principle with him to make the most prom- 
ising subjects for beauty — as his ' Olympia ' for instance, which motive a Titian or 
Correggio would have transformed into a masterpiece of aesthetic joy — the combination 

of all that is disagreeable in painting Olympia was naked, but as her flesh was 

of the hue of green meat, there was nothing corrupting to the public morals in the gross 
display of her flaccid charms. She was of no mundane type of feature or figure. Her 
form was coarser, if possible, than a Terra del Fuegian belle's. A negress stood grin- 
ning in the background, and a witch-cat, with her black back up, in the foreground. These 
accesories gave a grotesque hideousness to the whole. Yet there were indications of 
talent and a certain spotty force of splashy contrasts of coloring, which might be trained 
to better work. Manet is one of the eccentricities of modern art, as Whistler is another 
but better variety, induced by the popular love of the sensational and extravagant." — 
Jarves, Art Thoughts. 

" M. Manet, who is well known to American lovers of art as the leader of the new 
school of painters and the illustrator of Poe's ' Raven,' exhibits this year two pictures, 
one at the Salon, the other on the street. Take a look first at ' Nana,' rejected by the jury 
on the ground of indelicacy. It may be seen in a window at Giroux's, on the Boulevard 
des Capucines. You will probably be surprised when you see it; it is certainly a remark- 
able work of the master, and it has become one of the incidents of the day. The other 
picture, exhibited at the Salon, is a portrait, — that of Faure in ' Hamlet.' In it we see 
the Danish Prince in the presence of the ghost, and, at the same time, the singer him- 
self. In the picture on the Boulevard he shows his appreciation of grace and eleganco; 
in that of the Salon, that he is the strong master of a noble style." — American Register, 
June, 1877. 

Mann, J. H. S. (Brit) Contemporary English painter, residing 
in London. He is a member of the Society of British Artists, exhib- 
iting cabinet pictures, generally of a genre character. Among his 
later works are, "Nina," "Bosom Friends," " The Pet," "A Quiet 
Cup of Tea," " Eothen," " Threatening Weather," " Pleased with a 
Feather," etc. 

"The subject by J. H. S. Mann [R. A., 1873] is larger than he habitually paints. It 
is catalogued without a name, and represents a lady gazing thoughtfully into the far 
distance of an open country It is painted with all the grace that has character- 
ized Mr. Mann's former productions, but the person has more of intelligence, and carries 
more of personal importance." — Art Journal, June, 1873. 

Manson, George. (Brit.) Born in Edinburgh (1850-1876). 
He was a wood-engraver of some promise, painting also in water and 
in oil colors. Among his original works may be mentioned, " The 
Rhymer's Glen," "The High School Wynd, Edinburgh," "A Sark 
Fisherman," etc. 

Marc, Jean-Auguste. (Fr.) Born at Metz, 1818. Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. In 1836 this artist taught drawing in the gym- 
nasium of Diekirch. He went then to Paris, and studied at l'r^cole 
des Beaux-Arts under Delaroche. He painted genre and historic 
subjects and portraits. Marc also made many designs for illustrated 
publications. On the death of Paulin, founder of "LMllustration," he 
became managing director of that journal, and after 1865 wrote the 
political bulletin. 

Marcellin, Jean-Esprit. (Fr.) Born at Gap, about 1822. Chev- 






ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 91 

alier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Rude. His " Bacchus giving 
himself up to Sacrifice" (1869) is at the Luxembourg. The works 
of this sculptor are seen in Marseilles. Many of his subjects are myth- 
ological. 

Marchal, Charles Francois. (Fr.) Born at Paris (about 1828 - 
1877). Three medals at Paris Salons. Pupil of Francois Dubois and 
Drolling. This artist took his own life ; he had felt that he was un- 
justly estimated, his eyesight was much enfeebled, his cares were 
many and heavy, and his courage failed him. Among his best works 
were, " An Interior of an Inn on a Fete Day at Bouxviller, Upper 
Rhine " (1861) and " Springtime " (1866). At the Salon of 1876 he 
exhibited "The First Step" ; in 1875, "The Prey" ; in 1873, "The 
Morning'' and "The Evening, in Alsace" ; in 1872, "Alsace ! " ; in 
1868, "Penelope" (belonging to Mr. Probasco of Cincinnati) and 
" Phryne "; etc. His "Choral of Luther, Alsace " (1863) and "The 
Fair of the Servants at Bouxviller, Alsace" (1864) are in the Luxem- 
bourg. 

" Charles Marchal offers us an example, rare enough, of an amateur who has arrived 
in a few years to the rank of a true artist. I will not recount to you all the circum- 
stances, more or less romantic, which have led him to live by his labor, nor the difficul- 
ties of his debut, nor the grand resolve which he one day made to dig to the very bottom 
of Nature in our dear Alsace. This most gay and truly Parisian of all the painters of 
Paris confined himself for nearly two years to the little industrious village of Bouxviller, 
in the midst of a new country where the usages and costumes of the good old times are well 
enough preserved. The peasant-women there wear the embroidered caps, the bodices 
glistening with spangles, the red or green petticoats, according to their being Protestants 
or Catholics. The town itself is as picturesque as one could wish, — it seems a place of 
the Middle Ages, — you see a beautiful example of it in this picture of the ' Fair of the 
Servants.' Certainly this young artist owes much to the cordiality and hospitality of 
Alsace, and above all to those good men of Bouxviller who have cared for him as for a 
son. But it is necessary to say that he has largely paid his debt in revealing to the Paris 
public the poesy, half Germanic, of this far-off country, and these manners so little known. 
... There is, in truth, some little thing wanting in order to make this excellent picture 
a true chef-iVaruvrt ; the artist lacks almost nothing to make him a grand painter. But 
what? I cannot say. Perhaps a little more air in the picture. Perhaps a more free 
and full effect of light. I am afraid to give advice, especially since it would probably be 
useless. When an artist walks so firmly in the good path, and makes new progress with 
each effort, it is best. I believe, that he should consult himself. If he has known how 
to go so far without the counsel of the critics, he has good sight to discern the end, and 
good legs to take hirn to it" — Edmond About, Salon o/1864. 

Marchesi, Pompeo. (Ital.) (1790-1858.) Professor in the 
Academy of Milan, and recipient of many honors. This sculptor was 
a pupil of Canova. He executed many portrait statues and busts of 
notable men ; among them, twelve of the Marshals of Italy for the 
Cathedral of Milan, one of Goethe for the library of Frankfort, one 
of Francis I. of Austria (now at the castle of Vienna), a colossal 
statu r* of Charles Emmanuel III. in Novaro, etc. 

Marchesi, Salvatore. (Ital) Of Parma. Medal at Philadel- 
phia, where he exhibited " Interior of the Choir of the Cathedral of 
Parma," which was one of the pictures most worthy of note in the 



92 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Italian exhibit. At the Paris Exposition of 1878 was exhibited his 
" Interior of the Sacristy of the Church of Saint John at Parma," be- 
longing to the Academy of Milan. 

Mare'chal, Charles-Laurent. (Fr.) Born at Metz, about 1800. 
Officer of the Legion of Honor, and Correspondent of the Institute. 
Pupil of Regnault. His pictures are of genre subjects. He has 
gained much reputation by pastels, and more by his glass painting, 
which is in many of the finest churches and cathedrals of France. 

Marilhat, Prosper. (Fr.) Born at Vertaizon (1810-1847). Pupil 
of Roqueplan. His earlier essays gave no promise of the talent which 
he showed later. He was so fortunate as to have the opportunity of 
going to the East with Baron Hugel, a rich Prussian, and there found 
his true inspiration. Gautier says, " Marilhat was a Syrian Arab, he 
must have had in his veins some blood of the Saracens whom Charles 
Martel did not kill." Marilhat was invited by his friend to go to the 
East Indies, but he preferred to remain in Egypt, and passed some 
time at Alexandria, Cairo, Rosetta, and their environs. He painted a 
portrait of the Pasha ; he painted other portraits for 300 francs each, 
in order to support himself. He also decorated a common theater at 
Alexandria, but whenever he could he made sketches of the country, 
its environs, costumes, etc. After his return to Paris he sent to the 
Salons, " Esbekieh Square," " The Tomb of the Sheik Abou-Man- 
dour," " The Valley of the Tombs at Thebes," " The Garden of the 
Mosque," and "The Ruins of Baalbec." To the Salon of 1844 
Marilhat sent eight pictures. Gautier says, that if the expression may 
be allowed, this exhibition was to him the Song of the Swan, and 
that these works were eight diamonds. Among them were, " A Sou- 
venir of the Banks of the Nile," " A Village near Rosetta," " An 
Egyptian City by Twilight," " View near Tripoli/' "A Cafe on a Road 
in Syria," etc. 

The first of these is his chef-d'oeuvre. He felt that he merited more 
attention from this Salon than he received, — he was discouraged ; he 
fell into a state from which death, even at his early age, was a happy de- 
liverance ; and so passed away, leaving two or three hundred pictures 
in a more or less advanced state. Some of his sketches were very 
beautiful. M. Camille Marcelle has, at his house at Oiseme, a short 
distance from Chartres, " The Ruins of Baalbec " and three studies. 
At the Wertheimber sale at Paris (1861), " The Entrance to Jeru- 
salem " (55 by 84 centimeters) sold for 16,000 francs. At the Du- 
bois sale, Paris (1860), "The Passage of the Ford" sold for 7,050 
francs. At the Prevost sale, Paris, " A Bazaar near Jerusalem " sold 
for .£640, and "A Turkish Dance near the Bosphorus" for ,£266. 
At the Oppenheim sale, Paris, 1877, "Ruins near Cairo" sold for 
29,000 francs. 

" One of the glories of Marilhat was that he preserved his originality in presence of 
Decamps. The talents of these two men are parallel lines, it is true, but they do not 






ARTISTS OE THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 93 

touch each other; the more fruitful fancy «>f the one i-s balanced by the character in the 
works of the other. If the color of Decamps is more phosphorescent, the drawing of 
Marilhat is the more elegant. The execution, excellent with both, excels in lineness in 
the painter who was carried away to young to his glory, and to the long future which 
should await him." — Tiieophile Gautieb, Revue ties Deux Mondes, July, 1S48. 

" Decamps had painted before Marilhat these countries and these figures, and he had 
impressed on all a strange character and a fierce style, an air of primitive savageness. 
Marilhat sees them with calmer eyes ; he tinds in these figures a beauty more human, 
and perhaps more true. He throws a less oppressive light over his pictures. Regard- 
ing this nature on its laughing and magnificent side, he tempers the violence of it, and 
makes its high colors less pronounced. Marilhat prefers to show us the Happy Arabia." 
—Charles Blanc. 

Maris, Jacques. [Belgian?) Born at The Hague. Pupil of E. 
Hebeit At the Paris Salon of 1877 he exhibited "The Plow" 
and "Baby and the Kitten"; in 1874, " A View of Amsterdam." 
Bis "Seaweed-Gatherers" brought $1,250 at the Cottier sale, New- 
York, 1878. His "View in Holland" (belonging to B. Schlesinger) 
was exhibited at the Mechanics' Fair, Boston, in 1878. To the Paris 
Exposition, same year, he sent "On the Beach" and "A Dutch 
Landscape." 

Maris, Matthias. (Belgian.) Born at The Hague. Lives in Lon- 
don. Mr. Cottier has brought the pictures of this artist to America. 
One of them was called " Where Shadowy Trees their Twilight 
make." 

Marks, Henry Stacy, A. R. A. (Brit) Born in London, 1829. 
He was a pupil of the Royal Academy in 1851. In 1852, with Cal- 
deron, he went to Paris, where he entered the atelier of Picot, becom- 
ing later a pupil of l'Jicole des Beaux- Arts. In 1853 he returned to 
England, and exhibited his first picture at the Royal Academy the 
same year, entitled u Dogberry." In 1854 he sent " Christopher Sly " ; 
in 1855, "Slender's Courtship" ; in 1857, "Bottom as Pyramus " ; in 
1858, "A Day's Earnings"; in 1859, "Dogberry's Charge to the 
Watch " (which attracted much attention); in 1860, "The Sexton's 
Sermon" ; in 1861, " The Franciscan Sculptor" ; in 1862, "The Jest- 
er's Text" ; in 1863, "How Shakspere studied" ; in 1864, "Doctors Dif- 
fer " ; in 1866, "My Lady's Page in Disgrace" ; in 1867, " Falstaffs 
Own" ; in 1868, " Experimental Gunnery in the Middle Ages" ; in 
1869, "The Minstrel's Gallery"; in 1871 (when he was elected an 
iate of the Royal Academy), " The Book- Worm" ; in 1872, " Wait- 
ing for the Procession" ; in 1873, "A Peep of the Avon"; in 1874, 
"The Latest Fashion" ; in 1875, "Jolly Post- Boys " and " A Merrie 
Jester " ; in 1876, " The Apothecary" ; in 1877, " A Bit of Blue " and 
" The Spider and the Fly " ; in 1878, " Convocation." He is a member 
of the Society of Painters in Water-Colors. Among Marks' other 
pictures, exhibited elsewhere, are, " Jack O'Lantern," " Orpheus," 
- May-Day in the Olden Time," " The Tinker," " The Princess and 
the Pelican," and " The Missal Painter." To Philadelphia, in 1876, 
ho sent "The Ornithologist " and "The Three Jolly Post-Boys"; to 



94 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Paris, in 1878, "The Apothecary" and "St. Francis and the Birds" 
(in oil), and " The Princess and the Pelican " (in water-colors). 

" Mr. Marks heads the list with a lively and amusing scene of 'The Beggars coming to 
Town ' [R. A. 1865J, the best composed and painted work which we remember from his 
pencil. The humors of the ragged troupe are carefully discriminated.'' — Palgrave's 
Essays on Art. 

"The pictorial style of Mr. Marks is expressly mediaeval What middle-age sculptors 
did in stone, the painter does on canvas. The sly humor, the caustic satire, expended 
on cathedral stalls in centuries past, this artist now revives on the walls of the Royal 
Academy." — J. B. Atkinson, English Painters of the Present Day. 

"It has been said in the columns of our journal that Mr. Marks can never put brush 
to canvas without provoking laughter, and yet after a quaint fashion he preserves a cer- 
tain style of dignity. It is this dignity, mediaeval as it generally is in expression, which 
gives the true value to his works ; one can smile at the artist's humor while acknowl- 
edging and respecting the talent and patient labor in which, so to speak, it is clothed, or, 
in other words, by which it is exemplified. " — Art Journal, December, 1870. 

" ' AMerrie Jest ' is very characteristic of this painter's special gifts. The difficulty of 
so subtle a rendering as this of the half-checked yet extreme mirth of persons naturally 
humorous can only be judged of by considering how often aspects of laughter are at- 
tempted in pictures and how rarely we feel ourselves inclined to join in the merriment. 
The piece of accessory landscape is very unaffected and good, and the painting through- 
out of good standard modern quality." — Ruskin's Notes of the Academy, 1875. 

Marochetti, Baron Charles. (Ital.) Born at Turin of parents 
who were naturalized citizens of France (1805 - 1868). Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor and Grand Officer of the Order of Saints Maurice 
and Lazarus. Pupil of Bosio. His u Young Girl playing with a Dog " 
(1827) won his first medal. His chef-d'oeuvre is a statue of "Emman- 
uel Philibert," which he presented to the capital of Sardinia. Among 
his works are, a bas-relief on the Arc de Triomphe, the Tomb of Bel- 
lini, the high altar of the Madeleine, and many other works in public 
places ill France. After the Revolution of 1848 he went to England, 
where he made the colossal " Richard Coeur de Lion," which adorned 
the entrance to the Crystal Palace, and was cast in bronze by national 
subscription ; an equestrian statue of the Queen for the city of Glas- 
gow ; a granite obelisk erected to the memory of the soldiers who fell 
in the Crimean War ; various ideal subjects, and many portraits, among 
which was that of Prince Albert. In the country of his adoption he 
found many powerful friends, and received numerous commissions for 
both public and private works. 

Marshall, Charles. (Brit.) Born in London, 1806. Like Stan- 
field, Bough, and other prominent artists, he began his professional 
career as a scene-painter, working in that capacity in London for 
many years. He was articled as a lad to Marinari, the Italian scenic- 
artist of Drury Lane Theater. He was at the Covent Garden Theater 
while under the management of Mr. Macready, and at the Haymarket 
Theater when the same actor first produced Bulwer's " Money." He 
first introduced the lime light for the illustration of dramatic tableaux, 
and in his long experience has been associated in the production of 
many remarkable stage effects in the British metropolis. He illus- 






ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 95 

trated by l diorama the interior view of the coronation of William 
IV. in Westminster Abbey; assisted at the decoration of the same ca- 
thedral at the time of the coronation of Victoria ; painted moving 
panoramas of the " Naval Victories of Great Britain," " The Battles 
of Napoleon I.," "Overland Route to India " (a Christmas pantomime 
written by Douglas Jerrold), u Tonr of Europe," " The Crimean Cam- 
paign," " The Great Gold Fields," etc. lie has now retired from 
scenographic work, devoting himself to landscape-painting, depicting 
chiefly scenes of North Wales, Snowden, etc., also views in War- 
wickshire, Derbyshire, Devonshire, and Hampshire. He studied oil- 
painting under John Wilson, and when eighteen years of age received 
the gold Isis Medal of the Society of Arts for a picture in oil. A view 
of the Glyddye range of mountains, painted for the Lady Marion 
Alford, is now at Ashridge, the seat of Earl Brownlow. His " Even- 
ing Lights" was at the Royal Academy in 1878. Mr. Marshall has 
contributed to various publications, including Henshall's " Vicinity of 
London," " The Gallery of British Artists," etc. 

"On a certain occasion when Macready brought out 'The Tempest,' I remember 
Leigh Hunt standing up in the box, involuntarily, and murmuring, with tears of rapture 
in his eyes, ' O, it is too beautiful ! ' at the moment the curtain drew up and presented 
the seashore of the Enchanted Isle, with the long waves of the tide slowly moving down 
towards the spectators, and then bristling into sparkling foam and running onwards in 

broad silver ridges and ripples over the yellow sands On another occasion, when 

Macready brought out 'As You Like It,' the Forest of Arden, where the romantic Duke 
had taken up his abode, was represented at his rustic, palace, with an entire covering of 
tangled boughs and foliage high overhead, among the leaves of which, with their delicate 
tints, peeps of sky, and glancing green lights, there was a constant moving and fluttering 
as of soft winds and small birds, whose sweet warbling fitfully blended with the subdued 
strains of the orchestra below." — R. H. Horne, The Burlesque and the Beautiful, 
Contemporary Review, October, 1871. 

Marshall, William CL, R. A. (Brit.) Born in Edinburgh, 1813. 
Went to London at an early age, studying sculpture under Baily and 
Chan trey. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1835. The 
next year he went to the Continent, spending some time in work and 
study at Rome. He opened a studio in London in 1839, and was 
elected a member of the Royal Academy in 1852. In 1857 he re- 
ceived a prize for designs for the National Monument to the Duke of 
Wellington, to be placed in St. Paul's, London. He executed the 
statues of Somers and Clarendon in the Houses of Parliament, of 
Sir Ro!>ert Peel at Manchester, of Jenner in Trafalgar Square, etc. 
Among his ideal works may be mentioned, " The Broken Pitcher," in 
1842; "The Dancing-Girl Reposing" (which won the Art Union 
Prize), "Fresh from the Bath," "The Carrier-Pigeon," " Jael," in 
1867; "Psyche," in 1868; " The Christian Martyr," in 1871; "Ruth," 
in 1872; "The Old Story " and " The New Story" (in terra-cotta), in 
1874; "Convalescence," in 1875; "Pygmalion's Statue," in 1876; "The 
Prodigal Son," in 1877; "Early Troubles" and " Whispering Vows to 
Pan," in 1878. 



96 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Marshall, Robert Angelo Kittermaster. (Brit.) Born in 1849. 
Studied under bis father, Charles Marshall. Landscape-painter. Mem- 
ber of the Langham Sketching Club, elected in 1872, and of the Artist 
and Amateur Conversazione Society, elected in 1876. He has spent 
his professional life in London, exhibiting at the Royal Academy, and 
elsewhere in the metropolis and in the Provinces. Among his works 
are, " Looking towards Arthog," "In the late Summer-Time, Hants," 
" A Shallow, Weedy River, Hants," " Sultry Autumn, Sussex." 

Marshall, Thomas W. (Am.) (1850-1874.) A young land- 
scape and genre painter of much promise. Comparatively self-edu- 
cated as an artist. He exhibited at the National Academy, in 1871, 
"Near Bellows Falls"; in 1873, "An Interior at Barbison, France"; 
in 1874, " Late Afternoon in the Forest, Keene Flats." 

Marstrand, William Nicolas. (Dane.) Born at Copenhagen 
(1810-1873). He spent some time in Germany and Italy, and on his 
return to his own country, was made Professor and then Director of 
the Academy of Beaux- Arts, at Copenhagen. Marstrand became very 
celebrated in Denmark by his portraits and genre pictures. He sent 
works to Paris, where his color was not admired, but seemed false and 
exaggerated. Several works by this artist were exhibited at Paris in 
1878. 

Martin, Homer D., N. A. (Am.) Native of Albany, N. Y. 
With the exception of a few weeks' study under William Hart, early 
in his career, he is entirely self-taught as an artist. For many years 
he has had a studio in New York. He is a member of the Artists' 
Fund Society of that city, of the Society of American Artists, and of 
the National Academy, of which he was elected Associate in 1868 
and Academician in 1875. He has been successful as a landscape- 
painter. Among his works are, " Au Equinoctial Day " (belonging 
to Dr. F. N. Otis), "Brook in the Woods" (belonging toDr. 
Mosher), " The Footpath " and " In the Adirondacks " (to John 
Middleton), " Spring Morning " (to Montgomery Schuyler), "Morn- 
ing on the Lake," "A Cloudy Day," "Hemlock Woods," "The 
Thames at Richmond," " Idling," etc. His " Adirondacks " (belong- 
ing to the Century Club) was at the Philadelphia Exposition of 1876. 
During the summer of 1878 he made a series of sketches of the homes 
of American Poets for Scribner's Monthly. 

" Homer Martin is seen in a tenderly and originally treated ' Evening on the Saranac * 
[Artists' Fund, 1878], with almost gorgeous radiance streaming through and athwart 
the river ; a genial, vivacious, winning representation, not destitute of truest poetry." 
— New York Evening Post, January 15. 1878. 

"'Sand-Dunes on Lake Ontario,' by Homer Martin [Society of American Artists, 
1878], is worthy of a place conceived by Dante in his saddest and most lonely hours. A 
gray sky and an atmosphere loaded with dust envelop some stricken, sear trees, whose 

torn and shattered limbs are half lost in drifts of white sand This painting 

haunts one like a melancholy dream, and we wonder what sad mood it was in the artist 
that could have clothed itself in a scene so dreary and hopeless as this. As a purely 'im- 
pressionist ' picture this takes its place with the dreamy distances of Corot or the 'Sil- 
ver Nocturnes ' of Whistler." — Art Journal, April, 187S. ^ 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 97 

Martineau, Robert B. (Brit.) Born in London (1826- 18G9). 
Educated at the University of London. He was for four years in the 
ollice of a lawyer. In 1846 he turned his attention to art, entered 
the Royal Academy in 1848, obtaining a medal in 1851, Later he 
w;is for a short time a pupil of Holnian Hunt. lie exhibited for the 
first time at the Royal Academy, in 1852, " Kit's W riting- Lesson " ; 
in 1855, "Katherine and Petruehio " ; in 1856, "The Lesson" ; in 
1861, " The Allies " ; in 1863, u The Last Chapter " ; in 1866, " The 
Frog Prince." He sent to the International Exhibition of 1862, " The 
Last Days of the Old Home," which is perhaps his most important 
picture, and which attracted much attention. It has since been en- 
graved. 

" Mr. Martineau's single picture, a girl, who has knelt down, while she finishes the 
last chapter [R A. 1SG3J of some absorbing book, is one of the most satisfactory pieces 
of design aud execution on the walls ; what we rather miss in it is the sentiment of 
beauty. Besides the expression of the young lady's face, the skillful gradation of the 
chiaroscuro as the room recedes from the light, aud the skill with which the cool colors 
have been harmoniously carried into the center of the piece by aid of the cover of the 
book, deserve especial notice." — Palgrave's Essays on Art. 

Martinet, Achille-Louis. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1806. Member 
of the Institute. Officer of the Legion of Honor and Chevalier of 
the Order of Leopold. Pupil of Heim and Forster. Most of the 
plates of this celebrated engraver are after the works of the older 
masters ; a few, however, are from those of the artists of this century. 
Among these last are the " Charles I." and " Mary in the Desert," 
after Delaroche ; " The Last Moments of Count Egmont " and 
" Counts Egmont and Horn," after Gallait ; " The Adulteress," after 
Signol ; " Tintoretto by the Couch of his Daughter," after Cogniet ; 
etc. 

Marzaroli, Cristoforo. (Ital.) Born near Parma (1837 -1871). 
I boy he attracted much attention by his small plaster figures. 
He studied under Ferrarini at Parma, and there modeled his " St. 
Sebastian Bound," which brought him into notice. His statue 
of Pamiigianino is in the Gallery of Parma. By this last work he 
gained the right to go to Rome, where he modeled his " Nostalgia," or 
" Home-Sickness." In 1870 he gained the first prize at the National 
Artistic Exposition. He made a statue of Romagnosi for Piacenza. 

Masini, Girolamo. (Ital.) Born at Florence, 1840. Professor 
of Sculpture in Rome. Pupil of Costoli. He won the prix de Rome 
at Florence, and, going there to continue his studies, has remained. 
His first work was " Cola di Rienzi," which had much merit. His 
statue of Fabiola has gained him several medals, and is worthy all 
the praise it has received. Among his other works are a statue of 
" Cleopatra," one of " Hagar," and one of " Adelaide Cairoli," erected 
at GropeOo. 

Mason, George H., A. R. A. (Brit.) Born in Staffordshire. 
Died, 1h72. He intended to study for the medical profession, but be- 

VOL. II. 5 O 



98 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

came an artist while still a young man, studying in Rome, and paint- 
ing there his " Plowing in the Salt-Marshes of the Canipagna," and 
other pictures. In 1862 he sent to the Royal Academy, London, 
" Mist on the Moors" ; in 1863, " Catch" ; in 1864, "Return from 
Plowing"; in 1865, "The Geese" and "The Gander"; in 1866, 
" Yarrow " and " The Young Anglers " ; in 1867, " Evening, Mat- 
lock " ; in 1868, " Netley Moor." In 1869 (when he was elected As- 
sociate of the Royal Academy) he contributed " Only a Shower " ; 
in 1870, " Landscape, Derbyshire"; in 1871, "Blackberry-Gather- 
ing " and " The Milkmaid " ; in 1872, " Harvest Moon." Two 
hundred of his pictures, collected after his death, were exhibited in 
London in 1873. 

" The charm of these pictures does not lie in the realism with which he has painted 
the scenes, although, according to the Spectator, he has given in them the life of the 
midlands with a truthfulness which even George Eliot has not exceeded in her writings, 
but in the idealism that he has put into his fields and commons and country roads, 
with their peculiar groups, that renders them, while perfectly true, perfectly idyllic." — 
Mrs. Tytler's Modern Painters. 

" The colors are uncommonly tender and bright ; the grays are managed with a skill 
which all who have handled a brush will envy, and every line in the little work 
[ ' Catch ' ] shows that fresh originality of invention or that first-hand recurrence to 
Nature, which gives an inimitable air of masterliness to landscape. The children and 
horses, although on a small scale, are studied with a truth and feeling worthy of the 
fine 'Landscape of the Campagna,' by which Mason won for himself distinction at the 
International Exhibition." — Palgrave's Essays on Art. 

" Mr. Mason's sources of inspiration have been very humble, but his impersonations 
are carried out with a refinement above their presumed position. He sets the grammar 
of Art at defiance in composition, and whether he may or may not have looked at the 
conceptions embodied on antique vases, we are reminded here and there of the spirit of 
them. The spirit of Mr. Mason's manner may be signalized as that of the ' Harvest 
Moon,' and in studying that really admirable picture we are impressed with the amount 
of learning shown there." — Art Journal, March, 1873. 

Massaloff, Nicolas. (Russian.) Born at Moscow, 1846. Mem- 
ber of the Academy of St. Petersburg. Medal at the Salon of 
1873. The father of this engraver, a distinguished connoisseur 
and collector of works of art, gave his son every advantage and en- 
couragement in his artistic pursuits. He studied at Moscow, then 
at Dresden under Kriebel, and lastly at Paris under Flameng. He 
then returned to Russia, and commenced a series of engravings after 
the masterpieces in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg. He has pub- 
lished sixty plates as the result of this undertaking. Although at 
first considered an amateur, Massaloff is now recognized as a true 
artist. 

Matejko, Jean Aloysius. (Pole.) Born at Cracow, 1838. 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Studied in Cracow, Munich, 
and Vienna. He occupies the first rank among modern painters of 
Polish history. In 1874 he exhibited, at the Paris Salon, " £tienne 
Bathori, King of Poland, before Pskow, 1582 " ; in 1870, " The 
Union of Lublin, 1569 " ; in 1865, " The Sermon of Pierre Skarga " ; 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 99 

etc. In 1875 he exhibited, at Cracow, " The Placing of the Bells in 
the Cathedral of Cracow in 1521, in Presence of King Sigismond 

and his Court.'' He published in 1860 twelve illustrations of Polish 
costume. Charles Vriarte says : — 

"Then? is in the works of Matejko ■ vignette appearance which paralyzes the effect 
which his well-ordered compositions should have. His atmosphere is always violet-col- 
ored." 

•' M.itejko, who is especially consecrated to retrace the grand episodes of the history 
of Poland, has a talent ufa singular sort, which enters into no category of the French 
school. By a certain romantic boldness he reminds us vaguely of Delacroix ; by a cer- 
tain ugly sincerity he approaches Robert-Fleury ; by a certain brutal realism he some- 
times recalls Hogarth ; by a certain systematic barbarity he borders upon Gustave 
Dore, and the humorous pictures of Vibert, all brought together in enormous canvases, 
tifteen or twenty feet long, encumbered with people in divers costumes, full of bizarre 
details, spotted with brilliant colors, which are piled one on the other so that the air 
and the light cannot play between them. At first the eye suffers from this tumult, 
then one discovers an original composition, great firmness of drawing, energetic and free 
attitudes, and figures of surprising rudeness." — Ernest Duvergier de Hauranne, 
Eevue des Deux Mondes, June. 1S74. 

Mathieu, Lambert Joseph. (Belgian.) Born at Bure (1804- 
1861). Knight of the Order of Leopold. Pupil of Van Bree. A 
painter of historical, scriptural, and genre subjects. Director of the 
Academy of Louvain. Some of his best works are in the Museums 
of Louvain and Brussels. 

Matout, Louis. (Fr.) Born at Charleville, 1813. Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. Pupil of l'Ecole des Beaux- Arts. The prin- 
cipal works of thi3 artist have been cartoons for decorative paintings. 
Among his easel-pictures are, " A Woman of Boghari killed by a 
Lion" (1855), at the Luxembourg; "St. James the Great bap- 
tizing the Young Scribe," " Florentine Landscape," " Venus Pande- 
mos," and " Marriage of Bacchus and Ariadne." 

Mattes on, Tompkins H., A. N. A. (Am.) Born in Madison 
County, X. Y., 1813. As a boy he was an enthusiastic art student, 
following his profession under many difficulties. He entered the Na- 
tional Academy, and painted portraits in the city and state of New 
York for some years. His " Spirit of '76," purchased by the Ameri- 
can Art Union, first brought him into notice as an artist. Among 
his early works are his " First Sabbath of the Pilgrims," u Examina- 
tion of a Witch," " Perils of the Early Colonists," " Eliot preaching 
to the Indians," " First Sacrament on the American Shores," " Rip 
Van Winkle's Return from the Mountains," " Rustic Courtship," 
" First Ride," M Morning Meal," and his portrait of Mayor Haver- 
meyer, in the City Hall, New York. He lived in New York from 
1840 to '51, when he removed to Sherbourne, N. Y. Mr. Matteson 
has been for many years an Associate of the National Academy, but 
his pictures have not been seen on its walls since 1869, when he ex- 
hibited " At the Stile " and " Foddering Cattle." 

"Matteson's early groups judiciously avoid extravagance, am often harmonious in 
color, but sometimes want vigor of handling The national and rustic subjects 



100 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

drawn by this pioneer genre painter indicate the average taste of the people, and sug- 
gest what themes executed with greater finish and more subtle elaboration would most 
successfully illustrate this branch of art among us." — Tuckerman's Book of the Artists. 

Maureta, Gabriel. (Span.) Medal at the Philadelphia Exposi- 
tion, where he exhibited " Torquato Tasso retiring to the Monastery 
of St. Onofrio," which was commended for artistic excellence. 

Mauve, Anton. (Dutch.) Born at Zaandam. Medal at Phila- 
delphia, where he exhibited " Hauling up the Fishing-Boat," which 
was especially noted as praiseworthy by Mr. Weir in his report. 
Mauve is the pupil of P. F. Van Os. At Paris in 1877 he exhibited 
"Discharging," and in 1876 two pictures with cows. At the Cottier 
sale, New York, 1878, " Pastures in Holland" sold for $ 1,500. His 
" Seaweed-Gatherers," belonging to Thomas G. Appleton, and the 
" Forester's Team, — Frosty Morning, Holland," belonging to B. 
Schlesinger, were exhibited at the Mechanics' Fair in Boston in 1878. 
At the Paris Exposition, same year, was his " Landscape with Sheep, 
— Winter." 

Max, Gabriel. (Ger.) This artist is a prominent figure in the 
present Munich school. We find no note of the more ordinary facts 
of his life, but whenever his name is mentioned by the writers upon 
German art of to-day, his power and originality are admitted and ad- 
mired. Many of his works are tragic in the extreme. That called 
" Gretchen " seems to show forth the whole experience of Marguerite 
both in this world and the next ; it is a wonderful conception mar- 
vel ously carried out, and is said to be a favorite picture with the 
artist himself. Among his other works are, " The Lion's Bride," 
" The Young Christian Martyr," " The Anatomist," " The Melancholy 
Nun," etc. Early in 1878 he exhibited at Vienna "The Infanticide." 
It represents a mother kneeling on the bank of a stream, and wildly 
fondling the body of the baby she is about to cast into the water. In 
" L'Art " we read : — 

"The face of the woman is bowed down and half concealed, in a manner that leaves 
much to be divined, but the impression is none the less painful and profound. Concern- 
ing the execution, and especially the color, we are assured that this painting is superior 
to all those works of this artist which have before made a sensation in Germany." 

His " Light " is in the possession of E. B. Haskell of Boston. 

" When we come to Gabriel Max we find a genius, to the analysis of whose masterly 
conceptions we should much prefer devoting a chapter instead of a few meager para- 
graphs. In respect of mental grasp and imagination, combined with technical ability, 
we should give the first place in the contemporary Munich school to Max and Bocklin. 
Artists and public are alike agreed upon the surpassing character of Max's works, al- 
though, of course, some prefer one painting to another, while the rather morbid ten- 
dency of his subjects makes these paintings better suited, perhaps, to exhibition in a 
public gallery than in a private drawing-room.'' — S. G. W. Benjamin, Contemporary . 
Art in Europe. 

May, Edward Harrison, N. A. (Am.) Born in England. Was 
taken to America when a child, and displayed artistic tastes and 
talents at an early age. As a young man he studied civil engineering, 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 101 

but soon abandoned that profession for the brush. In the beginning 
of his career he was a portrait-painter, later devoting himself to tin- 
production of historical and genre pictures, He was a pupil of Hunt- 
ington iii New York, and in 1851 he entered the studio of Couture 
in Paris. One of his first works was a panorama of "The Pilgrim's 
Prog: essfully exhibited throughout the United States. 

Much of Mr. May's professional life has been spent in Europe ; at 

at 0^7. s ) he is living in Paris. He was made a member of the 
National Academy of Design in 1876, but his pictures are rarely ex- 
hibited there. In 1869 he sent "Louis XIV. at Marly"; in 1876, 
"May and December"; in 1878, " Teresina." Among the better 
known of his earlier works are, "Cardinal Mazarin taking Leave of 
his Picture in the Louvre," " Michael Angelo leaving the Vatican in 
Anger," " ; Lady Jane Grey taking Leave of the Governor of the 
Tower," " Columbus making his Will," " King Lear and Cordelia." 

ong Woman at her Toilet," "Greek Slave," "Esmeralda," 

:ie from Waverley," " Death of a Brigand " (which took a gold 
medal at the Paris Salon of 1855, and was exhibited at the National 
Academy, New York, a few years later), and " Francis I. lamenting 
the Death of his Son " (of which Theophile Gautier said, " The 
whole painting is well executed, the composition very good "). In 
the Paris Salon of 1866 he exhibited a portrait of M. E. Laboulaye 
(belonging to the Union Club, New York) and " Amy Robsart et le 
Colporteur"; in 1868 he sent " Ophelia " and "La Lecture"; in 
1869, portrait of Anson Burlingame ; in 1870, " Arviragus bearing 
the Body of Imogen," a scene from Shakspere's " Cymbeline * ; in 
] ^72. portrait of Gen. John Meridith Read ; in 1873, " Mary Magda- 
len at the Sepulcher" ; in 1874, "Fin de la lecture" and "Sou- 
venir de la Commune" ; in 1876, " Une Alsacienne" ; and, in 1877, 
" Antonia." He has painted many portraits, ranking very high in 
that branch of the profession. 

Mayer. Etienne-Francois-Augnste. (Fr.) Born at Brest, 1805. 
Officer of the Legion of Honor. This painter has treated some 
a-nrc subjects and executed some portraits, but he is essentially a 
painter of marine views. He has made numerous voyages for the 
puqwse of study. His " Taking of the Island Episcopia " is at Ver- 
sailles. 

Mayer, Karl. (Ger.) Born at Vienna (1810- 1876). Professor at 
the Academy of Vienna. Knight of the Orders of Francis Joseph and 
of Gregory the Great. Studied at the Academy of Vienna under Pro- 

: Eselhofer. He made sketching-tours in various parts of Germany 
and Switzerland, and passed some time in Munich, where he studied 
diligently. Later, he settled in Vienna. In 1842 he gained a prize 
at Vienna for his picture of " Prometheus and Pandora," which ena- 
bled him to go to Rome, in which city he lived six years, only leaving 
it for occasional excursions. He was much at the house of Count von 



102 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Liitzow, where he was an honored guest. Mayer painted portraits, 
historical subjects, and landscapes. 

Mayer, Eduard. (Ger.) Born at Asbacher Hutte, 1812. He re- 
ceived the title of Professor from the Grand Duke of Bavaria, and 
medals at Paris and Berlin. Pupil of the Berlin and Dresden Acad- 
emies, and of Kauch and Rietschel. He also at Paris was under 
David d' Angers. In 1842 he settled at Rome. At the National Ber- 
lin Gallery is " Mercury attacking Argus," life-size figures in marble. 

Mayer, Frank B. (Am.) Born in Baltimore, 1827. He studied 
under Alfred J. Miller of Baltimore, and in Paris under Gleyre and 
Brion. His professional life has been spent in Baltimore, Paris, and 
Annapolis, where his studio now is. He has traveled extensively in 
Europe and the United States, in 1851 visiting the Dacotah Indians 
in the Territory of Minnesota under peculiarly favorable circum- 
stances for observing their festivals and manners. He made a large 
collection of life studies of the Indian character, with a journal of his 
experiences among them, a few of which were published in School- 
craft's " History of the Indian Tribes." The majority of these 
sketches, which are still in Mr. Mayer's possession, will no doubt at 
some future time be of much historic value. During a residence in 
Paris from 1864 to '69 he exhibited in the Salons there ; before and 
after that time, in New York, Philadelphia, Washington, and Baltimore. 
Among his crayon heads are those of Chief Justice Taney, J. V. L. 
McMahon, Mayor Latrobe of Baltimore, and others. His " Indian 
Thanksgiving" belongs to S. G. Wyman ; "The Attic Philosopher" 
and "A Marine Painter," to C. L. Mayer; "The Continentals," to 
G. B. Coale ; " Waiting Orders," to J. W. McCoy, all of Baltimore ; 
"Maryland in 1750," to the Peabody Institute of that city. "The 
Nineteenth Century " belongs to Parke Godwin ; " The Boar's Head," 
to Edward G. Donelly of New York ; " The King's Jester " was in 
the collection of the late Copley Greene of Boston ; George Riggs of 
Washington has " The Cavalier " and " A Lost Letter " ; and W. H. 
Herriman, Rome, "'A Tailor in 1500." 

" The Continentals " and " The Attic Philosopher" were at the Cen- 
tennial Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876, for which he received a 
medal and diploma. 

Mayer, Constant. (Fr.-Am.) Born in Besangon (Doubs), France, 
1831. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. He went to Paris as a 
youth, entering l'Ecole des Beaux-Arts, and studying under Leon 
Cogniet for some time. He lived and painted in that city until his 
removal to New York in 1857, where the rest of his professional life 
has been spent, with the exception of yearly visits to Paris. His 
specialty has been life-sized genre pictures, which have been exhibited 
in nearly all the chief cities of America, and have been very popular. 
Many of them have been chromoed, photographed, and engraved. He 
is a frequent contributor to the French Salon, of which he is Hors Con- 



ARTISTS OF THE MM.TEESTH CENTURY. 103 

cours. He received the Cross of the Legion of Honor in I860. Among 
the better known of Mr. Constant Mayer's works are, "Consolation," 
painted in L864 (belonging to Mrs. Frodshain) ; " Recognition," in 1865 
(belonging to Joseph Stiner, New York) ; " Good Words," in 1866 (in 
the collection of MacGregor Adams of Chicago); " Love's Melan- 
choly " (the property of Mr. S. M. Seheffer, New York) ; " The Con- 
valescent n (owned in Montreal) ; " Riches and Poverty " ; " Maud 
Midler M ; " Street Melodies " (belonging to George King, New York) ; 
"The Organ-Grinder" (to Isaac Van Arden of Brooklyn); "The 
Witch's Daughter " (to Mrs. Bergholz, New Rochelle) ; " The Oracle 
of the Field " (to M. de Lizardi of New Orleans) ; " The Song of 
the Shirt " ; " The Dream of Love " ; " Prose and Poetry " ; etc. 

In portraiture he has been very successful, painting Mine, de Li- 
zardi, Lady of Honor to the ex-Empress Carlotta, General Grant, 
General Sheridan, and many people of distinction in this country and 
France. His " Love's Melancholy " was at the Centennial Exhibition 
of 1876. 

"The whole story of the picture ['Maud Miiller'] is of course told in the face of the 
girl, but so is it completely related in her two eyes only The drawing of the pic- 
ture is true and good, but this is not remarkable in Mr. Mayer's pictures. More notice- 
able is the skill exhibited in the coloring, — the foliage, running stream, and rock in the 
foreground, expressly being master strokes of art, —the whole making one of the most 
pleasing scenes which have left the easels of our painters for a long time." — Boston 
Transcript, October 1G, 1S67. 

" Constant Mayer's ' Orphan's Morning Hymn ' is invested with an expression of 
sentiment which reflects the highest credit upon his genius. The picture gives no evi- 
dence of sentimentalism, but relies for Its force upon a simple story drawn from real 
life, which, though sad, will be studied with interest by all lovers of art." — Art Journal, 
May. 1S75. 

"Taken as a whole the conception Is excellent, the drawing is thoroughly careful, the 
accessories are painted with rare fidelity, and the color, although low in tone, is so 
thoroughly pleasing that we should be pained to see a single ' last touch ' allowed to dis- 
turb the balance. Unquestionably Mr. Mayer has painted in ■ The Song of the Shirt ' one 
of his very best pictures, and illustrated one of the finest poems of the language with 
Infinitely greater faithfulness than he would have shown by slavish adherence to its 
technicalities." — Aldine, November, 1875. 

Mayer, Liezen. (Hungarian.) Pupil of Piloty, and a resident of 
Munich. He paints scenic and melodramatic subjects. " Maria 
Theresa of Austria musing the Poor Woman's Child " is one of his 
-known works. He has made fifty illustrationa of "Faust," the 
cartoons of which were exhibited in London, and there attracted con- 
siderable attention. In Munich they received a reward, and many 
encomiums, when first exhibited. They have been engraved and pub- 
lished in an attractive form. 

Maynard, George W. (Am.) A native of Washington. He 
i pupil of Edwin White in Florence, studying also in Rome and 
in the Royal Academy of Antwerp. In 1878 he had a studio in 
Paris. He has turned his attention largely to the painting of por- 
traits. In 1876 he sent to Philadelphia " Vespers at Antwerp " and 



104 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

" 1776." To the Paris Exposition of 1878 he contributed a portrait, 
and to the Society of American Artists in New York, in the same 
year, " The Water-Carriers of Venice." Among his later works ex- 
hibited in America may be mentioned " Musical Memories/' " Dolce 
far Niente," and a " Venetian Court." 

McCord, G. Herbert. (Am.) Born in New York, 1849. He 
studied art under Col. James Fairman in 1866, and has spent his 
professional life in his native city and Brooklyn, making sketching- 
tours through New England, Canada, Florida, and as far west as the 
Upper Mississippi. He first exhibited at the National Academy 
about 1870, and frequently since that time. He was made a member 
of the Artists' Fund Society in 1877. Among his more important 
works are, " Sunnyside," the home of Washington Irving, exhibited 
at the Brooklyn Art Association, Philadelphia Academy of Fine Arts, 
at the Palette Club, New York, in Chicago, and elsewhere ; " The Cave 
of the Winds, Niagara " (belonging to Mr. Jones, President of the 
Board of Education, Brooklyn); "Twilight Reverie" (N. A., 1878); 
and others. 

*' ' Sunnyside ' is charming in its lights and shadows. The house is after the Dutch 
style, and in its lovely hiding-place concealed 'neatb the o'ergrowing ivy and sur- 
rounded by arching tree-tops, it seems just the spot of all others which the imaginative 

Irving would select Mr. McCord's picture of ' Sunnyside ' derives its noticeable 

feature of vividness from the fact that it was painted from nature. The road, the trees, 
the house, are all so real that the observer can but entertain a feeling akin to actual 
entrance upon the grounds." — Brooklyn Union, June 1, 1876. 

" The artist [Mr. McCord] has succeeded very creditably in describing the repose of 
the locality, and at the same time adhering to its literal character ['Sleepy Hollow,' 
Phil. Acad., 1877]. It is a picture worthy of notice. " — Art Journal, June, 1877. 

McEntee, Jervis, N. A. (Am.) Born at Roundout, N. Y., 1828. 
He began the study of art in the city of New York, in 1850, under 
F. E. Church. A few years later he opened a studio of his own, and 
was elected a full member of the National Academy in 1861. In 
1869 he visited Europe, spending some months in the galleries of the 
art centers of the Continent, and making a sketching-tour in Italy 
and Switzerland. 

Among McEntee's earlier works may be mentioned, "Autumn 
Leaves," " Indian Summer," " October in the Catskills," and " The 
Melancholy Day," exhibited at the National Academy in 1861 (upon 
the strength of which he was elected Academician). This picture 
(purchased by the late James A. Suydam) was bequeathed to the 
National Academy. In 1867 he sent to the National Academy, 
"November Afternoon," "Virginia in 1863" (belonging to Cyrus 
Butler), and "The Last of October" ; in 1868, "November Land- 
scape" ; in 1869, "The Melancholy Days have come" and "Autumn 
Twilight"; in 1870, "Venice" and "October Snow"; in 1871, 
" Scribner's Mill " (belonging to Robert Gordon) and " October After- 
noon in the Catskill Mountains"; in 1874, "Cape Ann," "Solitaire," 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 105 

" A Wood Path " (belonging to Henry James), and M Dean's River " ; 
in 1875, "Pactum" (belonging to Henry Holt), " Ginevra," and 
unlay Afternoon" ; in 1876, u The Closing Year," " An Autumn 
Idyl," and " A Song of Summer" ; in 1877, "And the Year smiles 
as it draws near its Death'' and "Winter in the Mountains" ; in 
1878, "Over the Hills and Far Away." McEntee sent to the Paris 
Exposition of 1867, " Autumn " (belonging to Robert Hoe) and "The 
Last of October." He had several pictures in the Philadelphia Exhi- 
bition of 1876, commended by the judges for artistic excellence ; and 
of his " November," at the Royal Academy, London, in 1872, the 
London Times said : — 

" This picture shows, what is 60 rare, an imaginative feeling of the subject 

The picture is too low in tone and too somber in sentiment to attract much attention, 
but it deserves, and will reward, study, and it affixes a mark in the memory to the art- 
ist's name." 

His M Winter on the Ice " belongs to J. W. Pinchot ; his " Autumn 
Scene," to Henry G. DeForest. His " Danger Signal" and " Novem- 
ber Days " were in the collection of John Taylor Johnston. To Paris, 
in lt>7S, he sent " Falling Leaves" and "An Autumn Idyl." 

"Mr. McEntee was represented by 'October Afternoon,' 'November,' ' The Woods 
of Ashokan,' 'Frosty Jlorning,' and 'Late Autumn.' These pictures are all charac- 
terized by great sincerity and decided poetic feeling. They evince a subdued yet intense 
enjoyment of those phases of nature that are tinctured with melancholy, and which are, 
therefore, none the less beautiful. This artist's style is expressive and sensitive, and 
within the scope of his stronger sympathies, mature and confident. His pictures evince 
a profound insight that is intolerant of that Denner-like portraiture in landscape which 
aims at minuteness of imitation. They possess qualities of excellence that in some re- 
spects are not surpassed in this branch of art." — Prof. Weir's Official Report of the 
American Centennial Exhibition of 1S76. 

" McEntee manages to give with a few tints a finely felt rendering of nature at a cer- 
tain season of the year ['A Nipping and an Eager Air,' water-color, N.A., 1877]. — New 
York Times, January 22, 1S77. 

- In this picture [' Autumn,' N. A., 1877], as in others of this class, the intensity of Mr. 
McEntee's liking for this phase of the year leads him to emphasize his color too much, 
to give his landscapes tints which are too freely drawn from his own ideas." — Art 
Journal, May, 1S77. 

M'Donald, John B. (Brit.) Born in Morayshire, Scotland, 1829. 
He entered the schools of the Royal Scottish Academy under Robert 
Scott Lauder in 1852, and has since been a resident of Edinburgh. 
He has exhibited frequently at the Royal Scottish Academy for the 
la*t quarter of a century (being elected an Associate in 1862, and 
a full Member in 1877) pictures in oil and water colors. Among 
the better known of his works are, * The Arrest of a Rebel," " In 
Venice," " Landscape with Sheep," " Prince Charlie leaving Scot- 
land," " Dougald Dalgetty's Interview with Montrose," " In Hiding," 
"The Falls of the Garry," etc. Several of his works have been 
engraved. 

"The large canvas ' Strathyre* [R. 8. A, 1874], by J. B. M'Donald, takes us by sur- 
prise, so grand is it in the sweep of hill and hollow beyond all his previous efforts. This 
5* 



106 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

noble work, albeit pronounced, in certain circles, hard and deficient in atmospheric 
depth, makes a powerful impression on the mind." — Art Journal, April, 1874. 

Meade, Larkin G. (Am.) A native of New England. Born in 
1835. He displayed artistic talents at an early age, and through the 
generosity of Mr. Longworth of Cincinnati, who was attracted by 
his promising work, he was enabled to devote himself to art as a 
profession. He was a pupil of Henry Kirke Brown in 1853, '54, and 
'55. In 1862 he went to Italy, settling in Florence. Returning to 
America at the end of three years, he exhibited in New York, " The 
Returned Soldier" (life-size), "Echo," "La Contadinella," "The 
Thought of Freedom/' etc. Among the more important of his later 
works are four bronze groups representing " Infantry," " Cavalry," 
" Artillery," and " The Navy," of colossal proportion, and the statue 
of Lincoln for the National Lincoln Monument, at Springfield, 111. 
His statue of Ethan Allen is in the National Art Gallery, in the Capi- 
tol at Washington. His statue of " Vermont " (19 feet high) is upon 
the dome of the State House at Montpelier, and his " Columbus ap- 
pealing to Isabella " (in marble) belongs to D. 0. Mills, President of 
the Bank of California. The greater part of his professional life has 
been spent in Italy. 

u Mr. Lincoln is represented as having just signed the Proclamation of Emancipation, 
and in his left hand he holds a scroll marked ' Proclamation,' in the right hand he holds 
a pen. The faithfulness of the portrait in every feature rivets the attention of the ob- 
server. The stooping shoulders, the forward inclination of the head, manner of wearing 
the hair, the protruding eyebrows, the nose, the mouth, with the prominent and slightly 
drooping lower lip, the mole on the left cheek, the eyes, far back in the head, the calm, 
earnest, half-sorrowful expression of the face, — all recall to the minds of those who knew 
him well the same Lincoln who lived and moved among us until called to enter upon 
his grand career." — St. Louis Globe, October 4, 1874. 

"The first contribution of Vermont to the National Statuary Hall, being a heroic-sized 
statue of Col. Ethan Allen of Revolutionary fame, was placed in the hall on Saturday 
last. It is the production of Larkin G. Meade of Vermont, at present residing in Flor- 
ence, Italy, where the statue was made. The cost was $ 10,000. It represents Colonel 
Allen as he appeared when demanding the surrender of Fort Ticonderoga ' in the name 
of the Great Jehovah and the Continental Congress.' The attitude of the statue is very 
spirited, much more so than that of any other in the hall." — Washington Evening Star, 
February 28, 1876. 

Meissonier, Jean Louis Ernest. (Fr.) Born at Lyons about 1813. 
Commander of the Legion of Honor, 1867. Member of the Institute, 
1861. One of the eight grand medals of honor (E. U.), 1867. He 
went when quite young to Paris, and was for some time a pupil of 
Leon Cogniet. He is the first French miniaturist of genre subjects 
who has attained celebrity. Perhaps he can receive no higher praise 
than to be, as he constantly is, compared to Terburg and Metzu. He 
has been fully appreciated from the commencement of his career, and 
receives honors and money without stint. His works are too numer- 
ous to allow of a complete list here. He first exhibited, in 1836, 
" The Little Messenger." In the Luxembourg are " Napoleon III. at 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 107 

Solferino " (45 by 75 centimeters), on wood (1864), and " The Emperor 
surrounded by his Staff" (12 by 7), also on wood. "La partie des 
boules " (1848) is regarded as a dicf-cTccuvre ; " A Dream " (1855) was 
purchased by the Emperor for 20,(KK) francs, and presented to the late 
Prince Albert ; the " Cavalry Charge" (18G7) was purchased by Mr. 
Probasco of Cincinnati, and it is said that he paid 150,000 francs for 
it. At the Johnston sale, New York, 1876, the " Soldiers at Cards," 
from the Demidoff Collection (8 by 10), painted in 1860, sold for 
5 11,500 ; and * Marshal Saxe and Staff" (8 by 9), 1866, for $8,600. 
At the Latham sale, New York, 1878, "The Amused Cavalier" (7| 
by 5) sold for $ 3,100. In " LArt," January, 1876, there is an article 
devoted to his picture called " 1807," which was purchased by the late 
Mr. Stewart of New York for more than 300,000 francs. It is said 
that the artist worked on it fifteen years, and as regards size it is the 
most important of his works. At the Salon of 1877 Meissonier exhib- 
ited a portrait of Dumas ; small figure, about a foot in height, sitting 
in a chair, with the legs crossed and the hands folded on the edge of 
a table, which is covered with books and papers. He has executed 
some illustrations for books, such as " Les Francais Peints par eux- 
nuines," "La Comedie Humaine" (Balzac), and, in company with 
Francois and Daubigny, an edition of " Paul and Virginia." 

"The immense reputation of Meissonier is justified by the perfection attained by him 
in the kind of art he has chosen. Perfection in art of any kind is so rare, that when we 
meet with it we are sure to take notice of it ; and, though Meissonier's pictures are very 
small, they are not likely to be passed over in the most crowded exhibitions. The mere 
fact of their littleness seems to have helped their reputation by increasing the marvel of 
the work ; but there is nothing new or exceptional in this : the engravers of book illustra- 
tions and the painters of miniatures have long worked on a scale still smaller. What 
really is new and exceptional in Meissonier is a certain largeness of grasp and vivacity of 
accent, this vivacity degenerating into excessive staccato at times, when staccato is not 
wanted. Meissonier is said to be in the habit of making studies the size of life, in order 
to keep his breadth of treatment. This, at least, is a proof of his firm belief in a doctrine 
very generally received amongst artists, — that in order to paint on a small scale really 
well, you must be able to paint on a larger. Meissonier is a master of the male figure, 
and has lately studied the horse for his pictures of Solferino and the ' Campagne de 
France ' ; but he has generally been careful to avoid women, — probably because it is not 
easy to render a female face with that sharp accentuation which has become habitual with 
him. I like him best in such pictures as the ' Lecture chez Diderot,' where gentlemen 
of the last century meet in conversation ; or in such single studies as the ' Smoker,' 
which, for subtlety of quiet expression, is as good as the best faces of Rembrandt, — as 
good, for instance, as the ]H>rtrait of Burgomaster Six. Sometimes the expression is 
pushed rather far, and slightly verges on caricature, — as in the picture of an officer in the 
last century giving his orders, called ' L'Ordonnance.' Meissonier is not a man of any 
grandeur or sublimity of genius, and he has apparently no tenderness, — a defect he 
shares with Gerome ; but his keen observation, and ready, accurate hand, have made 
him king of his own realm in art, and his work, I suppose, will never diminish in money 
value, because such work must always be excessively rare." — IIamerton, Contemporary 
French Painters. 

* Meissonier is, perhaps, the most popular artist of our time. If he has a picture at 
the Salon, the crowd first ascertain where it is, and the obstruction is such that it is not 



108 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

always easy to approach it. When his works make a part of a public sale, all who oc- 
cupy themselves with painting rush to the Hotel Drouot. His reputation is European, 
and volumes could be filled with articles which the reviews and journals have conse- 
crated to him. Edmond About has given in resume, with his usual spirit, the causes 
which have determined this prodigious success. ' He made his debut,' says he, ' by some 
microscopic pictures ; one was obliged to examine them when near by ; it was then only 
that we perceived Meissonier. The most severe critics, the magnifying-glass in the 
hand, acknowledged that no one drew better than he, that his figures were irreproach- 
able and his draperies perfect ; that his Liliputian personages wanted neither form, nor 
dignity, nor elegance. He painted true gentlemen, as distinguished as Lauzun and as 
slight as scarabei ; he stowed fifty French guards, very life-like and very stirring, on a 
canvas where two cockchafers would be too crowded. He surmounted so successfully 
the enormous difficulties that he imposed on himself, that he was soon at ease in the 
narrowest frame.' Meissonier has painted, in truth, some subjects with several figures, 
and even some battles, but he oftener makes pictures with a single figure, and he knows 
how to captivate the attention with scenes so simply conceived that a written descrip- 
tion could give no idea of them, and it is absolutely necessary to see them in order to 

understand their value One quality which Meissonier possesses in a rare degree is 

the research into the intimate character of the time in which he makes his personages 
move. It is not a man of to-day whom he clothes with the vestments of another time ; 
there is a perfect accord between the physiognomy, the carriage, the costume of the per- 
son represented and the accessories with which he enriches his picture. Above all, he 
never forgets the principal subject in the decoration, and whatever the charm of the de- 
tails which make a part of the scene, it is always the man who plays the principal part, 
and who first attracts attention. Meissonier has found many imitators among our 
young artists, who think to follow the master in painting microscopic canvases with mi- 
nute care ; but he has kept for himself the secret of interesting by insignificant subjects, 
and by painting largely pictures which may be seen through a glass."— Rene Menard, 
Gazette des Beaux-Arts, April, 1873. 

"This eminent artist has employed in his genre painting all the serious qualities of 
grand painting. He is one of the masters of this day who can count on the future, whose 
works have an assured place in galleries among the most celebrated ones." — Theophile 
Gautier, Gazette des Beaux- Arts, May, 1862. 

" The little and marvelously elaborated pictures, of which Meissonier is still the su- 
preme master in France, were unknown as an object to French painters before Meissonier 
won so much consideration for his successful efforts to represent Nature, as seen through 
the small end of a telescope. His aim was a reaction against the dominant masters of 
his time ; by his indefatigable, tenacious talent, his microscopic vision, he was enabled 
to surpass the Dutch masters in everything but color. Every form of excellence in art 
appeared to have been illustrated in French painting but that of the Dutch school : 
great political tragedies in Delaroche ; military events in Vernet ; the drama of the pas- 
sions in Delacroix ; classic art in Ingres ; the ideas, fancy, imagination, beauty, pastoral 
art, — all in a style more or less in direct descent from the great examples of Italian or 
classic art. Meissonier, without an idea, without a passion, without anything but a won- 
derfully trained hand, and an uncommon perception of actual objects, applied himself to 
produce pictures that should ' flabbergast ' a public tired of emotions and ideas and revolts, 
but interested in everything mechanical and laborious and obviously conscientious. He 
may be said to be a Dutch painter, plus the instruction of the photograph. He was not 
a pupil of l'Ecole des Beaux-Arts ; and yet no painter of the imperial school has carried 
further the science of his art, and none are better instructed in the technical means to 
reach the object of his work. He contests with Gerome superiority in the science of 
representation of Nature on a small scale. His pictures compete with Gerome's at the 
picture-dealers' ; their market-value is astounding ; and they interest the mind like 
clock-work, like the weaving of Egyptian linen, like photographs, like any fine and suc- 
cessful exhibition of the mechanical talent .... Meissonier is an example of a modern 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 109 

artist wholly independent of the actual life of his time, — an artist who has given no place 
to woman in his works, no place to the ideal, no place to the disturbing facts of his 
own epoch. 1 know of but one picture in which he represents a woman — and that 
woman is a dame of the eighteenth century — and her gallant. Consummate as is tho 
executive talent of Mcissonier, he cannot be taken as a type of the artist. His aim is too 
limited, his purpose too material. Absolutely deficient in the ideal, absolutely Indifferent 
to all the consecrating and charming and beautiful elements of Nature and life, he is but 
a consummate picture-maker, interested in the most prosaic characters and showy cos- 
tumes of the direct epoch of modern civilization. His works are objects of curiosity. 
The most stupid lover of pictures can use his 'glass 'to magnify the minute merits 
of Meissonier's pictures, and deepen his sense of wonder at the laborious and skillful 
hand of the artist ; he can observe his marvelous finish, his masterly drawing, his bold 
touch, his completeness of representation, and so have the flattering satisfaction of being 
on a level with the aim and work of one of the most far-famed of modern painters." -~ 
Euoene Benson, Appletons' Journal, September 11, 1SGD. 

Philippe Burty, in the " Gazette des Beaux- Arts," May, 1862, speaks 
thus : — 

" The etchings of Meissonier are few, but the proofs of them are singularly rare. Save 
the 'Smoker* and that which we publish to-day, and which is unedited ['The Ser- 
geant-Reporter'], there is scarcely a cabinet which offers them to the curiosity of 
amateurs. They are engraved with an extremely fine point, one would almost say with 
the point of a needle. But the effect is large, because the niceness of the detail loses 
itself in the mass, and renders, with most astonishing skill, the appearance of every- 
thing, the epidermis of each object." 

The following list gives the titles of his principal etchings : " The 
Holy Table" (or altar), "The Violin," " Preparations for the Duel," 
" Signor Annibale," " Monsieur Polichinelle," etc. At the Sale 
Wertheimber in Paris, 1861, a small panel, 27 by 21 centimeters, 
painted in 1858, representing German cavalrymen in a large salon, 
playing cards, smoking, etc., brought 28,000 francs, and was purchased 
by M. Demidoff. From the description this would appear to be the 
" Soldiers at Cards " of the Johnston sale, but the Wertheimber cat- 
alogue date of the picture is 1858, and the Johnston catalogue date is 
1860. At the Lehon sale, Paris, 1861, " The Painter at his Easel " 
sold for 11,200 francs. At a London sale, in 1872, " The Sentinel," 
an exquisite miniature work, sold for 970 guineas. At the Khalil 
Bey sale, 1868, " The Amateurs of Painting" was bought by M. Say 
for £ 1,272. 

Meissonier, Jean Charles. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Medal, 1866. 
Pupil of his father. At the Salon of 1874 he exhibited " Le fripier," 
"The Convent of Saint- Barthelemy at Nice," and "The Chaplain 
reading to the Baron" ; in 1866, " In taking Tea" and " Leusen and 
Rosine." 

Melbye, Antoine. (Dane.) Born at Copenhagen (about 1822 - 
1875). Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. He studied under Eekers- 
berg at Diisseldorf, and, later, in Paris. His subjects are principally 
marines. In 1867 he exhibited, at the Paris Salon, two marine 
l ; in 1865, "The Naval Combat of Bothwell on the Coast of 
Scotland " ; in 1852, " Full Sea " ; etc. At Berlin, in 1876, was ex- 
hibited his " Moonlight on the Busphorus." 



110 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Me"lingue, Lucien. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Medal of first class, 
1877. Pupil of Cogniet and Gerome. At the Salon of 1877 he ex- 
hibited " The Morning of the 10 Thermidor an II., 1794" and a por- 
trait of the Commandant T.j in 1878, " Mademoiselle de Montpensier 
at the Bastille." 

Mene, Pierre-Jules. (Fr.) Born at Arras. Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor. Pupil of R. Compare. At Philadelphia he exhib- 
ited " A Falconer on Horseback" and " A Hunter and Dogs," both in 
bronze, and received a medal. At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited 
" An African Hunter " (group in wax) and " Toreador-matador " 
(group in bronze). 

Menzel, Adolf-Frederic-Erdmann. (Ger.) Born at Breslau, 
1815. Member of the Academies of Berlin, Vienna, and Munich. 
Member of the Royal Society of Water-Color Artists of Belgium. 
Knight of the Order of Merit, of the Legion of Honor, and of Saint 
Michael of Bavaria. Many of the pictures of this painter are scenes 
from the life of Frederick the Great. At the National Gallery, 
Berlin, are "The Round Table of Frederick, 1750" and a "Flute 
Concert at Sans-Souci," also " Modern Cyclops." Menzel has also 
illustrated the works of this monarch. His lithographs are quite 
numerous, and his water-colors are much admired. Six of his pic- 
tures were exhibited at the Paris Exposition of 1878. 

A writer in the " Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst," 1866, says of 
the picture of the " Coronation," by Menzel : — 

" He is a decided realist ; his attempt is to give the moment as it really existed. 
Going beyond this, in any measure, he despises, — so despises it, even, that one cannot 

fail to see his definite intention of doing something unlike others Menzel is, 

judging from the want of transparency, especially in shadows, no real colorist Al- 
though his technique is masterly, and the costumes [except those of the ladies], the 
mantles of those in orders, the uniforms with their embroideries, and all the furnishing 
of the apartment, painted with boldness and largeness, he has not given his thought to 
artistic grouping, or beauty of lines and masses. What, then, are the merits of this 
work, which Ave have called remarkable from the beginning, if the painter lias ignored 
all attempt at depicting beauty ? Menzel certainly will not allow that art and beauty 
have any connection ; for him the essence of art lies in characterization. This is a very 
one-sided view, but when it is illustrated in so masterly a manner it demands respect, 
and when such an artist opposes his strength to us we can only measure it by itself. 
Menzel has given us something remarkable in the way of portrait heads, but in these, 
also, he has fallen short as far as the effect of beauty is concerned, especially in the 
group of ladies, .... but the masculine heads are all the more true, excellent, and 
important." 

" Very much above these pretentious works it is proper to rank the simple water- 
colors of Adolf Menzel, an artist of Berlin, —known by a series of pictures and designs 
consecrated to Frederick II. The Exposition at Munich shows us a dozen charming 
works, of a more modest sort, representing varied subjects, denoting a suppleness of 
talent and a reunion of qualities quite exceptional. « The Return of Troops to Berlin 
after the War of 1866 ' was the most studied of these compositions. In the middle, 
through a street, the conquerors defile under a shower of bouquets ; but in the houses 
on each side the artist has grouped the contrasts which belong to such a day, —at the 
left all is joy and the intoxication of triumph, while on the right the wounded are re- 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. Ill 

ceivcd with tenderness and surrounded with earofnl attentions ; aside, some poor ones, 
dressed in mourning, steal away from tlie general joy to weep fbl their dear urns not 
here. Let us also mention, as two wonders, the interiors of the ehurehes at Innspruck 
and Salzbouiv, by the same artist. Above, vividly lighted, are white, walls, pictures, 
and altars resplendent with gilding ; then, by insensible degrees, the light decreases, 
eandles lighted burn in a mysterious and lukewarm ■hade, and below are some faithful 
ones, women, absorbed in their prayers, with an expression of silenee and deep medita- 
tion. In plaee of the heaviness and pretentiousness whieh, too often, we have pointed 
out in the works of German painters, we find here a true artist, full of tact and taste, 
,.mce and easy grace, and who would worthily sustain all comparisons with the 
f our French masters."— Emile Michel, Revue des Deux Moiuies, December, 
1ST 7. 

Mercade\ Benito. (Span.) Born at Barcelona. Medal at Paris 
in 1866, and at Philadelphia, 1876, where he exhibited '-The Trans- 
lation of St. Francis of Assisi," which was also at Pans in 1866. 
Pupil of the School of Fine Arts at Madrid. In the Official Report 
Of the Judges of the Philadelphia Exhibition, John F. Weir says of 
this picture : — 

" The subject is treated with great purity of feeling, and, indeed, solemnity. The ex- 
pression of the heads is very fine, and the composition simple and impressive. The 
picture is cold and monotonous in color, but in the sincerity of its aim it is admirable." 

Mercie\ Marius-Jean-Antoine. (Fr.) Born at Toulouse. Chev- 
alier of the Legion of Honor, 1872. Medal of Honor, 1874. Pupil 
of JourTroy and Falguiere. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited a plas- 
ter relief of H The Genius of the Arts " (intended for the grand en- 
trance of the Louvre) and a marble statuette of a " Vanquished Juno," 
which was much praised by Ch. Timbal in the " Gazette de3 Beaux- 
Arts"; in 1876, a marble statuette of " David before the Combat " and 
a bust called " Flowers of May "; in 1875, " Gloria Victis ! " group in 
bronze, and a bas-relief from La Fontaine. At the Luxembourg is his 
" David " (1872), a statue in bronze. 

Merle, Hugues. (Fr.) Born at Saint-Marcellin. Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. Pupil of L. Cogniet. At the Salon of 1876 
he exhibited " Day and Night " (a fragment of a decoration) and 
"II Bambino"; in 1874, " Pernette the Spinner" (a legend of Dau- 
phiny) and a " Little Bohemian Girl"; in 1873, " The Right Road " 
and "A Mud Woman " (now in the collection of Mrs. H. E. Maynard 
of Boston). At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited " Odette and Charles 
VI." and " Charlotte Corday." His picture of " The Beggar " (1861) 
II in the Luxembourg. His "Asking Alms" is in the collection of 
Jeremiah Milbank, New York. "The Young Christian," sold in 
London for £ 332, is now in the Belmont Gallery, New York. In the 
Walters Gallery, Baltimore, are two small pictures by Merle, "A Girl 
with a Child in her Arms n and a "Group of a Mother and her Chil- 
dren." The latter is an excellent example of this artist's work. 
" The Scarlet Letter " is also in the same collection. At a sale at 
Christie's in 1874, were sold "The Mendicant during the Siege of 
Paris" and "Watching the Crab"; the Latter brought 190 guineas. 



112 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

At the Johnston sale, New York, 1876, " Chasing the Butterfly " (18 
by 15) sold for $ 1,615. 

" [French Gallery, Pall Mall, No. 164, ' Hagar and Ishmael.'] H. Merle presents a 
most interesting version of the subject. The figure of Hagar is admirably cast, and is 
distinctly of the Egyptian type ; the angry expression of her features is her reply to the 
mockery of Sarah. But the difference between Hagar and Ishmael is remarkable, the 
pose and action of the boy being both open to improvement ; and we think that if the 
artist reconsiders the subject, he will arrive at the conclusion that the removal of Abra- 
ham from the background would be advantageous. " — Art Journal, May, 1873. 

" Merle shows to more advantage this year at the Salon than he has done for some 
seasons past; his 'Charlotte Corday,' in particular, being a striking and expressive 

work Painted with Merle's peculiar grace and tender charm, this fine picture 

daily attracts a crowd of gazers. It goes to America, having been purchased by Mr. 
William Schaus, the well-known dealer." — Art Journal, August, 1878. 

Merle, Georges. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Son and pupil of Hugues 
Merle. He sent to the Salon of 1878, " The Death of Philip Arte- 
velde at the Battle of Roosebeke, November 27, 1382 " ; in 1877, 
" Faust and the Three Braves "; in 1876, "Le Pas d' Amies del'Arbre 
d'Or." 

Merson, Luc-Olivier. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Medals at Salons 
of 1869 and J 73. His subjects are generally historical-religious, such 
as " St. Louis, on coming to the Throne, opens the Jails of the King- 
dom " and " St. Louis, in spite of the Supplications of the Barons, 
condemns the old Enguerrand de Coucy, 1259," both painted for 
the Gallery of Saint Louis at the Palace of Justice. At the Salon 
in 1875 he exhibited "The Sacrifice for the Country" and "St. 
Michael " ; in 1872, " St. Edmond, King and Martyr" ; and in 1878, 
" The Wolf of Agubbio." 

Me'ryon, Charles. (Fr.) Born at Paris (1821-1868). Early 
in life he was a marine, and in New Caledonia, which he visited, he 
made many very interesting sketches of that country, then so little 
known ; later, he made engravings from these designs. On his return 
to France, Meryon devoted himself to engraving, studied under Blery, 
and became the best etcher of his day. In spite of his excellence he 
never felt himself appreciated, and he fell into a misanthropy which 
at length rendered him insane. He was taken to Charenton, where 
he slowly died. He wished for no friends or sympathy, and refused 
to eat. His etchings, especially those of the old parts of Paris, were 
exquisite. Among those which are highly esteemed are, " The Ex- 
change Bridge," "The Old Morgue," "The Little Bridge," "The 
Apse of Notre Dame of Paris," " The Turret of Rue Tixeranderie," 
" The Turret of the Rue de l'Ecole de Medicine," " The New Bridge," 
and the " Rue de la Pirouette." It is much to be lamented that in 
a fit of madness Meryon destroyed some of his finest works, among 
which were etchings of " The College of Henry IV. at Paris." 

Mesdag, Hendrik - Willem. (Dutch.) Born at Groningen. 
Medal in Paris and at Philadelphia, where he exhibited " Evening on 






ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 113 

the Beach.'' lie is a pupil of Alma-Tadema. At Paris in 1S77 he 
exhibited " Summer Evening " and " Twilight " ; in 1870, two pic- 
tun-, the '* Departure and Return of a Life-Boat at Scheveningen " ; 
at the London Royal Academy in L872, "A Fishing- Smack"; and in 
1871, ''A Fleet of Fishing-Boats at Scheveningen." To the Paris 
Salon of 1878 he contributed u Bead j to weigh Anchor, Schevenin- 
gen," and u The Scheldt, — Morning," and to the Exposition, same 
year, three of his works above named. 

Meyer, Ernest. (Dane.) Born at Altona (1796 - 1860). Mem- 
ber of the Academy of Copenhagen, at which place he studied. In 
18:24 he went to Italy ; he passed some time in Naples and Amain, and 
settled at Rome, where he died. At the National Gallery at Berlin is 
his " Family of Lazzaroni." 

Meyer, Jean-Louis-Henri (Dutch.) Born at Amsterdam (1809- 
1866). Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Jean Pienemann. 
He essayed genre and historical subjects before he confined himself to 
marine pictures, as he did at length. He lived much in Paris, and 
sent his works to many Salons and to the Exposition of 1855. In 
1867 several pictures were exhibited, which were in his studio when 
he died. His " Shipwreck of William I." is in the Museum at Haar- 
lem. 

Meyer, Jean Georges, called Meyer von Bremen. (Ger.) Born 
at Bremen about 1813. Member of the Amsterdam Academy. Medals 
at Berlin and Philadelphia. Pupil of the Dusseldorf school. He at 
first essayed historical and religious subjects, but afterwards devoted 
himself to the genre subjects which have made him popular in 
Europe and America. He had, some time ago, executed more than 
nine hundred pictures in oils and water-colors. At the National 
Gallerv, Berlin, is his " Little Housewife." At the Johnston sale, 
York, 1876, "The New Sister" (19 by 15) sold for $3,700. 
Almost all his pictures represent children, so that in Germany he has 
been called M Kinder-Meyer." The pictures of this artist are so well 
known, and their place is so well established, that nothing need be 
said of them. They seem to belong to each person who has looked at 
them, because they appeal to all hearts and fix themselves in all mem- 
ories. At the Latham sale, New York, 1878, " What has Mother 
brought?" (20 by 16) sold for $4,050. His "Water-Girl" is in 
the collection of Mrs. H. E. Maynard of Boston. Theron R. Butler 
of New York owns his " Little Coquette," " Leaving Home,"" Medi- 
tation," and " Prayer," and several very fine specimens of his work 
were in the collection of the late Alvin Adams of Watertown, Mass. 

Meyerheim, Frederic-Eduard. (Ger.) Born at Dantzic, 1808. 
Member of the Academiei of Munich, Dresden, and Berlin, and 
Professor at the last. Medal at Paris in 1855. Pupil of his father 
and the Academy of Berlin. He joined some young artists in opposi- 
tion to the Academy, and was obliged to support himself by making 



114 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY, 

lithographs. In 1834 he exhibited the " Blind Beggar," which im- 
mediately placed him in the first rank as a genre painter. At the Na- 
tional Gallery, Berlin, is his " King of the Shooting- Match." 

Meyerheim, Paul Friedrich. (Ger.) Born at Berlin, 1842. 
Member of the Academy of Berlin and of the Belgian Water-Color 
Society. Medals at Berlin and Paris. Genre painter. Pupil of his 
father, E. M. Meyerheim. Traveled in Belgium and Holland, and 
remained a year in Paris. He is a skillful water-colorist and lithog- 
rapher. In the National Gallery at Berlin is his " Antiquary in the 
Market-Place at Amsterdam." At Berlin in 1876 he exhibited " Two 
Portraits," " A Landscape with Cows," and a " Harvest Scene." 

Meynier, Charles. (Fr.) Born at Paris (1768 - 1832). Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Vincent. Meynier took the grand 
prix de Rome in 1789. His picture of the " Entry of the French into 
Berlin " is at Versailles. " The Infant (Edipus presented to Peri- 
bcea " is in the Louvre. This artist decorated the ceiling of the stair- 
case leading to the Museum of Painting, and that of the anteroom 
to the Great Exhibition Hall at the Louvre. 

Meynier, Jules Joseph. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Medals in 1867 
and '77. Pupil of Delaroche, Gleyre, and Bridoux. At the Salon of 
1877 he exhibited " Chrysante and Daria " ; at that of 1867, " The 
First Christians in Prayer at the Entrance to a Crypt " ; and in 1878, 
" Venus chastising Love " and some portraits of children. 

Michel, Ernest-Barthe'lemy. (Fr.) Born at Montpellier, where 
his studio now is. Pupil of Picot and Cabanel. He won the prix de 
Rome in 1860 and a medal in 1870. To the Salon of 1876 he sent 
" Lisa the Bohemian " and " The Doves " ; in 1875, " Fortune and the 
Child," " Young Girl in the Fields," and " Roman Peasants on the 
Steps of a Convent " ; in 1873, " La Pescivendola." To Philadelphia, 
in 1876, he sent " Decameron " ; to the Paris Exposition of 1878, 
" The Charity of St. Martin " (belonging to the church of Saint- 
Nicolas-des-Champs, Paris) and " Daphne." 

Miglioretti, Pascal. (Ital.) Born at Milan. Medal at Paris in 
1855. Pupil of the Academy of Milan, in which city he is known 
by various religious sculptures and monumental decorations. He ex- 
hibited at Paris " The Dying Abel " (1855) ; and in 1867, " Char- 
lotte Corday," " Neapolitan Piccirello," and " The First Grief." 

Mignot, Louis R., N. A. (Am.) Born in South Carolina (1831 
-1871). Spent some years in study in Holland. A landscape- 
painter of much promise, fond of tropical and semi-tropical scenes. 
He lived in New York, and was made a member of the National 
Academy in 1859. Upon the secession of his native State from the 
Federal Union in 1861 he removed to London, where the rest of his 
life was spent. Among his earlier works painted in this country are 
his " Twilight in the Tropics," " Southern Harvest " (belonging to 
R. L. Stuart), " Tropical Scenery " (belonging to M. 0. Roberts), and 






ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 115 

"Source of the Susquehanna" (in the Wright Collection, belonging 

originally to II. W. Derby, exhibited in the Paris Exposition of 1867, 
and in the National Academy of New York the following winter). 
He first exhibited at the Royal Academy, in 18G3, " Lagoon of Guaya- 
quil, South America " and u A Winter Morning" ; in 1865, "Evening 
in the Tropics" ; in 1866, " Under the Equator" ; in 1867, "Tin- 
torn" ; in 1870, "Sunset off Hastings"; in 1871, "Mount Chim- 
borazo." His collected works were exhibited in London after his 
death, and attracted considerable attention. 

" At home and abroad Mignot's best landscapes have won admiration. Ho is a mas- 
ter of color, and some of his atmospheric experiments are wonderful. Compare one of 
his winter with one of his tropical scenes, and the absolute truth of his manner and 
method becomes impressive." — Tuckerman's Book of the Artists. 

Millais, John Everett, R. A. (Brit.) Born in Southampton, 
Spent his early years in France, and among the Channel Isl- 
ands. Received a medal from the Society of Arts in 1838, when only 
nine years of age. He entered the Royal Academy two years later, 
gaining two silver medals. Exhibited his first picture in the Royal 
Academy, in 1S46, " Pizarro seizing the Men of Peru" ; in 1847 he 
received the gold medal for an historical painting, " The Tribe of Ben- 
jamin seizing the Daughters of Shiloh " ; in 1850 he exhibited " Christ 
in the House of his Parents," and his famous " Huguenot Lovers " in 
1852 ; in 1853, when he was elected Associate of the Royal Acad- 
emy, he sent " The Order of Release " and " The Proscribed Royal- 
ist : ' ; in 1855, " The Rescue " ; in 1856, " Autumn Leaves" ; in 1860, 
" The Black Brunswicker " ; in 1862, " The Ransom " and " Trust 
Me" ; in 1863, " My First Sermon," " The Wolfs Den," and " The 
Eve of St. Agnes." He was made Academician in 1864, contributing 
'• My Second Sermon/' " Charlie is my Darling," and others ; in 1865, 
he sent " Joan of Arc," " Esther," and " The Romans leaving Brit- 
ain" ; in 1867, " The Minuet," " Sleeping," and "Waking" ; in 1868, 
he sent his diploma work, " A Souvenir of Velasquez," " Pilgrims to 
St. Paul's," and " Rosalind and Celia " ; in 1869, " The Gambler's 
Wife," " The End of the Chapter," and several portraits ; in 1 870, 
"The Knight-Errant," "The Boyhood of Raleigh," and "The Wid- 
ow's Mite " ; in 1871, " Chill October " and " Yes or No ? " ; in 1872, 
" Flowing to the River," " Flowing to the Sea," and " Hearts are 
Trumps " ; in 1*73, " Early Days " and " New-Laid Eggs" ; in 1874, 
" Winter Fuel," " The Northwest Passage," " The Picture of Health," 
and " A Day's Dream " ; in 1875, " The Fringe of the Moor," " The 
Crown of Love," and " No ! " ; in 1876, " Forbidden Fruits," " Getting 
Better," " Over the Hills and Far Away," and many portraits ; in 
1877, " A Yeoman of the Guard," " The Sound of many Waters," 
and " Yes ! " ; in 1878, " The Princes in the Tower," "A Jersey Lily," 
and a portrait of the Earl of Shaftesbury. His " Effie Deans," engraved 
by Oldham Barlow, A. R. A., wa.s exhibited in 1877, at a private gal- 



116 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

lery in London, for the benefit of the Artists' General Benevolent 
Institution, of which Mr. Millais is the Honorary Secretary. Many 
of his works have been engraved. He is considered the leading por- 
trait-painter to-day in England, receiving, it is said, two thousand 
guineas for a single full-length likeness. With Mr. Madox Brown, 
D. G. Rossetti, Holman Hunt, and a few more (in 1850 or earlier), he 
founded an association called " The Brotherhood of the Pre-Raphael- 
ites, " which was the introduction of what is now known as the " Pre- 
Raphaelite School of Painting " in England, whose principal theory 
of action, according to Fairholt, is a rigid adherence to natural forms 
and effects in contradistinction to the style of rendering of any par- 
ticular school of art. One of the earliest, and perhaps the most marked 
of Mr. Millais' pre-Raphaelite pictures, was " The Child Jesus in the 
Workshop of Joseph the Carpenter," painted in 1850, wonderful in its 
naturalism and attention to the minutest details. He exhibits at the 
Grosvenor Gallery. His " Early Days " was at Philadelphia in 1876 ; 
" Chill October " and " Hearts are Trumps." at Paris in 1878. Mr. 
Marsden bought his " Bride of Lammermoor," the same year, for 
£ 3,000. 

" In 1871 Millais electrified once more the art-loving public by the insurpassable truth 
of his ' Chill October,' a landscape picture, the exquisite subdued tone of which is one 
great element of its strength." — Mrs. Tytler's Modem Painters. 

"The critics will differ as to the qualities of each composition, but no single individ- 
ual will venture to question the genius and consummate ability of the artist. Mr. Mil- 
lais is one of the most powerful painters enrolled in the list of Academicians." — Art 
Journal, June, 1875. 

" Millais has placed himself at the head of the living portrait-painters of Great Brit- 
ain As a colorist, it is difficult to see why he should not be assigned to a place 

among the foremost that Great Britain has produced" — Benjamin's Contemporary Art 
in Europe. 

"It is simply impossible to render adequate justice to this masterpiece of natural 
representation [' Over the Hills and Far Away ']. It is a very splendid illustration of 
the author's extraordinary genius, exhibiting consummate draughtsmanship, marvelous 
power of coloring, and vivid truthfulness of execution." — Art Journal, July, 1876. 

" Very many of Millais' drawings on wood have all of the qualities of good etchings 
which the difference of the two processes will permit. His manner of sketching is an 
excellent manner for an etcher. It is delicate without over-minuteness, and it is rapid 
and free without neglecting anything essential. " — Hamerton's Etching and Etchers, 1876. 

Miller, Alfred J. (.4m.) Born in Baltimore (1810-1874). His 
first lessons in art were received from Thomas Sully. After painting 
with success in Baltimore and Washington he went to Europe in 
1833, studying in Paris, Rome, and Florence, and living on intimate 
terms with Thorwaldsen, Greenough, Gibson, and Vernet. He was 
also a fellow-traveler with Brantz Mayer and "B. P. Willis. His works 
in Europe were chiefly copies of the old masters, but they were con- 
sidered of great excellence. At New Orleans in 1837 he met Sir 
William Drummond Stewart, a Scottish Baronet, with whom he 
visited the Rocky Mountains, making a series of sketches of scenes 
and incidents of the trip which were the groundwork of the very 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 117 

interesting gallery of Indian pictures now at Murthley Castle, the 
scat of Sir W. 1). Stewart, and probably the most valuable collection 
of paintings relating to aboriginal American life extant. He spent 
the winter of 1841 at Tay mouth, the guest of the Duke of Breadal- 
bane in the Highlands of Scotland, painting several family portraits. 
Returning to Baltimore, he practiced his profession there until his 
death. In portraiture he followed the school of Lawrence. For 
W. T. Walters of Baltimore he reproduced in water-colors (accom- 
panied by his private journal of the Rocky Mountain expedition) the 
pictures he had painted for Stewart. His works are in many of the 
important collections of this country. 

Miller, Charles H. f N. A. (Am.) Born in New York, 1842. 
Studied medicine, and graduated in 1863. During his medical course 
he painted occasional pictures, and first exhibited at the National 
Academy, in 1860, "The Challenge Accepted." In 1864 he went to 
Europe, and again in 1867, visiting the art centers, and finally settling 
in Munich, where he remained three years, and became a student of 
Professor Lier and of the Bavarian Royal Academy. He made fre- 
quent excursions to Dresden, Vienna, and Berlin. He exhibited at the 
National Academy, New York, in 1869, " Near Munich, Bavaria " ; 
in 1870, "Old Mill near Munich" and "Roadside near Munich" ; 
in 1871, "Sunset" and "Twilight at Duchau near Munich"; in 
1872, "Old Mill, Springfield" and "Old Bridge, Munich " ; in 1874, 
"Old Oaks at Creedmoor, Long Island" ; in 1875, " Sheep- Washing 
on Long Island " and " High Bridge from Harlem Lane, New York " ; 
in 1876, " Bush-Burning on Long Island " and " New York from 
Newton Creek" ; in 1877, "On the Road to Market, Long Island" 
and "Autumn" ; in 1878, "Sunset, East Hampton, Long Island." 

He was elected an Associate of the National Academy in 1873 or 
'74, and Academician in 1875. Miller's "Sunset at Queen's, New 
York " belongs to Robert Gordon ; his " Road to the Mill," to John 
L. Melcher. His " Oaks at Creedmoor, Long Island " was at the 
Paris Exposition of 1878. 

"Mr. Miller contributed his ' Returning to the Fold,' 'The Road to the Mill,' and 
Bridge, New York,' all of which show decided merit with a strong foreign accen- 
tuation."— Prof. Weir's Official Report of the American Centennial Exhibition of 1876. 

" Miller's ' Long Island Landscape ' is an admirable little picture, full of vigor, but 
the upper clouds look too heavy. A dark landscape covered by a dark sky which is 
bright towards the horizon." — New York Times, April 3. 1S77. 

Millet, Jean-Francois. (Fr.) Born at Greville (1814-1875). 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Delaroche. This artist 
M'as one of nine children. His father had no means to spare for his 
education ; his grandmother, and an uncle, who was a priest, taught 
him as well as they could. Very early his vocation for painting 
declared itself, and in 1834 he went to study with Langlois at Cher- 
bourg. His progress was so remarkable that the municipal council of 
Cherbourg gave him a small pension in order that he might go to 



118 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Paris. In 1837 he became the pupil of Delaroche ; and soon the 
friend of Corot, Theodore Rousseau, Dupre, and Diaz. He was often 
hungry and cold, for his pension was very small ; but he had the 
health of a Normandy peasant, as he often called himself, and he 
was always courageous and hopeful. For a time he hesitated between 
historical and genre painting, but at length fixed upon representations 
of pastoral life, that which he knew so well, and with which he was 
in sympathetic accord. In 1853 he exhibited at the Salon, " The 
Reapers," "A Shepherd," and "The Sheep-Shearers," and received his 
first medal ; in 1855, "A Peasant grafting a Tree " ; in 1857, "The 
Gleaners," which became famous. After this time there was much 
discussion over his works. " The Woman grazing her Cow " (1859), 
" The Shepherdess with her Flock " and " Peasants bearing Home a 
Calf born in the Field" (1864), and the "Knitting-Lesson" (1869), 
were bitterly criticised on the one hand, and passionately praised on 
the other. In 1870 he sent works to the Salons for the last time : 
" November " and " A Woman churning Butter." In the Luxem- 
bourg are, " The Church at Greville " (for which 12,200 francs was paid 
after Millet's death), " The Bathers," and a number of designs or stud- 
ies in pencil, crayon, and pen drawing. Among his works we would 
also mention, " A Bit of the Village of Greville," sold at the Faure 
sale in 1873 for 20,300 francs • "A Woman with a Lamp" at the Laurent- 
Richard sale, 38,500 francs; " The Evening Angelus " ; " The Potato- 
Gathering" ; " The Mother cradling her Child"; etc. In the "Har- 
vest of Beans," Millet introduced the portrait of his mother, and the 
cottage in which he was born. This artist executed only about eighty 
pictures. When we consider that he painted thirty-one years this is not 
a large number. He gave much thought to his subjects ; he retained 
his canvases in his studio, and returned to them from time to time, in 
order to give to them exactly the sentiment he wished them to express. 
Millet was in one way extremely remarkable, we might almost say 
unique ; he never painted from a model. What acuteness of observa- 
tion was required in order to reproduce from memory, as he did, not 
only the characteristics of attitude and aspect in his figures, but the 
details of his landscapes ! He left, besides his pictures, numerous de- 
signs and studies in different modes of execution. After his death 
all that were in his studio (many unfinished) were sold at the Hotel 
Drouot ; they numbered fifty-six, and brought 321,034 francs. M. 
Gavet had a collection of designs by Millet, numbering ninety-five, 
which were also sold at the Hotel Drouot, a short time after the sale 
above mentioned. Previously, however, M. Gavet had generously 
placed half his collection on exhibition for one month, for the benefit of 
the family of the artist. The sale brought 431 ,050 francs; there were not 
more than twenty purchasers, and but one who was not French. Mil- 
let had also executed quite a number of etchings and a few wood-engrav- 
ings. The following plates have been made by others from his works: 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 119 

"The Angelas," engraved by Wnltner ; " Death and the Wood-Cutter," 
" (Edipus," and the " Harvest of Beans," by Edmond Hedouin. " The 
Rustic Labors " and M Les quatre heures du jour " (fourteen pieces) 
have been copied in wood-cuts by Adrien Lavielle. At the Museum 
of Fine Arts, Boston, are " An Interior " (unfinished), presented by 
Martin Brimmer, and "Bergere Assise," gift of S. D. Warren. 

"Tlie late M. Millet, besides being a landscape-painter, was a great tigure-painter. 
In the opinion of many, and those not the admirers of the newest phase of French art, 
the Courbet-Manet-Corot school, he was the first French painter of his time. Certainly 
the French school has never produced an artist with such thorough devotion to nature, 
or who has so truthfully rendered scenes and emotions of natural life. His works have 
nothing tl.catrical or cynical about them. To an Englishman they are suggestive of the 
poetry and sentiment of Burns, and the sympathetic feeling for nature of Wordsworth. 
He had the art of introducing into pictures of modem French pastoral life, while retaining 
the truthfulness of nature, all the elevated qualities of the best artistic culture to be found 
in the works of the great masters. Those who remember the 'Angelus du Soir,' in 
the Exposition of 1S67, well know this is no exaggeration. The picture represents a 
couple of peasants, man and woman, who, while at work in the field, hear the bell of the 
distant church tolling the Angelus. They stop work, reverently bowing their heads in 
silent prayer. For expression of devotion equally genuine we must go back to the 
works of the early Itilian masters. 

"Many of your readers who delighted in Millet's works will probably be interested in 
hearing of some of the pictures he was last engaged on, but of which few, alas, we may 
hope, were quite completed. For he kept his works long in the studio, always endeav- 
oring to make them as perfect as possible, not only in their execution but in their senti- 
ment. I remember his showing me a picture of a village church of Normandy, the one 
in which he was christened. On my speaking of it as completed, ' No,' he said, * there 
is an impression of this scene as it struck my imagination when a child which I have 
not succeeded in rendering, but which I hope to get some day.' 

" Barbison is one of those French villages we know so well, a long street of cottages and 
small farm-houses, with their picturesque bassecours. At the top of the village, ap- 
proaching the forest of Fontainebleau, is a range of modest buildings, one of which has a 
large window. This is the residence and studio of Millet. One day last autumn, being 
at Barbison, I sent my card to M. Millet, and asked permission to see any work he might 
have finished. He very kindly acceded to my request, and led the way along a shaded 
alley to his studio. His appearance was decidedly more provincial than Parisian. He 
wore a straw hat, loose shooting-coat, and sabnts. His manner was especially courteous 
and genial, though very quiet. He gave me the impression of being nearer fifty than 
sixty years of age. 

" The picture ou his easel represented an old farm-house in Normandy, in which were 
visible traces of Gothic windows and buttresses ; in front was some broken ground with 
implements of lal>or ; in the distance, the sea The charm of the picture was in the 
sentiment of sunny reimse in which the old moss and lichen-covered house was steeped. 
Seeing the resj>eet I had for his work, Millet then produced a series of pictures he had 
in progress, but which space forbids me to more than briefly notice ; the hints will be 
sufficient for those who know his pictures. Among the figure-subjects were two lovely 
little idyls, one a shepherd-girl leading home her sheep, girl and sheep and landscape all 
flushed in rosy light. The second, a boy on a bank blowing his horn to call the cows ; 
the figure was relieved against a sunset sky. A very striking work represented an 
orchard in springtime ; the sun was shining on the near objects and middle distance, 
over which the rain had just passed ; on the dark stormy sky shone a double rainbow. 
Also a stormy landscape was one subject, with a flock of sheep being driven to shelter 
under the cover of haystacks. I must not omit a noble composition of which the scene 
was laid in an autumn field, on a warm sunny afternoon. Women are bringing sheaves 



120 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

of com to the threshing-ground, around which are ranged a score or so of threshers. 
This group, for varied and spirited action, is marvelous, and it suggested an orchestra 
executing an allegro motive in a symphony of Beethoven ; behind, straw is being burned, 
the huge wreath of smoke giving additional impressiveness to the composition. 

"There was a series of works that appeared to me deeply touching even then, when 
their author stood before me in health and vigor. These were some pictures and draw- 
ings made during the late war in the neighborhood of his birthplace, a village near Cher- 
bourg. In them was reflected the sadness which must have fallen on every patriotic 
Frenchman during that terrible period. Its expression was, perhaps, most profoundly 
given in a landscape representing the seashore, with a long range of low cliffs, the undu- 
lating ground and slightly agitated sea being painted in varied tones of gray, exquisitely 
harmonious, but inexpressibly mournful. 

"He seemed to regard with much tenderness a drawing of the house where he was 
born, very like Burns' cottage, only having an additional story. ' My ancestors were 
peasants,' said he, ' and I was born a peasant.' 

" Herein was the secret of his success, and of his power in reaching the hearts of men. 
He painted what he had known and loved. He studied and first practiced his art at 
Paris ; latterly, he seems wholly to have lived in the country, and had even given up ex- 
hibiting his pictures at the Salon. ' The work there,' he remarked, ' has too much glare 
and glitter, and too little of the modesty of nature.' " — H. Wallis, London Times. 

" At the outset it may be observed that Millet, the greatest painter of humanity seen 
in France for forty years or more, died last year. None like him survive. To him the 
human body, with all its exquisite forms and retreating curves, delicate grays and reds, 
and soft, palpitating flesh, was but a casket, beautiful indeed, but inclosing a still more 
wonderful and beautiful soul that speaks its volitions and thoughts, its emotions and 
sensations, with every movement of those limbs, with every parting of those lips, and 
every glance of those eyes, to whose eloquent and infinite radiance the opals of the Ural 
or the diamonds of Golconda are but inert matter in comparison. Such was humanity 
to the searching, divining spirit of Millet." — Benjamin's Contemporary Art in Europe. 

" This picture [' The Gleaners '] attracts you from afar by an air of grandeur and se- 
renity. I might almost say that it announces itself as a religious picture. All is calm 
there, the drawing is without a fault and the color without glitter. The August sun 
vigorously warms the canvas, but you find not there those capricious rays which sport 
themselves in the pictures of M. Diaz, like scholars in vacation-time : the sun of Millet 
is an earnest sun which ripens the grain, which makes men sweat, and loses no time in 
trifling." — Edmond About, Salon of 1S57. 

" Very different from the mannerists of the ugly, who under a pretext of realism sub- 
stitute the hideous for the true, he seeks and attains style in the representations of the 
types and scenes of the country ; he knows how to give them a rare grandeur and noble- 
ness, while he in no sense lessens their rusticity. He understands the inward poesy of 
the fields, he loves the peasants whom he represents, and in their resigned figures ex- 
presses his sympathy for them. The seed-sowing, the harvest, the grafting, are they not 
virtuous actions having their worth and their grandeur? Why have not peasants style as 
well as heroes ? " — Theophile Gautier. 

" The aim of a great painter is not to fly away towards the moon and the stars : it is 
to walk with a firm step and a feeling heart in the path which he chooses, always sin- 
cere towards himself, towards men, and towards nature. This aim Millet had ; and it 
was that which made him incomparable and immortal." — Theophile Silvestre. 

Millet, Aime". (Fr.) Born at Paris about 1816. Officer of the 
Legion of Honor. Pupil of his father, of David d' Angers, and Viol- 
let-le-Duc. He studied both painting and sculpture, and made his 
debut as a painter at the Salon of 1842 ; he continued to exhibit 
pictures until 1852. He is best known and most admired as a sculp- 
tor. Among his works may be mentioned, "Ariadne " (at the Luxem- 



ARTISTS OF THE MXETEENTII CENTURY. 121 

bourg); u Mercury " (made lor the Louvre); "Civil Justice" (made 
for the Mairie of the first arrondissement of Paris) ; the tomb of Mur- 
ger, M Youth stripping Leaves from Roses"; a Apollo and the Muses 
of Poetry and Dancing" (group in bronze for the New Opera at 
Paris) ; u Vercingltorix " (a statue in copper, repousstf), erected at 
Alise-Sainte-Reine (Cote-d'Or), and "Cassandra placing herself under 
the Protection of Pallas " (marble group), Salon of 1877. One of 
the most interesting works of this sculptor is the statue of Chateau- 
briand, erected at St Malo (where this author was born) on Septem- 
ber 5, 1S75. Chateaubriand is represented seated on a rock. His left 
hand is raised to support the head, but in such a way that the entire 
face is visible ; in his right hand, which falls on the lap, he holds a 
crayon. At his feet are exotic plants which recall the travels of 
Chateaubriand when young. A leaf of the " Genius of Christianity " 
is held by his elbow on the rock against which he half supports him- 
self ; he is enveloped in a large cloak, which falls gracefully away 
from the upper part of the figure. The whole effect is most pleasing, 
and the statue is much admired for its conception and execution. To 
the Salon of 1878 he contributed two portrait busts in marble. 

Millet, Francis D. (Am.) Born in Mattapoisett, Mass., 1846. 
He studied in the Royal Academy of Arts at Antwerp under Van 
Lerius and De Keyser, gaining the silver and gold medals of honor 
in 1872 and '73. He has practiced his profession in the United 
States, Belgium, England, Italy, France, and Austria. He has painted 
a number of portraits, the most important being those of Charles 
Francis Adams, Jr., and of Samuel L. Clemens (Mark Twain), both 
exhibited at the National Academy, New York, in 1877. A large 
picture called u The Bay of Naples, 1 ' at the Brussels Salon of 1875, 
was at the American Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876. 
He was the American Art Juror at the Paris Exposition of 1878, and 
has distinguished himself as a journalist in America and Europe. 

" In the North Room, we first encounter Mr. Millet's portrait of Charles Francis 
Adams, Jr. This, and the portrait of Mark Twain at the other end of the room, are his 
only contributions. The latter, owing to its subject, is the more characteristic. Both 
portraits are aiccellent, yet with higher flesh-tints than the originals ; the figures are 
solid, detach themselves immediately from the background, and are a refreshing contrast 
to the dim, vapory forms which some portrait-painters give us." — Bavard Taylor, in 
New York Trihune, April 7, 1878. 

Mills, Clark. (Am.) Born in the State of New York, 1815. He 
learned the trade of a plasterer in Charleston, S. C, beginning about 
1835 the modeling of busts in clay, selling his ideal heads for modest 
prices for some years. His first important work in marble was a bust of 
John C. Calhoun, finished in 1846, for which he was awarded a gold 
medal by the City Council of Charleston, in whose possession this work 
still is. Going thereafter to Washington, D. C, he received a com- 
ion from Congress for the equestrian statue of Jackson in that 
city, cast from cannon captured by that hero, and unveiled on the 

VOL. II. 6 



122 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

8th of January, 1853. For this Congress voted Mills $ 20,000, and 
$50,000 for the Washington statue unveiled in 1860. In 1863 he 
cast in bronze the statue of " Freedom," designed by Crawford, and 
now on the dome of the Capitol. A duplicate of the Jackson statue 
is in New Orleans. 

"That Clark Mills possesses genius cannot be doubted, and if his works do not 
possess all of the conventional graces of European art, he has certainly produced two 
statues which are original and in perfect keeping with the manly vigor of the Young 
Republic." — New York Round Table, 1866. 

" Clark Mills' equestrian statues look like some prodigious Congressional jokes on 
art." — Jarves' Art Thoughts. 

Milmore, Martin. (Am.) Born in Boston, 1845. He entered the 
studio of Ball in 1860, and in 1863 he sent to the Sanitary Fair a 
statuette, entitled " Devotion." He studied and modeled for some 
time in Rome, executing there busts of Pius IX., Sumner, Wendell 
Phillips, Emerson, and other noted men. He received the commission 
for the Soldiers' Monument in Boston, unveiled in 1877, also for the 
Soldiers' Monument in Forest Hill, Roxbury, Mass. Among his 
works may be mentioned, busts of Longfellow, Theodore Parker, and 
of George Ticknor, in the Public Library, Boston ; one of R. W. 
Emerson, belonging to T. G. Appleton, Boston ; also the ideal figures, 
of large size, " Ceres," " Flora," and " Pomona," in granite on the Bos- 
ton Horticultural HalL His bust of Charles Sumner was presented 
to George William Curtis by the State of Massachusetts in 1878. He 
has been happy in representing children. A bust of a young son of 
ex-Governor Claflin of Massachusetts is notable among his works of 
this sort. 

" The subject is most gracefully treated [Soldiers' Monument, Boston], and the artist 
is entitled to much credit for the skill with which he has worked out a highly poetic 
idea." — Art Journal, October, 1877. 

The Boston Journal of September 18, 1877, in describing the un- 
veiling of the Soldiers' Monument on Boston Common, says : — 

"In this, Mr. Milmore's grandest effort, is noted the purity of style which distin- 
guishes him as an artist A most striking feature of the monument, and one 

which will bear the most careful study, is the series of bronze bas-reliefs which are 
elaborately executed even to the smallest detail The statue of "History ' dis- 
plays a knowledge and skill which stamp it as the work of genius In viewing the 

monument as a whole the spectator cannot fail to be charmed with the symmetry and 
completeness of the structure. The immense amount of labor which the sculptor has 
performed can ouly be fully realized by a close inspection." 

Minardi, Tommaso. (Ital.) Born at Faenza (1787- 1871). This 
artist was a member of several Academies, and received decorations 
from several monarchs of Europe. In a concours at Milan, Minardi 
gained the stipend for Rome, where he received from the engraver 
Longhi a commission for a drawing of the " Last Judgment of Michael 
Angelo," which is now in the Gallery of the Vatican. While at Rome 
he was appointed to a professorship in Perugia, where he became so 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 123 

distinguished that he was made professor in the Academy of St. 
Luke at Rome. His "Vision of St. Stanislaus" is in the Doria 
Palace ; the " Propagation of Faith," a masterly work, is in the Qui- 
rinal ; " Hector reproving Paris," at Ravenna ; the " Supper at Em- 
maus," at Faenza ; and the fresco of "Lost Souls" at Caiupo Verano 
in Rome. Minardi made an album containing four hundred represen- 
tations of the Holy Family. After he was stricken with paralysis he 
made a lovely crayon drawing of " Hippocrates and his Scholars," 
which he presented to his physician, Professor Baccelli of Rome. 

Minor, Robert C. (Am.) Born in New York, 1840. He studied 
art in Paris under Diaz, and in Antwerp under Van Luppen, Boulan- 
ger, and others, traveling through Germany and Italy for some time. 
His studio is in New York, and he has exhibited at the National 
Academy, in Brooklyn, Chicago, and elsewhere in America. Among 
his works are, " Evening,"' " Dawn," " Studio of Corot," etc. He is a 
member of the Society of American Artists. 

"When we come to the works of our resident artists, who represent what may be 
called the progressive school of art, we find much to admire. Robert C. Minor's land- 
scapes are always as interesting as they are characteristic. They are strongly impressed 
with the sentiment of the place and the hour which they represent .... His ' Studio 
of Corot,' a charming bit of landscape, how it impresses you with just the feeling you 
would have in the solitude of the country, just after the break of day, and before the 
sun has burned up the far-reaching mists." — Boston Transcript, March, 1S78. 

"There are those, doubtless, who will blame Mr. Minor for direct imitation in his 
' Studio of Corot,* a landscape not surpassed in the Exhibition. But apart from the fact 
that it is permitted to one artist to see a phase of nature as depicted by another, why 
should individuality be denied an artist who, seeing and loving one of nature's aspects, 
endeavors to the best of his ability to acknowledge his indebtedness to the man who 
has most reverently studied and most adequately expressed that same aspect. In Mr. 
Minor's other pictures, especially the three smaller ones, ' Autumn Woods,' ' Under the 
Oaks,' and ' Evening ' [Society of American Artists, 1878], no one will miss individ- 
uality or force, though prettiness — one of the banes of modern art as of modern litera- 
ture—will not be found." — Xew York Evening Mail, March 8, 1873. 

Mintrop, Theodor. (Ger.) Born at Heithausen (1814 - 1870). 
This painter was poor, and labored as a peasant until he was thirty 
years old, when his sketches came under the notice of Geselchap, who 
introduced him to the art circles of Diisseldorf and secured the recog- 
nition of his remarkable powers. He painted but little in oils. His 
best works are cartoons and friezes, full of his fancies. Such subjects 
M " Wine," " Occupations of Winter," " Life in the Fields," and the 
" Apotheosis of Bacchus " were thus rendered by him, and are worthy 
of much praise. 

M'Kay, William D. (Brit.) Native of Gifford, East Lothian, Scot- 
land. He began his art studies in I860, in the Ornamental Class of 
the School of Design in Edinburgh. Later, he studied under Robert 
Scott Lauder from the antique, gaining, in 1863, a first prize for the 
best study in monochrome, and entering the same year the Life Schools 
of the Royal Scottish Academy. He was elected an Associate of the 



124 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Royal Scottish Academy in 1877, exhibiting regularly in its gallery. 
His specialty is landscapes with cattle and figures. His professional 
life has been spent in Edinburgh. Among his pictures may be noted, 
" An October Morning," " Field-Working in Spring, — at the Potato 
Pits," " Twilight," " Seedtime," etc. 

Molteni, Giuseppe. (Ital.) Born at Alf'eri, near Milan (1800- 
1867). Member of the Academy of Milan and Conservator of the 
Brera Gallery. Pupil of the Academy of Milan. His picture of " The 
Confession " is in the Vienna Gallery. " A Holy Family " is at the 
National Gallery, Berlin. His works are principally in private col- 
lections. Molteni gained several medals, and received the decorations 
of various orders. „ 

Monchablon, Xavier Alphonse. (Fr.) Born at Avillers. Prix 
de Rome, 1863. Medals, 1869 and '74. Pupil of Cornu and Gleyre. At 
the Salon of 1877 he exhibited "The Toilet of Venus"; in 1876, a 
portrait and " Jeanne d'Arc"; in 1875, " Sal vator Mundi" and two 
portraits ; and in 1878, " A Fallen Titan " and " Summer," " August," 
and " October," three decorative panels. 

Montagny, Etienne. (Fr.) Born at Saint-^tienne, 1816. Chev- 
alier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Rude and David d' Angers. 
His "Saint Louis de Gonzague " (1864) is at the Luxembourg. In 1877 
he exhibited " St. Francis of Assisi," a statue in stone, and " Hope," 
statue, plaster ; in 1873, " Mater Dei," statue, a font. His portrait 
busts and statues are numerous, and many have been seen at the 
Salons. 

Mont alb a, Clara. (Brit.) A native of Cheltenham. She studied in 
Paris under Eugene Isabey, spending her professional life, which began 
in 1874, in London and Venice. She was elected an Associate of the 
Society of Painters in Water-Colors in 1874, and has been a member 
of the Societe des Acquarellistes Beiges since 1876. Among the more 
important of her works are, " The Last Journey " (7 by 4|), in oil 
(R. A., 1878) ; "Clearing the Customs," water-color (never exhibited), 
4 by 6 feet (both belonging to W. Ingram, M. P.), " Blackfriars' 
Bridge," "Fishing-Boats," "Venice," etc. Her "Blessing a Tomb, 
Westminster," was at the Philadelphia Exhibition of 1876, and her 
" Corner of St. Mark's, Venice " and " Fishing-Boats, Venice " (all in 
water-colors) were at Paris in 1878. 

" ' II Guardino Publico ' stands foremost among the few redeeming features of the 
Exhibition [Society of British Artists, 1874]. In delicate perception of natural beauty 
the picture suggests the example of Corot. Like the great Frenchman, Miss Montalba 
strives to interpret the sadder moods of Nature, when the wind moves the water a little 
mournfully, and the outlines of the objects become uncertain in the filmy air. " — Art 
Jovrnal, January, 1874. 

Monteverde, Giulio. (Ital.) Born at Bristagno, near Acqui, 
about 1836. Professor in the Academy at Rome. The prize of 4,000 
lire given at the National Exhibition of Fine Arts at Milan was 
awarded to the " Genius of Franklin," executed by this sculptor. The 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 125 

work was purchased by the Khedive of Egypt, who conferred on Mon- 
teverde the diploma and insignia of Conimendatoze of Medjie. At 
the Vienna Exposition his group of "Jenner inoculating his little 
Daughter," though only in plaster, attracted much attention and 
gained the gold medal, to which was added the title of Coinmendatore 
of the Order of Francis Joseph- One of the latest works of this Ro- 
man artist is a colossal monumental group, in honor of Riva of Turin. 
A statue called " The First Inspirations of Columbus " is in the Boston 
Art Museum. At Munich in 1870 he exhibited " Children playing 
with a Cat " (belonging to the King of Wiirtemberg). Several works 
by this artist were at the Paris Exposition in 1878, and his model for 
toe monument of Count Massari was much praised by Anatole de 
Montaiglon in the "Gazette dea Beaux-Arts," July, 1878. 

Monvel, Louis-Maurice Boutet de. (Fr.) Born at Orleans. 
Pupil of Cabanel, G. Boulanger, J. Lefebvre, and Carolus Duran. 
Medal of third class in 1878, when he exhibited " The Good Samar- 
itan " and a portrait; in 1877, he sent " The Toilet of Venus " and a 
portrait ; in 1876, two portraits. 

Mooney, Edward, X. A. (.4m.) Born in New York, 1813. 
lie studied in the National Academy, gaining a gold medal for an 
original design of a single figure in oil. He was also a pupil of In- 
nian and of William Page. He has spent his professional life in his 
native city, working, however, during three winters, in Columbus, Ga., 
and one in Savannah. His summer house is at Red Hook, New 
York. His specialty has been portrait-painting. He was elected an 
Associate of the National Academy in 1839 and Academician in 1840. 
Among the better known of Mr. Mooney's portraits is that of Achmet 
Ben Aman, Commander of the ship " Sultan," and representative of 
the Iniaum of Muscat to the United States, which was at the National 
Academy in 1840, and was purchased by the Common Council of 
New York. His portraits of ex-Mayors Isaac L. Varian, Andrew 
Mickle, and Jacob R. Westervelt are in the City Hall, New York; 
that of Judge Edmunds belongs to the New York Bar Association; 
and that of Governor Seward is in the State House at Albany. 

Moore, George B. (Brit.) (1806-1876.) Engaged for some 

jean as a teacher of d r a w in g in the University of London and in 

the Military Academy at Woolwich. Was the author of several useful 

educational works on art subjects. He has not exhibited at the Royal 

my rinoe 1 B59. 

Moore, Albert. (Brit.) A native of York. He studied in the 
Umgham Life Claawi in London, and has practiced his profession in 
the English metropolis for some years. His specialty is the human 
figure, treated in a decorative style. Among his later picture! are, 
" Garnets," at the Royal Academy, in 1878; " Birds," at the Grosvenor 
Gallery, the same year. To the Royal Academy, in 1871, he sent 
" Buttledoor "' and ''Shuttlecock," companion pictures; in 1874, 



126 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

"Shells"; in 1875, "The Flower- Walk"; in 1876, "Beads"; etc. 
His " Finis," " Beads," and the " Palm Fan " were at the Paris Expo- 
sition of 1878. 

"Albert Moore is indeed, I think, so far as any contiguity of modern to ancient art 
may be predicted at all, nearer in spirit to the Greek than any other artist among us. 
.... He stands nearly alone in our day in his realization of an ideal physical nobleness 
in the human type, and in his power of arranging and combining the lines of the human 
form into visible rhythm and symmetry, not less delightful than are the audible rhythm 
and symmetry of music." — Sidney Colvin, in English Painters of the Present Day. 

" The motives of Albert Moore's art certainly differ widely from that of most of his 
contemporaries; it differs also from the spirit of much that is great in modern painting. 
His purpose does not include either sentiment or passion, and the form and color of his 
work are suggested by the simplest incidents of physical movement." — Art Journal, 
July, 1874. 

" 'The Reader' is the finest picture in the whole fifteen hundred [Royal Academy, 

1877] The very essence of the purity of coloring has been introduced by Mr. 

Albert Moore into this single figure, which, clad in the artistic peculiar shade of red 
overhung with white, stands engrossed in the pamphlet she easily balances in her hands. 
All Mr. Moore's works testify to that rare quality of the good effect produced by contrast 
of color, and the value obtained by placing it judiciously in small quantities. " — i London 
Observer, May, 1877. 

" To a more purely decorative school — for he banishes emotion altogether— belongs 
Mr. Albert Moore, who has studied the treatment of draperies in the Greek, ratherthan in 
the Italian school, and who works in a key of color, or rather of tinting, all his own. 
He has a way of throwing his flesh into half-shadow, whilst the accessories are brilliant, 
and the color of this half-shadow is objectionable, — heavy gray with a tinge of violet ; 
this is his one flaw as a colorist, and we have long remarked it. He draws very suffi- 
ciently well, but no more than that ; and he has an intelligent energy of action, which 
does not mar decorative repose ; of this his ' Birds ' is an example. His plan of yellow 
is exquisitely fanciful and inventive, and in these fine variations he uses as his strongest 
accent orange-color, the one hue all but universally avoided in art, with happy effect." 
— Magazine of Art, July, 1S78. 

Moore, Henry. (Brit.) A brother of Albert Moore, and a pupil 
of the Langham Schools. He paints landscapes and marine views, 
particularly the latter, in oil and water colors. He has a studio in 
London, exhibiting frequently at the Royal Academy for some years. 
He was at one time a member of the Society of British Artists, and 
was elected an Associate of the Society of Painters in Water-Colors 
in 1876. Among his works in oil may be noted, " Loss of a Barque 
in Yarmouth Roads," " The Last of the Light," " Mist and Sunshine," 
"Highland Pastures," " Moonlight," etc. In water-colors he has exhib- 
ited " Sunset in the Highlands," " The First Snow of Autumn," " A 
Fresh Breeze" (marine), "A Salmon Pool," "A Mountain Loch," and 
others. To the Philadelphia Exhibition of .1876 he sent "A Winter 
Gale in the Channel " and " Storm coming on at Sunset, Coast of 
North Wales," both in oil. To Paris, in 1878, he sent (also in oil- 
colors) "Rough Weather in the Mediterranean" and "A Bright 
Morning after a Gale." 

" ' Against the Tide ' [water-color] is by an artist, Henry Moore, who describes the 
different moods of the sea with language peculiarly forcible, and without exhausting his 
means of effect with exaggerated masses of water." — Art Journal, March, 1873. 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY: 127 

" H. Moore's ' Loss of a Barque ' is a vessel agroun<l and swamped by breakers. The 
movement of the waves is powerfully rendered, and the sea is very truly painted ; there 
is much beauty in the effect of light and local color ; the modeling, though the reverse 
of smooth, is characteristic of the painter." — London Athtna-um, May, 1S77. 

" We must give strong praise to Henry Moore's ' Highland Pastures,' a picture which 
unites with the artist's invariable mastery of hand and knowledge, a repose and reserve 
of color which are less usual in his works." — >\fa(ja:inc of Art, August, 1S78. 

Moore, H. Humphrey. (Am.) Born in New York, 1844. Dis- 
played a taste for ait at an early age; studied in his native city and in 
San Francisco. In 1865 be went to Munich. After some time spent 
there and in l'Ecole dea Beaux- Arts in Paris, he entered the studio of 
me. Later, going to Spain, he met Fortuity at Madrid, whose 
friend and pupil he became. He devoted two years to the study of 
:ish life, and between the years 1873 and '75, he worked in Rome 
with Fortuny on his " Almeh." In 1875 he returned to the United 
States. Among his better-known pictures are his "Almeh," "Blind 
Guitar- Player " (belonging to Robert Graves of Tarrytown), "Gypsy 
Encampment, Granada," " Moorish Bazaar " (belonging to Charles S. 
Smith of New York), " Let Me Alone ! " (in the collection of Judge Hil- 
ton), M A Bulgarian," u Moorish Merchant," etc. He received a medal 
for the " Almeh " at the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition of 1876. 

" ' The Moorish Merchant,' by H. H. Moore, is a very strongly painted picture, illus- 
trative of a scene in Tangiers, where the picture was painted. We believe Mr. Moore 
was once a pupil of Fortuny ; at any rate, his art motives and ideas are of the character 
of that artist The drawing of this picture deserves marked attention, and the coloring, 
although necessarily gay, is true to nature. The heads are characteristic both of the 
race and with reference to the action of the scene. " — Buffalo Courier, February 7, 1S77. 

" The figure of the swaying, admirably drawn, and poised woman has the modesty of 
unconsciousness, associated with gayety ; the abandon of delight in a voluptuous dance 
without the expression or manner of one impure. The dance, or rather body-swaying, of 
the ' Alrneh ' is located by the artist in one of the gorgeous halls of the Alhambra, fres- 
coed in the intricate and dreamy harmony of Moresque decorations, and over the floor 
is spread a carpet rich in warm hues. The attitude of the girl leaves the body semi-nude, 
and, while correct in ]>oint of costume, is contrived with consummate judgment for effect 
in color. '* — San Francisco Morning Call, November 11, 1S77. 

Moran, Edward, A. N. A. (Am.) Born in Lancashire, England, 
1829. Elder brother of Peter and Thomas Moran. He arrived in 
Philadelphia in 1844, and was a pupil of James Hamilton, marine- 
painter, and of Paul Weber, landscape-artist. He went abroad in 
1^02, studying in the Royal Academy, London, for a few months. In 
1869 he settled in New York, going to Paris in 1877, where he still 
resides (1878). He is a member of the Philadelphia Academy of Fine 
and was elected an Associate of the National Academy in 1873. 
Hil fust pictures were exhibited in Philadelphia in 1853. Among 
the better known of his work^ ne, " Mt. Lafayette from Franconia, 
N. II.." '• Bay of New York " (several views), - Liberty enlightening 
the World," " Launch of the Life-Boat" (owned by Matthew Read of 
Philadelphia), " The Lord staying the Waters " (owned by Robert 
Hare Powell, Philadelphia), "Outward Bound" (owned by Ch 



128 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Sharpless, Philadelphia), "The Last from the Wreck," "The Tempest, 
from ' David Copperfield,' " " The Bottom of the Sea," " The Arrival 
of the Relief Ship at Havre," " Old Fort Dumpling, Newport" (be- 
longing to George L. Thayer of Boston), etc. 

To the Centennial Exhibition of 1876 he sent " The Hawk's Nest " 
and " Minot Ledge Light " (belonging to Mrs. H. E. Lawrence), " The 
Winning Yacht " (belonging to W. A. Caldwell), " Moonlight in 
New York Bay " and " Coming Storm over New York Bay " (belong- 
ing to R. E. Moore). Mr. Moran is at present turning his attention 
particularly to figure-painting in Paris, and with promise of much 
success. 

" Mr. Moran very justly merits the reputation which he enjoys as an eminent land- 
scape and marine painter, for it has been earned by diligent application, combined with 
close observation of nature. He seems to be constituted peculiarly for an artist, for 
with quick perceptive faculties and a mind capable of reflection, the task of transcrib- 
ing and translating with truthfulness the simple beauties and refined grandeur of the 
land and sea has not been to him an irksome toil, but has proved a pleasure ; conse- 
quently, his pictures have in the highest degree the quality of imparting delight to 
others. An appreciative observer cannot fail to regard them as faithful and intelligent 
interpretations of the truth and the sentiment of ever- varying nature The versa- 
tility of this artist is also unusual, for there are few subjects of general interest in the 
outer world that he has not touched. The willow-copse and the lily-pond, the caves of 
ocean and the mountain snow-hooded and severe, children busy with nets or playing on 
the shelly sand, the freshness of spring and the glory of autumn, are among his produc- 
tions.'' — Philadelphia Evening Bulletin, March 6, 1871. 

" ' In the Narrows,' by Edward Moran, is the finest marine we have yet seen from his 
pencil. Nothing could be simpler in plan or color The great charm of the pic- 
ture is motion. That is something far beyond effects of technique. Everything is in 
swift or beautiful motion. The forms of the water are exquisitely chiseled, so sharp and 
yet so fleeting, and painted all with two colors, the local color of the water and its 
shadow color. The drawing shows no random work, but every stroke laid on with con- 
summate knowledge." —Baltimore Gazette, July 1, 1873. 

Moran, Thomas. (Am.) Born in Lancashire, England, 1837. 
Brother of Edward and Peter Moran. He was taken to America in 
1844. Displayed artistic tastes at an early age, and was apprenticed 
to a wood-engraver in Philadelphia, remaining with him for two 
years. He turned his attention to water-color painting, studying 
without a master. In 1860 he began the use of oils, his first picture 
being an illustration of Shelley's " Alastor." He went to Europe in 
1862, and again in 1866, studying and copying on his first visit the 
works of Turner in London ; on his second, the old masters in France 
and Italy. In 1871 he accompanied the Exploring Expedition to the 
Yellowstone Country, and in 1873 went upon a similar expedition 
under Major Powell, making sketches for his two great works, " The 
Grand Canon of the Yellowstone " and " The Chasm of the Colo- 
rado," which were purchased by Congress for $ 10,000 each, and are 
both in the Capitol in Washington. His studio was in Philadelphia 
until 1872, when he removed to New York. He is an Academician 
of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, a member of the Artists' 






ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 129 

Fund Society of Philadelphia, of the Society of American Painters in 
Water-Colon, and of the Society of American Artists, organized in 
1 ^7^. Among the more important of Mr. Moran's works may be men- 
tioned, "The Last Arrow n (belonging to Mr. Baird of Philadelphia), 
"The Ripening of the Leaf" (to Mr. Drexel), " The Groves were 
God's First Temples" (to Dr. J. M. Sommerville of Philadelphia), 
u The Remorse of Cain " (to V. Stausse, Philadelphia), " The Chil- 
dren of the Mountain " (at the Paris Exposition of 1867, belonging to 
RoswelJ Smith of New York), " The Cliffs of Green River " (to John 
Taylor Johnston of New York), "The First Ship," "Ponce De Leon 
in Florida," •■ A Dream of the Orient," " A Ride for Life," etc. Many 
of these have been exhibited in New York, Philadelphia, and other 
American cities. He sent to the Centennial, in 1876, " The Moun- 
tain of the Holy Cross," and others, for which he received a medal 
and diploma. 

Besides painting in oil and water-color, Thomas Moran has made 
many illustrations for books of travel, history, etc., the original water- 
color drawings for Prang's " Yellowstone National Park "(the most 
elaborate work of the kind yet produced in this country), and has de- 
voted much time to lithography and other methods of engraving. 

"Next to Church's 'Niagara,* Mr. Moran 's 'Great Cailon of the Yellowstone* will, 
we are sure, be received by the best judges of America as the finest historical landscape 
yet painted in this country. In its original, no less than by its actual achievement, it 
deserves to be placed so near to the most famous picture that ever came out of an 

American studio The composition is arranged with great skill ; the tree drawing 

is most satisfactory, and the variety, the richness, the delicacy of the color, must sur- 
prise those who have learned from other artists that nature in those regions is dressed 
mostly in hodden-gray. " — C. C, in New York Tribune, May 3, 1S72. 

" The shrubbery and the foliage are painted with a free but at the same time a careful 
hand, and even though occupying a subordinate place in the picture (' The Mountain 
of the Holy Cross '), are finished to a high degree. Mr. Moran 's touch has greatly im- 
proved in firmness, crispness, and certainty, and in this canvas he shows a thorough 
command over the technique of his art The only point in which he seems to have 

failed is in giving distance. The picture seems to lack atmosphere Beyond this we 

have only praise to bestow on the picture." — Boston Saturday Evening Gazette, Novem- 
ber 14, 1875. 

"Of the fidelity of this painting, « The Mountain of the Holy Cross,' to the special 
characteristics of the Rocky Mountains no traveler in the far West can hold one moment 
of question. Of the skill in management there can be as little difference of opinion." — 
Aldine, April, 

Moran, Peter. (Am.) Born in Bolton, Lancashire, England, 
1842. He went first to America as a child, and began the study of 
art under his brother, Thomas Moran, in Philadelphia. In 1863 he 
went to London, and spent some time in studying the English mas- 
ters, but he has never been connected with any particular school of 
painting. He was elected a member of the Artists' Fund Society in 
1887, and of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in 1868. He 
has spent his professional life in Philadelphia, where many of his pic- 
6* i 



130 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 



tares have been exhibited and are owned. To the Centennial Exhibi- 
tion of 1876 he sent " The Return of the Herd " (for which he received 
a medal) and " A Settled Rain " (sheep in a barnyard), which was 
purchased by a gentleman of New York. He received also a medal 
for his etchings on copper, — five frames of animal subjects. To the 
National Academy, in 1875, he sent "A Sunny Slope" ; in 1876, 
" Sand Hills, Atlantic City." His "After the Chase " (rough hounds 
on the outskirts of a wood in autumn) is owned by P. A. Widner of 
Philadelphia, and his " Twilight, — Sheep returning Home " (never 
publicly exhibited) is in the collection of W. H. Whitney of the same 
city. 

" Peter Moran's excellent etchings are very varied in style and subject, and show a 
thorough mastery over the resources of the etching-needle." — Art Journal, June, 1867. 

Moreau, Mathurin. (Fr.) Born at Dijon about 1824. Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Ramey and Dumont. His " Spin- 
ning-Girl " (1861) is at the Luxembourg. This sculptor has usually 
represented such subjects as " Spring," " Summer," " Meditation," etc., 
which require single figures. His groups are, " Sleeping Children," 
" Saltarella," " Primavera," etc. To the Salon of 1878 he sent a statue 
of " Oceanie " and a statuette of " Phryne." 

Moreau, Mathurin-Auguste. (Fr.) Born at Dijon. Son and 
pupil of the preceding. He received a third-class medal in 1874, 
when he exhibited " Hylas," statue, plaster ; " Children," bas-relief, 
terra-cotta ; and " Rita," bust, bronze. In 1877 he exhibited " The 
Path of Flowers," group, plaster. 

Moreau, Adrien. (Fr.) Born at Troyes. Medal in 1876. Pupil 
of Pils. At the Salon of 1877 were " The Tziganes " and " Under 
the Shrubbery" ; in 1876, "Repose at the Farm " and a " Fair in the 
Middle Ages" ; in 1878, " Gypsies of Granada" and "Le menuet." 

Moreau, Gustave. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Chevalier of the Legion 
of Honor. Pupil of Picot. At the Salon of 1876 he exhibited, " Her- 
cules and the Hydra of Lernae," "Salome," and some sketches in 
water-colors. His picture of " The Swimming Lesson " is a pleasing 
work. His "Orpheus" (1868) is at the Luxembourg. 

Moreau-Vauthier, Augustin Jean. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Med- 
als at Paris in 1865 and '75. Pupil of Toussaint. At Philadelphia he 
exhibited a "Young Italian Shepherd," in bronze, and received a 
medal. To the Salon of 1878 he contributed "St. Genevieve " (mar- 
ble statuette) and " Fortune " (plaster statue). 

Morelli, Domenico. (Ital.) Born at Naples, 1826. Honorary 
Member of the Academy of St. Fernando of Spain at Madrid ; of the 
Royal Academy of Archaeology, Literature, and Fine Arts of Naples ; 
and of all the Academies of Fine Arts of Italy. Commander of the 
Orders of SS. Maurice and Lazarus, and of the Crown of Italy, and 
Cavalier of the Order of Civil Merit of Savoy. He resides at Naples, 
and was sent, when quite young, to Rome by the Neapolitan govern- 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 131 

ment. He was the pupil of Prof. Camillo Guerra. In 1855 he took 
the first prize at the Exposition at Naples ; at the National Exposition 
of Italy in 1861, and at the Paris Exposition of 1867, he received gold 
medals. Among his works are, f Cesare Borgia at the Siege of 
Capua," owned by Count Tosca of Palermo ; "Christian Martyrs," 
in the Gallery of Capo di Monte ; " The Assumption," in the Royal 
Cliapel at Naples ; " Taaw and Eleonora" ; a " Madonna and Child," 
in the church of Castellani, which has been praised by Prof. Villari ; 
a " Christ," painted for the composer Verdi ; an " Odalisque after the 
Bath " ; etc. The works of Morelli are much praised by Italian 
critics, and in " Volere and Potere " Sig. Lessona has devoted a 
chapter to him. At the Paris Exposition of 1878 were his " Oda- 
lisque " and M The Temptation of St. Anthony." 

"The Neapolitan Morelli paints sacred subjects in a less ludicrous, declamatory style, 
but after a curious manner, equally removed from any profound feeling. He is versatile 
and clever, but neither sincere nor skillful enough to revive the dubious merits of the 
Spagnuola school of his native city, whose technical eccentricities he affects. So far as 
my observation goes, the ' professors ' of art, like those of literature, darken knowledge 
rather than enlighten the people or advance taste." — Jarves, Art Thoughts. 

Morgan, "William, N. A. (Am.) Born in London, 1826. He 
has spent the greater part of his life in New York, receiving his art 
education in the schools of the National Academy. Among his more 
important paintings are, " Emancipation," in the Olyphant Collec- 
tion (exhibited at the National Academy in 1868) ; " The Legend " 
(N. A., 1875), belonging to Governor Fairbanks of Vermont ; " Song 
without "Words" (N. A., 1876), belonging to Mr. Dutcher of New 
York ; " Motherhood " ; " Reverie " ; " The Oracle " ; etc. 

" From the easel of William Morgan there is a half-length life-sized figure of a girl, 
seated in an old library, surrounded by musty books. The subject is entitled ' The 
Legend,' and, aside from its unexpressive name, forms a delightful study. The pose is 
exceedingly graceful, and the modeling of the face, neck, and arms is painted with rare 
taste.**— Art Journal, 3Iay, 1875. 

Morgan, Matthew ("Matt"). (Brit.-Am.) Born about 1840. 
He was a pupil of Telbin, with whom he worked for some years. He 
painted scenery at Drury Lane Theater, and while engaged at that 
house developed a taste for caricature, which led to his becoming 
connected with the London Tomahawk, a comic illustrated journal. 
Later, he went to Spain, making many large designs in water-colors. 
After his return to London he was engaged by Mr. Frank Leslie, for 
that publisher's newspaper, and went to America about 1865 or '6fi, 
as a rival to Thomas Na-t, who was furnishing political caricatures 
for the Harpers. Later, Mr. M< : employed by Jarrett & 

Palmer and other theatrical manegem in New York, besides engaging 
in certain theatrical ventures of his own. He is at present a resident 
of Philadelphia, drawing on stone in the Ledger Building there. Ib- 
is an occasional contributor to the exhibitions of the American Water- 
Color Society, sending, in 1875, " The Old Home Fading away," of 



132 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

which the Art Journal of March, 1875, said, "The picture is well 
composed, and. is excellent in drawing, but the color is cold. and. 
crude." 

Morin, Francois-Gustave. (Fr.) Born at Rouen, 1809. Chev- 
alier of the Legion of Honor. Member of the Academy of Rouen. 
His u Ariosto reading Fragments of his Poem," and other works of 
his, are in the Museum of Rouen. " Titian preparing his Colors " is 
at the Museum of Havre. Several of his pictures have been engraved 
by Sixdeniers. 

Morot, Aim£-Nicolas. (Fr.) Born at Nancy. Prix de Rome, 
1873. Medal in 1877. Pupil of Cabanel. At the Salon of 1877 he 
exhibited " Medea" and a portrait of Mile. d'J^pinay ; at that of 1873, 
" Daphnis and Chloe." 

Morrell, Imogene Robinson. (Am.) A native of Attleborough, 
Mass., she studied art in Diisseldorf under Camphausen, and in Paris 
under Couture, residing in Paris for some years. She paints por- 
trait, genre, and historical pictures, gaining a medal at the Mechanics' 
Fair, Boston, and at the Exhibition of Philadelphia in 1876. Among 
her more important works are, " The First Battle between the Puri- 
tans and the Indians," and " Washington and his Staff welcoming a 
Provision Train " (both at the Centennial), " David before Saul," and 
others. Her pictures are still signed by her maiden name, Imogene 
Robinson. 

" In the painting of the horses Mrs. Morrell has shown great knowledge of their action, 
and the finish is superb. The work is painted with great strength throughout, and its 
solidity and forcible treatment will be admired by all who take an interest in Revolution- 
ary history In the drawing of the figures of Standish, and the chief at his side, 

and the dead and dying savages, there is a fine display of artistic power, and the group- 
ing of the figures is masterly. As in the companion picture, the utmost care has been 
taken in the finish, and the painting shows a solidity of treatment and a mastery of a 
higher standard in art than is often attained by a female artist. In color the works are 
exceedingly brilliant." — New York Evening Post, February 29, 1S76. 

Morris, P. R, A. R. A. (Brit.) Born in 1836. For two years he 
studied in the British Museum, chiefly the Elgin marbles, entering the 
Royal Academy in 1855. The same year he won the silver medal of 
the Royal Academy for best drawing from life ; in 1856 he received 
two medals ; in 1858 he won the gold medal for the best historical 
painting, " The Good Samaritan," and won also the traveling student- 
ship, spending some time in Italy and France. He first exhibited at 
the Royal Academy, in 1858, " Peaceful Days," a picture purchased 
by T. R. Creswick, R. A. To the Gallery of the British Institute, 
in 1860, he sent the "Widow's Harvest"; in 1864, "Where they 
Crucified Him"; in 1865, "The Battle Scar." His "Voices from 
the Sea" was at the Royal Academy in 1860 ; " Captives' Return," in 
1861 ; " Jesu Salvator," in 1865 ; "Riven Shield," in 1866; "Drift 
Wreck from the Armada," in 1867 ; "Ambuscade," in 1869 ; " The 
Summit of Calvary," in 1871; "Highland Pastoral," in 1872; 



ARTISTS OF THE MXETEENTII CENTURY. 133 

"Whereon he Died," in 1873; "Through the Dell," in 1374; in 
1^7.->, "The Mowers" ; in 1876, " The Sailor's Wedding" ; in 1877, 
"The Heir of the Manor" and "The Lost Heir"; in 1878, when 
he was elected Associate of the Royal Academy, he contributed 
"The First Communion * and "The Tomb." His "Shadow of the 
Cross/' never exhibited, belongs to the Baroness Burdett-Coutts. " The 
Mowers," "The Reaper and the Flowers," and "The Sailor's Wed- 
ding " were at the Paris Exposition of 1878. 

" Mr. Morris has taken the suggestions for the grace that, is in this picture [' End of 
the Journey,' R A., 1S7-T from a simple and earnest style of real life, and the effect he 
gains could be got only by close and long observation of figures and landscape seen to- 
gether. Thus we have no touch of the artificial pose and conscious elegance of the pro- 
fessed model In the execution of the landscape we note what seems to us to be 

the most defective work of the picture. The treatment of twilight wants subtlety and 
depth ; passages of color here and there help to give a crude effect to the whole design. 
Nevertheless, few works of more delicate and tender sentiment are in the Exhibition.'' — 
Art Journal, July, 1S74. 

Morse, Samuel F. B., X. A. (Am.) Born in Charlestown, Mass. 
(1791 - 1872). Graduated at Yale College, 1810. Went to England 
the following year with Washington Allston, whose pupil he was, 
studying also under Benjamin "West. He executed a model of a Dy- 
ing Hercules, for which he received a gold medal from the Adelphi 
Society of Arts. In 1829 he made a second voyage to Europe for the 
purpose of completing his art studies. He was one of the founders 
of the New York Academy of Design in 1826, and its second presi- 
dent, holding the office from 1829 to '45. At one time he was lec- 
turer on the Fine Arts at the New York Athenaeum. As a painter, 
he was not very successful, and abandoned art as a profession in 
1839. Such of his pictures as still exist are prized rather as the work 
of Morse, the inventor of the Electric Telegraph, than on account of 
any particular artistic merit of their own. His " House of Represen- 
tative in Washington in 1823," belonging to Joseph Ripley, was at 
ttional Academy in 1869. 

Morse, Henry D. (Am.) Born in Boston, 1826, where he has since 
lived. He had no instruction in art, and cannot be considered a pro- 
nal artist. Still, in his leisure hours for many years he has 
painted pictures, generally of animals and game, which have met with 
a ready sale in Boston, and are very highly regarded. He is a mem- 
ber of tin- Boston Art Club. 

Mortemart-Boisse, Baron Engnerrand de. (.FY.) Born at 
Paris. Medal in 1876. Pupil of A. Johannot and T. .Tohannot. At 
the Salon of 1^70 he exhibited " The Bed of an Alpine Torrent near 
.aid in 1878, M An Oil Mill near Nice." 

Moser, Karl Adalbert. (Ger.) Born at Berlin, 1832. Medal 
at Berlin, 1854. Pupil of the Berlin Academy. Visited France and 
Italy. He has executed decorations for various government buildings, 
reliefs for the Beuth monument, and the groups on the Belle-Alliance- 



134 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Platze. At the National Gallery, Berlin, is his figure called " Kunst- 
technik." 

Moss, Ella A. (Am.) Born in New Orleans, 1844. Went to 
Europe at an early age, became a pupil of the Diisseldorf schools un- 
der Professor Sohn, and spent many years in the study and practice 
of her profession in Belgium and Germany. She returned to the 
United States in the winter of 1877 - 78, opening a studio in New 
York. Among her portraits are those of many distinguished people 
in Europe and America. She exhibited a portrait of Rev. Dr. Mor- 
gan at the National Academy in 1878. 

Mouchot, Louis. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Chevalier of the Legion 
of Honor. Pupil of Drolling and Belloc. At the Salon of 1877 he 
exhibited "A Dahabieh on the Nile" ; in 1876, " The Ducal Palace 
at Venice " and " The Grand Canal " ; in 1875, " A Shop at Cairo " 
and "The Shadoof"; in 1874, " Evening Prayer " ; and in 1878, 
" The Grand Canal, Venice " and " A Street in Cairo." 

Moulin, Hippolyte. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Medals in 1864, '67, 
and '69. Pupil of Barye. Exhibited at Philadelphia " The Secret " 
and " A Discovery at Pompeii," both in bronze, for which he received 
a medaL At the Paris Salon in 1877 he exhibited " Gallia Nostra," 
statue, plaster, which was praised by Proth in his " Voyage an Pays 
des Peintres " for that year. " A Discovery at Pompeii " (1864) is at 
the Luxembourg. To the Salon of 1878 he sent a portrait of M. Du- 
quesne. 

Mount, Shepard, A. N. A. (Am.) (1804-1868.) Painter of 
portraits and game pictures. Elected an Associate of the National 
Academy in 1831, and Academician in 1842. Among his works, ex- 
hibited in different seasons, may be named his portrait of Admiral 
Bailey, U. S. N. ; portrait of himself, painted in 1833, and now in 
the possession of the National Academy ; and " Quail," " Brook 
Trout," "Shell-Fish," " Wood- Robin," "Flowers," etc. 

Mount, William S., N. A. (Am.) (1806-1868.) Native of 
Long Island. Began the practice of his profession as an artist in New 
York in 1829. In 1832 he was elected member of the National 
Academy. His first picture was " The Daughter of Jairus," but he 
early turned his attention to the representation of the negro character, 
in which he was very successful in a quaintly humorous way. Dur- 
ing the later years of his life his pictures were rarely exhibited in 
public. He sent to the National Academy of 1868, " A Portrait of 
a Lady " (belonging to William H. Wickham) and " The Dawn of 
Day." He died before the opening of the Exhibition. The next year 
was seen in the same gallery his " Peach Blossoms " (belonging to 
J. M. Falconer). His " Turning the Grindstone " and " Farmer's 
Nooning " were the property of Jonathan Sturges. " The Turn of the 
Leaf" is in the collection of James Lenox, "Bargaining for a Horse " 
is in the New York Historical Society, and " Raffling for a Goose " 






ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 135 

(which has been engraved, and was ray popular in its day) belongs 
to M. 0. Roberts. 

M Very expressive ami clever are Mount's happy delineations of the arch, quaint, gay. 
and rustic humors seen among the primitive people of his native place ; they are truly 
American." — TYckkuman's Hook oftlie Artists. 

Mozier, Joseph. (Am.) Born in Burlington, Vt. (1812- 1870). 
Was originally a merchant in New York. Having decided artistic 
tastes and talents, he went to Europe in 1845, opening a studio in 
Rome, and remaining there until his death. Among the better known 
of his sculptures are, " Pocahontas," "Wept of the Wish-ton- Wish," 
-Ri/pali.'' "Rebecca at the Well," "Jephthah's Daughter," "White 
Lady of A vend," " Undine," " Queen Esther," and " Truth " and 
"Silence" (the last two belonging to the Astor Library, New York). 
His '• Prodigal Son" is in the Philadelphia Academy of Fine Arts. 

"There is much pathos in this composition [' The Prodigal Son '], which appeals with 
directness and force to the hearts of those who pause in their rambles through the gal- 
lery to gaze on it The benignity and fatherly tenderness of the old man are expressed 
in a language that all may read, and that requires no explanation or commentary." — 
ilreat American Scnl}>tors. 

M'Taggart, "William. (Brit.) Born in Campbeltown. He re- 
ceived his art education in the Trustees Academy, Edinburgh, enter- 
ing that institution in 1852, and spending his professional life in that 
city. His specialty is the painting of child-life. He was elected an 
Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1859, and Academician 
in 1870. Among his pictures are, " Love lightens Labor," " The 
Young Travelers/' " Followers of the Fine Arts," " An Old Salt," 
and at the Royal Scottish Academy in 1870, " The Fisher's Landing," 
" A Day on the Seashore," " Gathering Drift," etc. 

" Although M'Taggart is unequal, there is always a fresh geniality about him that 
commends his pictures ; he takes firm hold of his subject, yet occasionally disregards 
finish. His 'At the Fair* has less of this defect; the girls examining the photograph 
have each her own idea, and all is natural. 'A Sea-Bird,' where children stretched at 
ease on the sandy gorse are eagerly examining the wings of a water-fowl, has a fine shim- 
mering motion of tlie sea which forms the background." — Art Journal, April, 1874. 

Miicke, Heinrich Karl Anton. (Ger.) Born at Breslau, 1806. 
Medal at lV-anc,on, and a great medal from Portugal. Professor at 
the Diisseldorf Academy, where he had studied. He traveled in Italy 
and painted historical and religious subjects. At the National Gal- 
lery, Berlin, are " St. Catherine of Alexandria " and " St. Elisa- 
beth of Hungary." He made himself known as a fresco-painter by 
his work at the castle of Heltorf, and in the Council-Chamber of 
Elberfeld. Some of his pictures are well known by the engravings 
from them, especially that of " St. Catherine borne to Heaven by 
Is." 

Muller, Charles-Louis. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1 8 1 5. Member of 
the Institute. Officer of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Cros and 
Ogniet. This artist U u well known by his picture of the "Roll- 



J 36 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Call of the Last Victims of the Reign of Terror,'' that his other works 
have made but a comparatively small impression. This immense 
work (at the Luxembourg) contains many figures and seventeen ac- 
knowledged portraits. A copy or sketch of it (51 by 94) was sold 
at the Johnston sale, 1876, for $8,200. Muller has painted many 
portraits, and among his other subjects are, " Thomas Diafoirus " and 
" Mater Dolorosa " (1877), "Death of a Gitano" (1876), "Madness 
of King Lear," " The Waiting," and " One Moment Alone " (1875), 
"Lanjuinais at the Tribune, June 2, 1793" (1869), "Desdemona" 
and "A Scholar" (1868), etc. His picture of " Charlotte Corday in 
Prison " (1875) is in the Corcoran Gallery, Washington. This work 
was never exhibited in any other place. To the Salon of 1878 he 
contributed " Give us Barabbas ! " and a portrait. 

"Mutter's great picture of the 'Call of the Condemned' of the Reign of Terror is 
perhaps the best composed historical painting of our time. None that I know better 
fulfills the requirements of this branch of art, as a realistic narrative. It carries the 
spectator directly into the scene as it must have appeared on that morning when the 
last of Robespierre's victims were wantonly hurried to the guillotine. Muller drags it 
bodily out of the past, and puts it before our eyes in its precise truth, without dramatic 
exaggeration, or attempt to heighten anguish and despair sufficiently intense in their 
own naked reality. It is a conscientiously told tale. The officials, at whose action we 
are aghast, are justly treated ; made men doing a stern duty, not ensanguined monsters. 
There are fifty masterly pictures, each a pathetic tale by itself; every separate group 
and individual action diversified in emotion, but filling its place with appropriate feel- 
ing in the harmonious whole ; all subdued to an appropriate key of light, in fine grada- 
tion, centered outside the prison-door, where waits the cart which is fast tilling with its 
dismal load. There is no attempt at an imaginative treatment, as in Conture's picture, 
but in place of it a picturesque rendering of the spectacle ; based upon a thorough study 
of incidents, costumes, persons, and locality, with copious variety of action and ex- 
pression. It is devoid of academic artificiality on. the one hand, and of the other 
extreme of conventional idealism on the other. Sincerity and sympathy are joined to 
unquestioned skill and rare talent in composition. Delacroix, by his grand manner, 
writes his autograph all over his work, and we are led to think as much of the artist as 
his subject. Poussin, Ingres, and like men represent systems or theories, and provoke 
comparisons. Delaroche excites the sentiments by his poetical sense, but his defective 
style of painting detracts from the enjoyment. Even the Couture which hangs opposite 
recalls the studio overmuch as a composition, besides being spotty in high lights, and 
securing brilliancy at such sacrifice of unity of tone and color as to make it border on 
the sensational in general effect. Muller attempts nothing that he cannot do thoroughly 
well, and in a quiet, truth-telling manner. His system gives all to art, regardless of 
exhibiting the artist. The painting is not the highest effort, but it is a success in high 
art complete in its way. Muller paints history as Motley writes it, picturesquely, and 
with insight into its emotions." — Jarves, Art Thoughts. 

Muller, Carl. (Ger.) Born at Darmstadt, 1818. Professor at the 
Academy of Diisseldorf. Pupil of his father, and of the Academy of 
Diisseldorf under Professor Sohn. He visited Italy, and when forty 
years old was Professor in the Academy where he had studied. His 
pictures are numerous. His "Annunciation," in the Gallery of Diis- 
seldorf, is well known by an engraving. His most important frescos, 
which are in the church of Saint Apollinarius at Remagen, are de- 






ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CESTURY. 137 

servedly much admired. He sent to Paris, in 1855, "The Last Sup- 
per," "The Virgin and Child," and "The Annunciation,'' before men- 
tioned ; and to the Salon of 1853, " The Holy Family." At the Lon- 
don Royal Academy in 1876 lie exhibited "The Virgin and Child 
before a Grotto " and " The Virgin, Infant Christ, and St. Joseph 
with an Angel." 

Miiller, Victor. (Ger.) Born at Frankfort (1829- 1871). Pupil 
of the Staedel Institute ; studied also at the Antwerp Academy, from 
which place he went to Paris with a young colony of German and 
Dutch artists, where he remained for some years and was in the atelier 
of Couture. He lived awhile at Frankfort, and settled in Munich in 
1864. His "Hamlet in the Churchyard," painted in 1869, and ex- 
hibited at Munich, first gave him a reputation. In the " Zeitschrift fur 
bildende Kunst," a writer of his obituary says, " No one has more 
truly comprehended and depicted the inner spirit of this Prince of 
our first tragedy.*' Among his works are, " The Muses and Graces," 
a decorative work in Frankfort, " Hero and Leander," " Bestraften 
Ehebrach," and several portraits. 

Mulready, William, R. A. (Brit) Born in Ireland (1786 - 1863). 
Entered the schools of the Royal Academy in 1800. He first ex- 
hibited, in 1806, "A Cottage"; in 1811, "The Roadside Inn" ; in 
1813, "Punch"; in 1815 (when he was elected Associate of the 
Royal Academy), " Idle Boys." He was made Academician in 1816., 
Among his earlier works are, " The Wolf and the Lamb," and " An 
Interior of an English Cottage " (which belonged to George IV.) ; 
" The Convalescent " ; " The Cousin " ; " The First Voyage " ; ** Lend- 
ing a Bite " ; " Blackheath Park " ; " The Fight " Interrupted " ; 
"The Barber's Shop" and "Fair Time" (1809); " The Last Inn " 
(1835) ; "Crossing the Ford" (1842) ; and "The Young Brother" 
(1857), which belonged to the Vernon Collection, and is now in the 
National Gallery, London. After his death a collection of his works 
was on exhibition for some time at the South Kensington Museum, 
attracting great attention in London. Some of his drawings were 
sold at auction about the same time, bringing enormous prices. His 
last picture, exhibited at the Royal Academy, was " A Toy-Seller," in 
1862. Many of his works have been engraved. 

" Mulready*! ' Sonnet' has been very justly described as one of the most purely and 

tenderly poetical of English pictures from common life His refinement in form, 

his great sense of beauty, the poetry and invention of his subjects, combine to give 
them a peculiarly strong and lasting hold over the memory of those who have studied 
them." — Art Journal, May, 1S76. 

" Yet Mulready must unhesitatingly be placed among the few really eminent and 
thorough draughtsmen of the British school. His power over form was almost com- 
plete, although not so wide in range when he painted ' The Rattle ' in 1S08, as when 
he drew ' The Bathers ' in 1S49. His refinement is not less marked in ' The Gravel Pit' 
(1S07] than in ' The Toy-Seller " of ISC 2. .... If Mr. Mulready's earliest aim in his 
figure-subjects was humor, in his latter it was grace. In its essential purity no English 
painter can, we think, be wt above him. Great as are the claims of Gainsborough. 



138 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

nolds, Stothard, and Leslie, none of them equaled Mulready in that refined accuracy 
which has been noticed as his primary characteristic." — Palgkave's Essays on Art. 

Mulvany, George F. (Brit) Born in Dublin (1809 - 1869). Son 
of Thomas Mulvany, who was the first keeper of the Royal Hiber- 
nian Academy, and a painter of some repute in Ireland. The son 
evinced a taste for art at an early age, was educated in Dublin, studied 
in Italy, and was made an Associate of the Royal Hibernian Acad- 
emy in 1832. A few years later he was elected Academician, and on 
the death of his father, in 1845, he succeeded him as keeper. He was 
also one of the organizers, and as long as he lived a director of the 
Irish National Academy. He exhibited frequently in his native city, 
and his works were popular elsewhere. Among his pictures may be 
mentioned " First Love," " The Peasant's Grave," " The White Man 
cast on the Red Man's Shore," and a popular portrait of Thomas 
Moore, which has been frequently engraved. His last work, a por- 
trait of Father Burke, was left unfinished. 

Munkacsy, Miliary. (Hungarian.) Born at Munkacs. Medals 
in Paris in 1870 and 74. Pupil of Knaus. At the Salon of 1877 he 
exhibited the " Story of a Hunt" and a portrait ; in 1876, "The In- 
terior of a Studio"; in 1875, "The Village Hero, Hungary"; in 
1874, the " Mont-de-Piete " and " The Night Prowlers." One of his 
finest works was the illustration of an old custom in Hungary of ex- 
posing a prisoner, who had been condemned, to the public for several 
hours. In this picture the different expressions of those who have 
come to see the unfortunate man are very remarkable. Three of his 
pictures were in the Paris Exposition of 1878. 

Munn, George F. (Am.) Born in Utica, N. Y., 1852. First 
studied art under Charles Calverly the sculptor, and later at the 
schools of the National Academy, New York. He went to Europe to 
enter the Art Schools at South Kensington, where he received a gold 
medal, the first awarded to an American, for a model in clay of the 
Farnese Hercules. In the schools of the Royal Academy he received 
a silver medal for a life drawing ; and he was subsequently in the 
studio of George F. Watts in 1876. He has painted and sketched in 
Brittany, and has exhibited at the Dudley Gallery, London, at Bir- 
mingham, and elsewhere. Among his works are, " Wild-Flowers," 
" Roses," " Meadow-Sweet," " A Sunny Day, Brittany," etc. 

"A flower-picture here [Dudley Gallery, 1S75], notable for the absence of manufactur- 
ing deftness, which goes so far to neutralize the beauties of Fantin's work, is the large 
and most careful study (wild-flowers, meadow-sweet, the chief) to which is attached a 
new name, G. F. Munn. This is evidently a labor of love, full of the most minute and 
loving study, such as a man gives who finds both intense pleasure in his work and the 
subject of it, such labor as only young men can give, for only they arc sustained by such 
keenness and freshness of delight." — Tom Taylor, in London Graphic, October, 1875. 

Munro, Alexander. (Brit.) Born in Scotland (1825-1871). 
Settled in London in 1848. In 1849 he exhibited for the first time 
at the Royal Academy several portrait busts. His first ideal work, 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 139 

" Paolo and Francesco," in marble, was at the Royal Academy in 
1858, and was purchased by Mr. Gladstone, His "Hippocrates" 

(R. A., 1857) was pr e se n ted by John Ruskin to the new Museum at 
Oxford. Among his ideal works are, " Undine," " The Lover's Walk," 
u Joan of Arc," " The Young Hunter," and " The Sleeping Boy." lie 
executed busts of Sir Robert Peel, Gladstone, and J. E. Millais, R. A. ; 
a statue of " Mary, Consort of "William III." in the House of Parlia- 
ment, the colossal statue of James Watt at Birmingham, and statues 
of Galileo, Davy, and Watt at Oxford. 

"Though all his works show talent of a high order, Mr. Munro especially excels in 
female busts, and in his representation of children, both singly and in groups. In all 
Of these is refined and delicate sentiment, a quality which, in the case of the little ones, 
is often allied with graceful fauey. " — Art Journal, March, 1S71. 

Munzig, G. C. (Am.) Born in Boston, 1850. He has spent his 
professional life in his native city. As an artist he was comparatively 
self-taught. He is a member of the Boston Art Club, and is on the 
Committee on Design for the " School for Art Needlework" connected 
with the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. His specialty is portraits in 
crayon. Within a few years he has turned his attention somewhat to 
oils. He has exhibited at Philadelphia, New York, Cleveland, and 
Boston, and his portraits are in the possession of Dr. Oliver Wen- 
dell Holmes, Winthrop Sargent, Frederick R. Sears, Henry D. Parker, 
George Wheatland, Eben Jordan, Mrs. Oliver Ames, Mrs. Oakes 
Ames, Mrs. D. B. Van Brunt, Miss Harriet W. Preston, Mr. James 
Lawrence, Mme. Teresa Careilo, the late Mme. Teresa Tie tj ens, Mine. 
RudersdorfT, and others. 

Murray, Elizabeth. (Brit.) Member of the Institute of Painters 
in Water-Colors of London, and of the American Society of Water- 
Color Painters in New York. She exhibited at the Institute, in 1878, 
"A Moorish Saint" and " Music in Morocco"; in 1875, "The White 
Rose"; in 1873, "The Greek Betrothed"; in 1872, "The Gypsy- 
Queen" ; etc. At the National Academy, in 1875, she exhibited, 
" Spanish Lovers lighting Cigarettes" (in oils) ; in 1871, " Dalmatian 
Peasant " ; in 1870, " The Old Story in Spain " (both in water-colors). 
"The Eleventh Hour" (in water-colors) brought $260 at the John- 
ston -ale in New York in 1876. 

Murray, David. (Brit.) Born in Glasgow, 1849. Brought up to 
mercantile pursuits, he spent his early youth in a warehouse in his 
native city, studying art in his leisure hours, but not adopting painting 
as a profession until within a few years. His studio is now (1878) in 
Glasgow. To the Royal Scottish Academy, in 1R78, he sent "On the 
Towing-Path, Thames," "The Intruder," "A Sleepy Brook," "The 
English Yeoman's Dwelling," etc. 

Muain, Francois. (Belgian.) Born at Ostende. Medal at Phil- 
adelphia, when- lie exhibited " Seashore at Scheveningen " and the 
"Harbor of Rotterdam in Rainy Weather." At Paris, in 1877, was 
"The Dike at Ostende in Heavy Weather." 



140 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Mussini, Cesare. (Ital.) Born at Berlin, 1808. He early fixed 
himself in Florence, and has acquired fame in his peculiar branch of 
painting. His drawing is always correct, and his color excellent. 
Many of his pictures have been commissions from Russia. Among 
his works are, " Leonardo da Vinci dying in the Arms of Francis I.," 
" Tasso reading his Poem to Eleonora d'Este," " Raphael and the 
Fornarina," the " Death of Atala," and " Stanislaus Poniatowski giving 
Freedom to the Poles." The portrait of this painter is in the auto- 
graph collection of the Uffizi. 

Mussini. Luigi. (Ital.) Born at Berlin, 1813. Pupil of his 
brother Cesare. Director of the Academy of Siena. His first work, 
" Sacred Music," proved him to have unusual merit. In correctness 
of drawing he is unsurpassed, and his compositions are simple and 
truthful. They suggest the works of the cinque-cento painters. Among 
his works are, " Eudoro and Cimodocea " (in the gallery of modern 
paintings in Florence), the "Christian Martyr" (in the Cathedral of 
Siena), " The Money-Changers in the Temple," the " Last Day of 
Nero," the " Triumph of Truth," etc. Sig. Luigi Mussini is considered 
one of the best painters in Italy, and is at the head of his school. 
Since he has presided over the Academy of Siena, many fine artists 
have graduated there. His portrait is in the autograph collection in 
the Uffizi. To the Paris Salon, in 1878, he sent " Page siennois de la 
Tortue, — XV e siecle." 

Mutrie, Martha D. and Annie F. (Brit) Natives of Man- 
chester. Settled in London in 1854, exhibiting annually at the 
Royal Academy flower-pieces, the works of both sisters being very 
popular. Miss Mutrie sent to the Royal Academy, in 1860, " Fungus "; 
in 1861, "Wild Roses"; in 1864, "Garden Flowers"; in 1868, 
"Roses"; in 1872, "In the Flower- Market " ; in 1875, " The Cottage 
Window" ; in 1877, " Spring Flowers." 

Miss Annie F. Mutrie exhibited, in 1860, " Where the Bee Sucks n ; 
in 1861, "York and Lancaster"; in 1863, "Autumn"; in 1871, 
"The Balcony" ; in 1874, " My First Bouquet"; in 1875, "Farewell, 
Summer"; in 1876, "The Evening Primrose"; in 1877, "Wild- 
Flowers of South America." 

Both of these ladies were " commended for great merit in genre paint- 
ing" by the judges at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia in 
1876. 

" These ladies rank as excellent fruit and flower painters. A fault has been found 
with their subjects that they are too often cultivated flowers, and that whether garden 
or wild flowers they are apt to be arranged arbitrarily and artificially." — Mrs. Tytler's 
Modern Painters. 

"Miss M. D. Mutrie's 'In the CJottage Window' [R. A., 1875], a beautiful study of 
flowers, is one of the brightest and most truthful little studies from Nature in this year's 
Exhibition." — Art Journal, July, 1875. 

M'Whirter, John. (Brit.) Born near Edinburgh, 1839. He 
studied under Robert Scott Lauder, and practiced his profession in 



ARTISTS OF TIFF NINETEENTH CENTURY. 141 

Edinburgh, until ISC'), when he opened a studio in London. He 
devotes himself to landscape-pointing, selecting his scenes frequently 

in the Highlands of the West of Scotland. He exhibits at the Royal 
Academy and at the Royal Scottish Academy, of which latter insti- 
tution he is an Associate Member. Among his works are, M The Mail 
from the North," " Glencoe," "The Falls of Tummell"; etc. To the 
Royal Scottish Academy, in 1878, he sent "Thunder-Storm on the 
Prairie" and "Salt Lake City, Utah"; to the Royal Academy, the 
same year, "The Three Graces " and " The Vanguard." His "Into 
the Depths of the Forest," " Out in the Cold " and " A Fisherman's 
Haven " were at the Paris Exposition of 1878. 

Naftel, Paul J. (Brit.) English water-color artist, for some 
years a resident of Guernsey, at present living in London. He is a 
member of the Society of Painters in Water-Colors, sending annually 
from ten to fifteen pictures to its exhibitions ; among others, " Near 
the Change, Borrowdale, Cumberland," " Morning at Penllergare, 
South Wales," "Seaweed-Gathering, Guernsey," "Capri, from the 
Pine Valley, Sorrento," u First Snow on BLockmount," " The Mole 
near Twickenham," " Killarney, Ireland," etc. His " Violet-Gather- 
ing at Bordighera in December" and "Near Lismore, County Water- 
ford " were at the Grosvenor Gallery in 1878. To the Paris Exposi- 
tion, the same year, he contributed " Views of the Isle of Arran and 
of Killarney." 

Naish, John George. (Brit.) Born in Sussex, 1824. Entered 
the Royal Academy in 1846, exhibiting the same year his first picture, 
entitled " Troops departing for India." In 1850 he w f ent to the Con- 
tinent, studying and working in the galleries of the Louvre, Paris, 
in Bruges, Antwerp, and elsewhere, returning to England the next 
year. Among his earlier works are, "Water-Nymphs" and " Hymn 
to the Rising Sun," in 1849 ; " Mermaids" and " Titania," in 1850 ; 
"The Power of Music," in 1854; "Fairies Returning" and "The 
Swoon of Endymion," in 1855; " Midsummer Fairies," in 1856 (exhib- 
ited both at the Royal Academy and the British Institution); " Influ- 
ence of the Soul," in 1858 ; "Ode to the Northeast Wind," in 1860 ; 
" Rough Hands and Warm Hearts" and "The Last Tack Home," in 
1864 ; and " Better than Gold," in 1865. About 1860 he altered the 
style of his paintings, leaving the ideal and classical figures for marine, 
subjects. In 1867 he sent to the Royal Academy, " The Mouth of the 
Harbor"; in 1870, "Enoch Arden " ; in 1871, "A North Devon 
Cove"'; in 1S73, "The most Northerly Point of Devon" ; in 1874, 
"Homeward Bound"; in 1876, "The Night-Catch, — on Board a 
Traveler in Barnstaple Bay"; in 1877, " Life- Boat returning, — a Sea 
to Starboard " ; in 1878, " A Summer Sea " and " The Devonshire 
Trawlers." 

" A grizzled sailor and his son are liere seen picturesquely sheltered twHIMfll thn 
rigging of their boat, ami looking with fixed, eager eyes on the scattered roofa of the- 



142 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

famous village of Clovely [' Last Tack Home,' R. A., 1864]. Everything is drawn with 
that conscientious fidelity to which Mr. Naish has accustomed us in his work, while he 
has given it greater interest by his introduction of the human figure." — Palgrave's 
Essays on Art. 

" Certainly there was no truer or finer combination of land and ocean among the pic- 
tures of that year than the view of the town [' Ilfracombe,' R. A., 1S70], in which the 
painter had been a resident for some time. It afterwards gained a gold medal at the 
Crystal Palace Naish disdains to make any compromise with Nature ; he repre- 
sents her as she appears to his eye, but with something more than mere typographical 
accuracy, for to this quality must be added, as a general rule, poetic feeling, adapting it- 
self to the circumstances of the subject, and originality of treatment Asacolor- 

ist, moreover, Mr. Naish distinguishes himself." — AH Journal, November, 1S75. 

Nakken, W. C. (Dutch.) Of The Hague. Medal at Philadel- 
phia, where he exhibited " Haymaking in Normandy." Mr. Weir 
especially commends this picture in his report. At the Paris Expo- 
sition, 1878, he exhibited " Ltalon Normand " and " The Stable of 
the Inn." 

Nanteuil, Celestin. (Fr.) Born at Rome, of French parents 
(1813-1873). Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. His family re- 
moved to Paris when he was still an infant. He studied under Lang- 
lois and Ingres, and then, in 1827, entered l'Ecole des Beaux- Arts, 
where he became a sort of captain among some turbulent students. 
When a revolt occurred Nanteuil was exrjelled from the school, which 
made him a hero with a class, and he became known as one of the 
leaders of the reformers of art, as they were called. For some years 
he was employed in etching for romantic literature. In 1848 he first 
sent to the Salon a work worthy of notice, " A Ray of Sunshine," 
which was much admired. He devoted himself to genre subjects, 
and exhibited each year. His " Souvenirs of the Past " and " The 
Future " are well known from lithographs by himself. Nanteuil exe- 
cuted many plates for artistic publications. He traveled much and 
made numerous sketches. In 1870 he was placed at the head of the 
.School of Design at Dijon, and appointed Conservator of the Mu- 
seum of that city. Since his death two of his water-colors, " Hunting- 
Dogs in Repose " and " The Fawn," have been placed in the Luxem- 
bourg. 

Nash, Joseph. (Brit.) Born about 1812. An artist in water- 
colors, making as his specialty architectural views and antique ex- 
teriors and interiors, English and Continental. He first exhibited in 
public in 1835. Among the better known of his early drawings are, 
" The Queen's Visit to Lincoln's Inn Hall," in 1846 ; " The Interior 
of the Crystal Palace," in 1851 ; "Rochester," "Roman Cathedral," 
"Charles V. visiting Francis I. during his Confinement," in 1855; 
"Chapel of Edward the Confessor at Westminster," in 1866; "Red 
Room of Louis Philippe at Claremont," in 1867 ; " The Brown Gal- 
lery, Knole, Kent," in 1872 ; " A Dinner-Party under the early 
Plantagenets " and "The Thumb Stocks," in 1873. 

He has been for some time a member of the Society of Painters in 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 143 

Water-Colors. In 1838 he published a volume entitled "Archi- 
tecture in the Middle Ages," with lithographic illustrations, and a 
few years later, in four Belies, M The Mansions of England in the 
Olden Time." He has also furnished illustrations for the works of 

Shakspere, Scott, and other standard authors. 

Nast, Thomas. (Am.) Born in Landau, Bavaria, 1840. Taken 
to America in 184(5. Early displayed artistic talents, but, with the 
exception of a few months' tuition under Kaufmann, is entirely self- 
taught. He began his professional career as a draughtsman for il- 
lustrated journals as early as 1855. In 18(50 he went to Europe, 
followed the army of Garibaldi, sending sketches to London and 
American pictorial papers ; returned to America in 18(52, and during 
the American Civil War sent many graphic drawings of war scenes to 
the Harpers' periodicals) attracting great attention on both sides of the 
Atlantic. He did not develop into a caricaturist until the close of the 
war, his later work being chiefly in that direction. Although not a 
member of any academy or society of the country, he is an occasional 
contributor to the public exhibitions in New York and elsewhere, 
sending to the National Academy, in 1868, "The Last Drop" ; in 
1870, " The Departure of the Seventh Regiment," belonging to James 
H. Ingersoll. 

"Judging from wood-ruts in TTarper's Weekly of compositions relating to the various 
stages of the war, Nast is an artist of uncommon ability. He has composed designs, or 
rather given hints of his ability to do so, of allegorical, symbolical, or Illustrative char- 
acter, far more worthy to be transferred in paint to the walls of our public buildings 
than anything that has as yet been placed on them. Although hastily got up for a tem- 
porary purpose, they evince originality of conception, freedom of manner, lofty appre- 
ciation of national ideas, and action, and a large artistic instinct." — Jarves, Art Lira. 

" Nast has proved one of the most spirited and authentic draughtsmen of the battle* 
and other scenes incident to the late Civil War. His illustrations for Harper's Weekly 
show talent and fidelity. He is an original designer, and exhibits a remarkable grasp of 
the great questions at issue." — Tuckerman's Bool: o/tlie Artists. 

" What a gift is this year's volume of Harper's, setting New York and its affairs so 
wonderfully before us ! It would do you good to know, if I could tell you, the enjoy- 
ment your gre.it and glorious Nast is giving in this valley. I sent the number to Fox 
How, when W. E. Former was there, and they borrowed it again for the Stanleys and 
l-idy Richardson. The favorite, the one supremely extolled, is that of the Romish 
Crocodile and the children. The Dean [Stanley] was delighted with It" — HARRIET 
Martineau's Autobiography, Vol. II. 

Navez, Francois Joseph. {Belgian.) Born at Charleroi (1787 
- I860). Member and Professor of the Royal Academy of Belgium. 
Correspondent of the Institutes of France and Holland. Chevalier of 
the Orders of the Lion of Belgium, of Leopold, of William, and of the 
Legion of Honor. Member of various academics and important art 
iations. Pupil of Francois and David. His " Hagar in the 
:t"i?at the Brussels Museum; his "Raising of the BnlamifaVa 
Son" and the "Meeting of Isaac and Rebecca " are at The Hague; 
an " Italian Mother with a Sick Child " is at the National Gallery, Ber- 



144 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

lin ; " The Prophet Samuel," in the Museum at Haarlem. His works 
are also seen in churches in Brussels, Amsterdam, etc. His portraits 
were much admired. He painted one of William of Holland for the 
Duke of Wellington. 

Neagle, John. (Am.) (1799-1865.) A portrait-painter, com- 
paratively self-taught. He was apprenticed to a coach-painter in 
Philadelphia. About 1818 he began the practice of the higher 
branches of his profession in that city, settling in Lexington, Ky., 
and subsequently in New Orleans. His best-known work, " Patrick 
Lyon the Blacksmith," in the Boston Athenaeum, was painted in 1826. 
He was a son-in-law of the artist Sully, from whom, in his early years, 
he received much encouragement and help. The best part of his pro- 
fessional life was spent in Philadelphia, where are still preserved many 
of his pictures, notably, the portrait of Washington in Independence 
Hall, of Henry Clay in the Union League Club, and of Henry Carey 
in the Academy. He was President of the Philadelphia Artists' Fund 
Society for many years. A valuable portrait of Gilbert Stuart by 
Neagle is now in the Boston Athenaeum. It was exhibited at the 
Centennial Exhibition of 1876. 

Neal, David. (Am.) Born in Lowell, Mass., 1837. He went to 
Munich in 1861, where he has since lived. In 1862 he entered the 
Royal Academy of Bavaria, where he studied from the antique for 
two years, later becoming a pupil of his father-in-law, the Chevalier 
Ainmuller. In 1869 he entered the studio of Piloty, remaining 
until 1876, changing his style of work and devoting himself entirely 
to figure-painting at that master's suggestion. Previous to this, he 
painted several interiors, the most important being " The Chapel of 
the Kings, Westminster Abbey " (belonging now to Francis Cutting 
of Boston) and " St. Mark's, Venice " (now the property of Samuel 
Nickerson, President of the First National Bank of Chicago) ; both of 
these were at the International Art Exhibition at Munich in 1869, 
and later at the National Academy of New York. In 1876 Mr. Neal 
was awarded the great medal of the Royal Bavarian Academy of 
Fine Arts for his " First Meeting of Mary Stuart and Rizzio." This 
medal is the highest in the gift of the Academy, and Mr. Neal the 
first American upon whom it has been bestowed. This picture was 
later in the collection of D. O. Mills, President of the Bank of Cali- 
fornia, and was exhibited at the Munich Art Union, afterwards in 
London, later in Boston, Lowell, Chicago, and elsewhere in the United 
States. It has been extensively photographed. Among his works 
are, " Return from the Chase " (belonging to John Bloodgood of New 
York), exhibited in Munich for the benefit of the wounded in the 
Franco-German war, and at the National Academy, New York ; 
" James Watt," a large historical picture at the Royal Academy, Lon- 
don, in 1874 (belonging to Sir B. S. Phillipps, formerly Lord Mayor of 
London) ; " The Burgomaster " ; and several portraits and ideal heads. 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 145 

The " Warthurg," a monthly journal of the Munich Archaeological 
Society, edited by the celebrated art critic, Dr. Forster, says (No. 9, 
1876):— 

" The greatest interest was created at the Art Union by a historical picture of con- 
siderable dimensions by David Neal. This highly gifted artist, who is still young, an 
American by birth, and a pupil of Filoty, took as a subject for his picture the first 
meeting of Marie Stuart, the brilliant and lovely as well as inconstant Queen of Scots, 
with the singer Rizzio. The artist represents the object of so much poetic lore in the 
bloom and splendor of her youth ; the period chosen being when she was at the height 

of her fortunes The scene is excellently well conceived and represented in a most 

masterly manner ; the characters, particularly those of the principal personages, are well 
carried out with equally as much knowledge of the times, as well as a love and feeling for 
the subject. In another column we give a notice of the honorable distinction which has 
l>een conferred upon Mr. Neal on the part of the Royal Academy for this prominent work. " 

Referring to a portrait (Mrs. Raymond) exhibited at Munich, the 
" Zeitsehrift fur bildende Kunst " says : — 

" From David Neal, a pupil of Filoty, we have a lady's portrait which is to so high a de- 
gree spirited and fine in the conception, and is executed with so much bravour, that it would 
do honor to his master, and certainly evinces a finer feeling for color than is possessed 
by even Piloty himself.'' 

'• In England Mr. Neal has earned a place in the high ranks by his 'James Watt,' and 
his ' Mary Stuart and Rizzio,' that was exhibited in this country, has removed all ques- 
tions here as to his great merits. Looking at these two paintings, one is impressed with 
the power of a deep-thinking artist. He has not devised a scene merely to show off his 
technical skill ; he saw deeper, and represents more than it would be easy to define in 

words It would not be amiss to analyze, also, his ' Mary Stuart and Rizzio.' We 

should find in it the true elements of historical painting. The Queen, followed by her 
maids and Darnley. has descended a massive staircase, and has turned on the lower 
landing, when she sees Rizzio reclining asleep on a carved wood chest, his mandolin by 
his side. The Queen's fixed look of surprise, her equivocal gesture, are significant. 
Now we have the clew to all the rest ; since it is known that Rizzio has been taken into 
the Queen's household service, the love, and the complications, and the murder follow, 
as night the day. Tins is high art ! " — Chicago Tribune, March 24, 1S78. 

Neff, Timoleon Charles de. (Russian.) Born at Korkulla (1807 - 
1877). Court Painter and Member of the Academie des Beaux-Arts at 
St. Petersburg. Studied at Dresden and Rome. In 1826 he settled 
in St. Petersburg, and soon became distinguished. Many of his por- 
traits are of the members of the Imperial Family. In the Hermitage 
at St. Petersburg there are two pictures by Neff of " Nymphs Bath- 
ing.'' There are more copies made of these pictures than of any 
other works in that gallery. 

Nehlig, Victor, N. A. (Am.) Born in Paris, 1830. Studied 
art in his native city under Cogniet and Abel de Pujol, and settled in 
America in 1850. He opened a studio in New York, was quickly 
elected an Associate of the National Academy, and made an Acade- 
mician in 1870, when he exhibited "The Bravo." One of the results 
of a visit to Cuba was his " Mahogany Cutting" (belonging to John 
C. Force), which was at the National Academy in 1871, since which 
time he has not exhibited in that gallery. He visited Europe in 

vol. ir. 7 j 



146 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Among bis works are "The Artist's Dream," " The Armorer of the 
Olden Time," " Gertrude of Wyoming," * Pocahontas," " Hiawatha," 
" The Captive Huguenot," etc. 

Ndmoz, Jean-Baptiste-Augustin. (Fr.) Born at Thodure. 
Medal in 1877. Pupil of Picot and Cabanel. At the Salon of 1877 
he exhibited "Theseus going to fight the Minotaur" ; and in 1878, 
" Paradise Lost." 

Neuber, Fritz. (Ger.) Born at Cologne, 1837. Pupil of Stephan. 
He has passed some time in several German cities, and has worked 
very quietly in a manner quite his own. He lives in Hamburg. 
Among his works are his statues of Peter Vischer, Gustavus Adol- 
phus, Barbarossa, Handel, Bach, Neander, Schleiermacher, Luther, 
Twelve Apostles, etc. His works in the Nicolas Church brought him 
into much notice, and he received numerous commissions for busts 
and other work from private individuals. 

Neuville, Alphonse de. (Fr.) Born at Saint-Omer, 1836. Cheva- 
lier of the Legion of Honor. Member of a rich family, he had a fine 
education, and left school with honors. His parents intended him for 
an official career, but he declared himself only ready to join the army, 
and in spite of all obstacles he entered the preparatory school of Lori- 
ent. The Professor of Design at this school, familiarly known as Papa 
Duhousset, quickly remarked the astonishing skill of De Neuville in 
drawing. Naturally the teacher took great pleasure and pride in teach- 
ing him, and often declared to the young fellow, "Quoique tu fasses, 
rappelle-toi que tu ne seras jamais qu'un peintre." He next went to 
Paris and entered the law school, for the sake of peace with his family. 
He remained three years, and passed most of his time at the military 
school or at the Champs-de-Mars, sketching, and making himself inti- 
mately familiar with all of a soldier's life which could there be learned. 
When he next returned home, he declared that he would be a painter 
or nothing. After a year of opposition his father went with him to 
Paris to consult some artists on the prospect for the young man. 
Bellange, Yvon, Picot, all discouraged him, and advised his return to 
the home he had left. But the young fellow believed in his "lucky 
star," and took a small studio and went to work. His first picture, 
" The Gervais Battery," was accepted at the Salon of 1859 and took 
a medal of the third class. Just then Delacroix, who was in his de- 
cline, became the friend of the artist, and, while his doors were closed 
to most people, De Neuville spent many hours with him. In 1860 
the debutant received a commission to paint " The Taking of Naples 
by Garibaldi," for the Cercle Artistique. He went to Italy, and the 
picture which he brought back was bad enough to satisfy a bitter 
enemy ! In 1861 his " Chasseurs of the Guard " took a second medal 
at the Salon. From this time attention was turned to De Neuville, 
and he held a place among French military painters. He received, 
however, but few orders, and was obliged to make wood-cuts for 






ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 117 

illustrated publications, in order to live. In this department be has 
been nearly as fruitful as (Justave Dors'. His picture of the "Attack 
of tl. of Magenta* (1864) was very successful, and was 

bought by the State for the city of Saint-Omer. His picture of 1868 

purchased foi the Museum of Lille, — it was " The Chasseurs 
ring the Tchernaia on Foot." Naturally the war of 1870-71 

an inspiration to this painter, and the pictures he has since 
painted have placed him in the first rank among his fellows. " The 
Bivouac before Bouiget " (1878) is at the Museum of Dijon. "The 
Last Cartouches at Balan " (1873) was judged worthy of the Cross of 
the Legion of Honor. In 1874 he exhibited "The Attack by Fire 
on a Barricaded House at Villersexel." This is considered his best 
work by many. Paul Mantz calls it a " masterpiece." De Neuville, 
in his frequent journeys, makes some sketches not " in his line," as 
one may say, and has painted a few subjects, such as the " Recolte du 
Varech," which are also excellent pictures. At the Salon of 1877 he 
exhibited "An Episode in the Battle of Forbach, August 6, 1870" 
and a portrait ; in 1875, "A Surprise in the Environs of Metz, Au- 
gust, 1870." In the gallery of W. T. Walters of Baltimore is his 
" Engineer Officer on a Reconnoissance." 

"De Neuville has not perhaps the exactness and careful timidity of Detaille ; he is 
not, like him, the pupil of Meissonier and a miniaturist by profession ; but he has free- 
dom, audacity, movement, truth of physiognomy, truth of gesture, truth of color at the 
end of his brush, and all without visible effort. In a word, he has the genius of action, 
that entirely French quality which one cannot exact from a Dutchman like Detaille." — 
Eknc-t Duvergier de Hacr.vnn-e, Rente des Deux Mondes, June, 1S74 

Newell, Hugh. (.4m.) Born in Ireland. Brought up in Belfast, 
and educated at Queen's College there. He studied art in Antwerp, 
also in Pari- under Couture, and later, in London, in the South Ken- 
>n Schools. At the age of twenty-one he came to the United 
ling in Baltimore, and receiving both the gold and silver 
medals of the Maryland Institute. His professional life has been 
spent in Baltimore and Pittsburg, Pa., and his paintings have been 
exhibited, and are owned in those cities, in Philadelphia and New 
York. Since L870 he has been Principal of the Pittsburg School of 
.ii for Women, and was awarded a diploma for the work of this 
school from the judges of the Centennial Exhibition of 1876 in Phil- 
adelphia, His '•Smithy'- VM at the National Academy of New 
York in 1 E In the Cottage Window " and u Basket of Gra] i 

in 181 

Newman, Henry R. (Am.) A water-color artist, who has 1 

fnrm.my yean in Florence, He paints a variety of subjects, and is 

happy in his flower-pieces. As a teacher, he has been very boo- 

.1 and fashionable, and well merits the praise bestowed upon his 

work. He exhibited in Florence, in 1878, U A Study of Pink and 

White Oleanders " and "Grapes and Olives," and .sent to the G 



148 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

venor Gallery, London, the same year, " Flowers " and " An Architec- 
tural Study." Several of his Florentine street scenes belong to Lord 
Spencer. Of a drawing of Santa Maria Novella, Florence, by Mr. 
Newman, Ruskin wrote to the artist in 1877 : " I have not for many 
and many a day seen the sense of tenderness and depth of color so 
united, still less so much fidelity and affection joined with a power of 
design which seems to me, though latent, very great. To have made a 
poetic harmony of color out of an omnibus-stand is an achievement all 
the greater in reality because not likely to have been attempted with 
all one's strength." 

Newton, Sir William John. (Brit) (1785-1869.) Miniature- 
painter to the Queen, receiving the honor of Knighthood in 1837. In 
his branch of the profession he was popular and much patronized by 
the Royal and Noble Families. He contributed a large number of 
works to the Royal Academy yearly, until 1863. " The Christening 
of the Prince of Wales at Windsor " (which was at the Royal Academy 
in 1845) was his largest and most important picture. It was painted 
on ivory, and attracted much attention. 

Newton, Mrs. Charles T. (Brit.) (1832 - 1866.) Daughter of 
John Severn, an artist. She displayed remarkable talents for art at 
an early age, and studied under George Richmond, devoting herself to 
portrait and figure painting in water and oil. In 1861 she was married 
to C. T. Newton, Superintendent of Antiquities at the British Museum, 
and turned her attention, during the few remaining years of her life, 
to drawing from the Roman and Greek sculptures and vases in that 
institution. Among her paintings may be mentioned, " Elaine," 
" Sebaste," " Levantine Lady," " Jewess of Smyrna," " Letty," etc. 
She exhibited a portrait of herself at the Royal Academy in 1863. 

Newton, Alfred P. (Brit.) Born in 1835. A graduate of no 
school of painting, and comparatively self-taught, he has studied di- 
rectly from nature in Wales, Scotland, and Italy, devoting himself to 
landscapes, chiefly in water-colors. He was elected a member of the 
Society of Painters in Water-Colors in 1860, upon the exhibition, in 
its gallery, of his first works. Among his more important pictures 
are, " Mountain Gloom," " Mountain Glory," " Mystery and Immen- 
sity," " Nature's Merriments " (in oil), " Declining Day," " The First 
Approach of Winter," etc. His " Mountain Gloom " and " Left by 
the Tide " were at the Philadelphia Exhibition in 1876, gaining a 
medal. To Paris, in 1878, he sent " Left by the Tide." 

" It is literally certain that no artist whatever, before our day, could have drawn that 
mountain ['Glencoe'] with such truth. No artist before this century would have un- 
derstood the mass of granite under the thin and broken turf. Nor would any older 
artist have felt the loveliness of the natural scene in this half-melancholy, half-pleas- 
urable spirit. The work is impressive because the scene is impressive, and because the 
artist has trained himself to see and feel enough to reproduce, but not enough to trans- 
form nature, and make a new creation of his own." — P. G. Hamerton, in English Paint- 
ers of the Present Day. \ 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 149 

Nevin, Blanche. (Am.) Native of Philadelphia. Studied sculp- 
ture under J. A. Bully and at t lie Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. 
Executed Beveral portrait and ideal busts, owned principally in her 
native city, Among her more important works are a full-length statue 
of "■ Eve " and a statuette of " Cinderella.*' 

Nicol, Erskine, A. R. A. (Brit.) Born near Edinburgh, 1825. 
W«8 apprenticed to a house-painter in his native city, in his leisure 
hours studying in the Trustees Academy, and teaching drawing a few 
- later in the High School at Leith. After spending three or four 
in Dublin, where he gave lessons in drawing and painted por- 
traits, gathering at the same time material for the clever sketches of 
Irish character in which he has been so successful, he returned to 
Edinburgh, contributing regularly to the exhibitions of the Eoyal 
Scottish Academy, of which he is an Associate Member. He re- 
moved to London, where he still resides, in 1862. He sent to the 
.1 Academy, in 1867, "Did it pout with its Betsy?" ; in 1861, 
"Toothache";' in 1862, "Notice to Quit" ; in 1863,'" Waiting an 
Answer" ; in 1S64, M Among the Old Masters " ; in 1865, " A Depu- 
tation " ; in 1866, "Both Puzzled"; in 1867, when he was made 
iate of the Royal Academy, he sent " Kiss an' make it up " ; in 
1868, "A China-Merchant"; in 1869, "A Disputed Boundary"; 
in 1871, "On the Lookout"; in 1872, "His Babies"; in 1873, 
« Steady, Johnny, Steady ! " ; in 1875, " The New Vintage" and " Al- 
ways tell the Truth!"*; in 1876, "Storm at Sea" ; in 1877, "Un- 
willingly to School " ; in 1878, " The Lonely Tenant of the Glen," 
" Under a Cloud," and " The Missing Boat." 

" The Almshouse Nurse," a sketch of Erskine Nicols, was in the 
National Academy of New York in 1869 ; his " Paying the Rent" 
(belonging to F. 0. Day) was in the Centennial Exhibition of Phila- 
delphia in 1876; his "Collecting his Thoughts" brought $1,560, 
and his " Yours to Command " $ 1,575, in the sale of the Latham 
Collection in New York in 1878 ; both were painted in 1865, and 
now belong to Theron R. Butler of New York. His works are famil- 
iarly known on both sides of the Atlantic through the medium of 
engraving. 

" Erskine NfeoTl ' Storm at Sea ' [R. A., 187G] is a picture of great pathetic power, 
;sly handled, marvelously well drawn, and abounding in evidences of skill and 
•iking study." — Art Journal, July, 1876. 

" Erskine Nicol is represented by one of his inimitable bits of Irish comedy. Ex- 
pression could go no further than in his burly farmer who has come into town to con- 
sult 'His Legal Adviser' [R A., 1*77]." — London Standard, May, 1877. 

"A very broadly painted group ['Unwillingly to School,' R. A., 1S77], showing an old 
Scotch dame doing her best to coax a braw little Hieland laddie, in a kilt and blue bon- 
net, and with a pair of cheeks like unto two Ribstone pippins, into going to school. 
The contest of emotions in this work is exquisitely rendered." — Illustrated London News, 
May, 1877. 

Nicoll, J. C. (Am.) Born in the city of New York in 18-15, 



150 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

where the greater part of his professional life has been spent, with 
the exception of extensive sketching-tours along the coast from the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence to Florida. Mr. Nicoll painted for two years 
in the studio of Mr. F. H. De Haas, and has studied in the fields with 
Mr. De Haas, Kruseman Van Elten, and others, but does not consider 
himself a pupil of either of these gentlemen, and was not a student 
of any of the art schools of this country or of Europe. His works, 
which are of moderate size, have been exhibited in the principal cities of 
the country. He is not a member of the National Academy, but one 
of the original members of the Water-Color Society in 1866, holding 
the position of secretary for nine years, and being better known in 
that branch of the art, to which a large part of his time has been de- 
voted. His specialty is coast views. He was elected a member of 
the Artists' Fund Society in 1874. 

Among the better known of Nicoll's works in. oils are, " Thatcher's 
Island, Mass." (sold in Syracuse), " Sunset, Bay of Fundy " (now 
in Chicago), and " A Summer's Resting- Place " (belonging to H. P. 
Farnham) ; in water-colors, " Moonlight, Cape Ann " (the property 
of J. M. Sears of Boston), "Off Portland Harbor," "Shower on 
the Coast," " Schroon Lake," and " Coast View in Spring." His 
" Foggy Morning, Grand Menan " and his " Gulf of St. Lawrence " 
were at the Centennial Exhibition of 1876 ; " On the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence " and " Shower on the Coast " (both in water-colors) were 
at the Paris Exposition of 1878. 

" Nicoll's ' Coast View in Spring ' [water-color, 1875] is an admirable specimen of his 
skill. The coast line is rocky, and in giving the texture of the water-worn granite as 
well as the breaking surf with its shower of spray, the artist shows that his study has been 
earnest as well as conscientious. In color the work is brilliant, and what is commend- 
able, there is no departure from truth to produce the result." — Art Journal, March, 1875. 

Nieman, Edmund John. (Brit.) Born in Islington, of German 
parentage (1813-1876). Engaged in mercantile pursuits until the 
age of twenty-six, when he took up the profession of an artist. He 
resided in Buckinghamshire, and painted from nature. He first ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy, in 1844, " On the Thames, near Great 
Marlow," which attracted favorable notice. In 1850 he was elected 
trustee and honorary secretary of the National Institution, a short- 
lived association of artists. Among his better known works are, " The 
Thames at Maidenhead," "Recollections of the Rhine," " Scarbor- 
ough,— Sunset" (1862), "Moss Troopers," "The Ambush," "Chester 
Cathedral," "Launch of the Great Eastern," and a view of " Scarbor- 
ough," his last exhibited work, at the Royal Academy in 1872. 

" Nieman's style of painting may lay claim to a certain originality His coloring is 
powerful, with often a tendency to heaviness, but at all times it is highly effective. Four 
of his paintings are in the National Collection at South Kensington." — Art Journal, 
August, 1S77. 

Niemeyer, John H. (Am.) Born in the city of Bremen, 1839. 
lie was taken to the United States at an early age, but, returned to Eu- 






ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 151 

rope as a youth to complete his art education, studying in the School 
of Fine Arts, Paris, under (Jerome and Yvon, and for some time in 
the private atelier of Jacquesson de la Chevreusse. From 1866 to 
'70 he was in the studio of Coram. He received two medals from the 
Imperial School of Design in Paris. His professional life in America 
was spent in New York until 1871, when he was appointed Pro- 
of Drawing in the Yale School of Fine Arts, where are some of 
his genre pictures. Among his important works are, " Guttenberg 
inventing Movable Type," at the Paris Salon of 1869, and at the Cen- 
tennial Exhibition at Philadelphia, in 1876. Of late years he has 
painted portraits and ideal works. 

" A picture with a meaning conveys a double satisfaction, and the artist could scarcely 
have chosen a subject more appreciated by every one. The picture itself ['Guttenberg 'J 
is a product of a master's hand, and Mr. Niemeyer shows an intimate knowledge of de- 
tail of the early ages." —New York Telegram, March 4, 1871. 

Nittis, Giuseppe de. (Ital.) Born at Barletta. Medal in 1876. 
Pupil of (Jerome. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited " Paris, — View 
from the Pont Royal" ; in 1876, " On the Road to Castellamare " and 
*' Place des Pyramides " ; in 1875, " Place de la Concorde" and "At 
Bougival, on the Seine." At the Glasgow Fine Art Loan Exhibi- 
tion, 1878, there was a fine picture by De Nittis of the "Arc de 
Triomphe, Paris," belonging to J. G. Sandeman, Esq. " In the dis- 
tance the arch, protected by scaffolding and woodwork. In the street, 
and riding out of the picture, a lady on a black horse and a gentleman 
on a brown. In the foreground, to the right, a lady in black, accom- 
panied by a nurse with scarlet and black tartan shawl, wait to cross 
the street. Other figures through the picture." 

Nobas, Rosendo. (Span.) At Philadelphia he exhibited "A 
Wounded Bull-Fighter," a portrait of Fortuny, and one of Miguel de 
Cervantes, all in plaster, and received a medal. 

Noble, Matthew. (Brit.) (1818-1876.) Studied in London, 
exhibiting there his first work in 1845. He executed the Wellington 
Monument in Manchester, Oliver Cromwell in the same city (the first 
statue to the Protector erected in a public place in England), and 
statues of Sir John Franklin, Sir James Outram, the Earl of Derby, 
and of Queen Victoria, in different cities of Great Britain. Among 
hifl ideal works are, "Amy and her Fawn," u Purity," " The Spirit of 
Truth," etc. 

"This fine bronze statue TEarl of Derby] is an object of great attraction to almost 
every one who happf Of to be for the first time in the neighborhood of the Houses of 
Parliament and Westminster Abl>ey. The statue is one of Mr. Noble's most successful 
works. The figure, habited in the costume of the Oxford chancellor, is very dignified. 
yet easily and gracefully poeed ; the expression of the face is rather severe, but highly 
intellectual [It was unveiled in 1874.] " — Art Journal, August. 

Noel, Edme- An tony-Paul. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Medals in 
1872 and '74. Pupil of Guillaume, Lequesne, and Cavelier. Prix de 



152 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Rome in 1868. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor in 1878. At the 
Salon of 1878 he exhibited a portrait of Baron Taylor (in bronze) 
and " Meditation" (a statue in marble) ; in 1876, " After the Bath " 
(statue, marble) ; in 1875, " Romeo and Juliet " (group, marble) and 
" The Retiarius " (statue, bronze) ; in 1872, " Marguerite " (statue) and 
" Death " (a bas-relief), both in plaster, etc. 

M. Noel is also known by his artistic work in the Haviland faience 
a fine specimen of which is a vase in the possession of Mr. Harper 
of New York. His signature is on his vases, and they are all modeled, 
never molded. 

Norton, William E. (Am.) Sprung from a shipbuilding family 
in Massachusetts, he had, from his infancy, a fondness for the sea, 
making several voyages before the mast, before he settled in Boston, 
and began the painting of marine views, which are his specialty, and 
in which he has met with decided success. In 1877 he went abroad, 
opening a studio in London. Among his works are, " Gathering 
Kelp," " Whale-Ships Trying Out," " Early Morning," " Calm After- 
noon," etc. His " Fog on the Grand Banks " was at the Philadelphia 
Exhibition of 1876. To the Royal Academy, London, he sent in 
1878, "The Thames near Blackwall," "Twilight on the Banks of 
Newfoundland," and " Becalmed on the Grand Banks." To the 
Mechanics' Fair, Boston, the same year, " Midnight Moonlight on 
the Grand Banks," " Nantasket Beach in November," and " In the 
Bay." 

" William E. Norton's ' Crossing the Grand Banks ' is most remarkable for its effective 
presentation of fine neutral tints of rich deep gray, and soft rich hazy dream-light." — Art 
Journal, May, 1877. 

Oakes, John Wright, A. R. A. (Brit.) Born in 1822. First 
sent a picture to the Royal Academy in 1848. In 1860 he exhibited 
"An Old Sand-Pit"; in 1861, "Water Meadows, Sandwich"; in 
1863, "The River in Flood" ; in 1865, " Morning at Augera, Lago 
Maggiore" ; in 1869, " Early Spring " ; in 1870, "A Summer Morn- 
ing" ; in 1871, " Source of the Thames" ; in 1872, "Repairing the 
Old Boat" ; in 1873, " A Mountain Stream, Aberdeenshire " ; in 1874, 
" A Sandy Bit of the Road " ; in 1876 (when he was elected an Asso- 
ciate of the Royal Academy), " Fording a Tidal Creek " and « Shel- 
tered"; in 1877, "In the Border Countrie" and "Line-Fishing"' 
(a calm sea on the South Coast) ; in 1878, "Dirty Weather on the 
East Coast " and " In the Meadows." 

"We remember no landscape of Mr. Oakes' so powerful or so well brought together in 
effect as his ' Mountain Valley ' [R. A. , 1864]. Otters catching salmon in the foreground, 
whilst behind a sudden gleam of angry light, succeeding rain and snow, smites the frac- 
tured face of a huge slate-cliff. The work has a real solemnity of effect. " — Palgrave's 
Essays on Art. 

Oakey, Maria R. (Am.) Born in New York, 1847. She was 
educated at the schools of the Cooper Institute and the Academy of 
Design, and has had the benefit of instruction, at different periods, from 



ARTISTS OF TIIE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 153 

La Paige, William Hunt, Dr. Rimmer, Swain Giflbnl, George Butler, 
Edwin Forbes, and Thomas Couture. With the exception of a visit 
to France and Italy her professional life has been spent in New York. 
Among her works are a portrait of a !><>y, life size and full length, ex- 
hibited in Boston and New York (belonging to Daniel Oakey); por- 
trait of Miss 0. S. Ward ; " A Woman Serving," exhibited in New 
York, Boston, and London (belonging now to Edward Cook); " Vio- 
' a life-size (three-quarter length) figure of a young girl in an- 
tique dress, at the Exhibition of the Society of American Artists in 
- : •• L' Inamorato"; "The Philosopher's Corner " (in oil), belong- 
ing to Samuel Y. Wright of New York ; and portraits, flowers, still- 
life, and charcoal drawings, owned by Miss Bartol of Boston, C. W. 
Lsey, John P. Townsend, J. Q. A. Ward, Alexander Cochrane, and 
others. 

O'Connell, Mme. Frederic-Emilie-Auguste-Miethe. (Ger.) 
Born at Berlin, L828. Pupil of Begas of Berlin. Her first picture, 
the " Day of the Dupes," though far from perfect, was much praised. 
In 1^44 she married and settled in Brussels. Here, by the study of 
the pictures of the Flemish school, she much improved, and while in 
Belgium she painted many water-colors, some portraits, and executed 
most of her etchings. She received at the Salons there all the med- 
als, including that of the first class. About 1853 she went to Paris, 
where she was also successful, and where she opened an atelier, and 
received a number of pupils. Among her works are, " Portrait of 
Rachel,'* " Peter the Great and Catherine," " Maria Theresa and 
Frederick the Great." Among her etchings are, " St. Magdalen in the 
:t," "Charity surrounded by Children," some busts, portraits, etc. 

O'Donovan, William R. (Am.) Born in Virginia, 1844. An 
American sculptor whose professional life has been spent in the city 
of New York. He sent to the National Academy, in 1874, a bust of 
the late Peter Gilsey (belonging to Mr. Henry Gilsey). In 1876 he 
exhibited a bust of the late John A. Kennedy, executed for the 
monument to be placed over his grave by the Odd Fellows. In 1877 
he sent his bust of Thomas Le Clear, N. A., and in 1878, busts of 
William H. Beard, Winslow Homer, and one of William Page, to be 
snted by a number of prominent residents of New York to the 
Academy of Design. He is at present (1878) engaged upon a bust of 
Theodore Tilton, and many prominent Americans have been among 
his subjects. He was elected an Associate of the National Academy 
in 1878. 

" In making a bust Mr. O'Donovan, as he should, pays as much attention as a por- 
trait-painter does to the modifying influence of color or form One of the best 

and best-known artists of the country is reported to have said recently of O'Donovan's 
portrait of the j>ainter Page, that it is executed in the true Phidian spirit. This was 
only another way of saying that it is in the style of the purest ancient Greek art, and as 
so little of our modern sculpture deserves such praise, Mr. O'Donovan's bust is a singu- 
larly interesting i*>rfonuance." — Art Journal, February, 187S. 



154 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Ogilvie, Clinton, A. N. A. (Am.) Born in New York, 1838. 
He has devoted himself to landscape-painting, studying under James 
Hart, and practicing his profession in his native city. He has twice 
visited Europe, working for some time in Paris. In 1864 he was 
elected an Associate of the National Academy, exhibiting there, in 
different seasons, " The Path by the River," " Valley of the Croton," 
u Farmington River Scenery," " The Brookside," " Summer Day in 
Connecticut," " Sunny Summer Time," " The Mountain Brook," 
" Near Brummer, Switzerland," " Lauterbrunnen," " Lake Como," 
" Lake of Killarney," etc. His " In the Woods " was at the Centen- 
nial Exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876. 

Oliva, Alexandre-Joseph. (Fr.) Born at Saillagousse, about 
1824. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Delaistre. Best 
known by his portrait statues and busts, of which he has made a 
great number. His "Rembrandt" (1853) and a bust of R. P. Ventura 
de Raulica are at the Luxembourg. 

Olivie", Leon. (Fr.) Born at Narbonne. Medal in 1876. Pupil 
of Coedes and Cogniet. At the Salon of 1876 he exhibited " The 
Question " and " A Fisherman of the Seine." 

O'Neil, Henry, A. R. A. (Brit.) Born in St. Petersburg, 1817. 
Taken to England as a child, he displayed a taste for art, and entered 
the Royal Academy in 1867. He exhibited his first picture two years 
later, since contributing regularly to the exhibitions of the Academy. 
His "Eastward Ho," in 1858, and (the companion picture) "Home 
Again," in 1859, attracted great attention in England, and brought 
him into prominent notice as an artist. Both were engraved. Among 
the better known of O'Neil's earlier works are, " The Last Moments 
of Mozart," " Queen Catherine's Dream," " The Return of the Wan- 
derer," and " Ruth and Naomi " (which belonged to Prince Albert). 
In 1860 (when he was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy) he 
contributed " The Shipwreck " ; in 1861, " The Parting Cheer " ; in 
1862, " Mary Stuart's Farewell to France " ; in 1863, " The Power of 
Music " ; in 1864. "The Landing of the Princess of Wales at Graves- 
end " ; in 1866, "The Last Moments of Raffaelle " ; in 1868, "Before 
Waterloo " ; in 1872, " Rebecca and Ivanhoe" ; in 1873, " Tintoretto 
painting his Dead Daughter " ; in 1874, " The Path through the 
Glen " ; in 1875, " An Incident of the Plague of London " ; in 1876, 
several bits of Scottish landscape ; in 1877, " Shakspere reading ' A 
Midsummer Night's Dream ' to Queen Elizabeth " ; in 1878, "Loch 
Leven, 1568 " and " Catherine's Dream." Many of the above have 
been engraved. To the Philadelphia Exhibition of 1876 he sent " A 
Volunteer." 

O'Neil, G. B. (Brit.) A resident of London. He paints genre 
subjects, which appeal to the popular taste. He first exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in 1851, and continues to send pictures there regu- 
larly. Among his earlier works may be mentioned, " A Hearty Wei- 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 155 

come," "A Statute Fair," "The Rival Musicians," "A Favorite 
Tune," etc To the Royal Academy, in 1868, he sent "Why so 
late V ; in 1869, M New Shoes " ; in 1871, " The Children's Party" ; 
in 1872, • Nestlings " ; in 1873, "Driving a Pair"; in 1874, "A 
Little Better" ; in 1875, "Sympathy"; in 1876, " Our Boys " ; in 
1-77, u The Father of the Regiment"; in 1878, " Reaping Time." 
One of his first works which attracted public attention, " The Found- 
ling " (R. A., 1852), bequeathed by Jacob Bell, is now in the National 
Gallery, London. Many of his pictures have been engraved. 

Orchardson, William Q., A. R. A. (Brit.) Born in Edinburgh 
in 1835, and educated there at the Trustees Academy. He painted 
portraits in his native city for a few years, exhibiting at the Royal 
Scottish Academy. In 1863 he removed to London, where he still 
resides, and sent to the Royal Academy, the same year, " An Old 
English Song " ; in 1864, " Flowers of the Forest " ; in 1865, " Ham- 
let and Ophelia" ; in 1866, " Story of a Life"; in 1867, "Talbot 
and the Countess of Auvergne" ; in 1868 (when he was elected an 
Associate of the Royal Academy), a "Scene from Shakspere's Henry 
IV; in 1869, "The Duke's* Antechamber " ; in 1871, "On the 
Grand Canal " and " An Hundred Years Ago " ; in 1872, " Casus 
Belli " and " The Forest Pet " ; in 1873, " Cinderella " and " The 
Protector " ; in 1874, u Hamlet and the King " and " Ophelia " ; in 

1875, " Too Good to be True" and " Moonlight on the Lagoons " ; in 

1876, "The Bill of Sale" and "Flotsam and Jetsam" ; in 1877, "The 
Queen of the Swords" and " Jessica" ; in 1878, "A Social Eddy" and 
" Autumn." 

Among Orchardson's other works are, " Peggy," a scene from " The 
Gentle Shepherd " (Brit. Inst., 1863), " The Challenge " (Paris Expo- 
sition, 1867), " Christopher Sly," "Choosing a Weapon," " The Vir- 
tuoso," " The Salutation," etc. He sent to Philadelphia, in 1876, 
" Prince Henry, Poins, and Falstaff," and " Moonlight on the La- 
goons, Venice "; to Paris, in 1878, " The Queen of the Swords," " The 
Bill of Sale," " Escaped," and " The Duke's Antechamber." 

" Orchardson is an artist of more than ordinary merit." — Benjamin's Contemporary 
Art in Europe. 

- We look with somewhat mixed feelings on what may, we suppose, be termed the 
rising school of English and Scottish incident painters. Among the latter Mr. Orchard- 
son has at present the air of losing ground ; the less promising qualities in his work 
of the last two years having obtained in 1865 a certain prominence over the merits visible 
in his earlier productions. His ' Hamlet and Ophelia ' has many clever points, and the 
scene has been proi»erly imagined as off the stage, but we do not gain so much as might 
have been expected ; the two heads, especially Ophelia's, being poor and unsatisfac- 
tory in character.'' — Palgravk's Essays on Art. 

- ' Two Skye-Terriers ' [R. A., 1873], by Orchardson, are admirably painted. To each 
dog is given a definition of character which is remarkably impressive. This is, we be- 
lieve, the only animal picture by this painter that has been exhibited in the Royal 
Academy It is not easy to determine whether he deals more favorably with animal or 
human expression." — London Art Journal, June, 1873. 



15G ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Or d way, Alfred. {Am.) A resident of Boston. He was the 
founder of the Boston Art Club, in 1854, and its first Secretary and 
Treasurer, its President in 1859, and the Corresponding Secretary in 
1866. From 1856 to '63 he was director of the exhibitions of paint- 
ings at the Boston Athenaeum, and has exhibited regularly at the Art 
Club. His pictures are owned by Mr. Thomas Wigglesworth of 
Boston, Colonel Elliot of Baltimore, and other collectors. " On 
Charles River," " Newton Lower Falls," and " Arline " were at the 
Mechanics' Fair in Boston in 1878. 

Osborn, Miss E. M. {Brit.) Residing in London, she had for 
some years also a studio in Glasgow, painting portraits and occasional 
subject-pictures. Among her works may be noted, " Olivia," at the 
Glasgow Loan Exhibition of 1878 ; and "A Golden Day-Dream " and 
u The Cemetery at Mazorbo, near Venice," at the Royal Academy, 
London, in 1877. 

Oudine', Eugene- Andre*. {Fr.) Born at Paris, 1810. Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Andre Gaile. The works of this 
sculptor are mostly for public buildings, fountains, etc., and are ap- 
parently innumerable. He has also executed a large number of por- 
traits. At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited a portrait of himself, a 
bust in bronze. 

Oudinot, Achille Franqois. {Fr.) Born at Damigny (Orne), 
1820. Pupil of Huyot in architecture, and of Corot in painting. 
After visiting Italy, from which country he brought many water- 
color sketches, his vocation for painting seemed too prononce to be 
disregarded, and, although he has since done considerable work as an 
architect, it is as a painter that he is best known. He has also occu- 
pied himself as a designer, especially for the " Magasin pittoresque," 
and has painted on glass. At the Exposition of 1855 his glass paint- 
ings were much admired. In the Art Journal of January, 1876, is 
the following : — 

" At the exhibition of the works commanded by the city of Paris were seen five large 
and beautiful glass paintings, executed by Oudinot, which are placed on the dievet of 
the church of Saint-Jacques du Haut-Pas, where they make the best effect. It is to be 
remarked that they are painted in black and white on a ground of mosaic of gold. It 
has a happy effect, at the same time that it is a progress. M. Oudinot is now occupied 
in the restoration of the glass of Jean Cousin, at the Sainte-Chapelle at Vincennes." 

Oudinot also placed himself in relations with some master-builders, 
and was charged with the erection of houses in Paris, a hotel at Passy 
in the style of Louis XIII. , and with numerous country-houses, 
among which was that of the late artist Daubigny, near l'lsle-Adam. 
During the year 1877 Oudinot took up his residence at Boston, and 
carried to the United States a large number of pictures, some of which 
have been exhibited in Boston art galleries and exhibitions. One 
of these, which wonderfully represents a storm of wind, was pur- 
chased by Mr. D. Waldo Lincoln of Worcester. Others have been 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 157 

bought by Mr. T. Q, Appleton, Mr. G. 13. Richmond, Mr. Wig- 
glesworth, and others, II is subjects are varied. His Landscapes 
present to us many of the characteristic features of French country 

scenes, — thatched cottages, wooded paths, meadows and streams, 
are reproduced with the varied effects of shining and lowering 
skies, with a charm which written words can scarcely tell, — certainly 
not in the space here allotted us. His picture of " Dunes at Dun- 
querque "' has been much admired. 

"Ondinot was loug a favorite pnpfl of Corot, and shows in his works very distinctly 
the influence of that master on Ids manner. While he is versatile, his most successful 
tabors are landscapes. These are usually at once rich in coloring and imaginative In 
temper and quiet Of the pictures by him recently exhibited those were most at- 
tractive which represented pastoral scenes. Several were marine views, however, and 
one, representing a land storm, proved that the painter is capable of Imaginative work 
of a high order." — Art Journal, December, 1S77. 

Ouless, Walter William, A. R. A. (Brit.) Born at St. Heliers, 
Jersey. L848. Educated in the Royal Academy, he has devoted him- 
self to portrait-painting, spending his professional life in London. 
He has exhibited at the Royal Academy since 1873, and was elected 
an Associate of that institution in 1877. Among the better known 
and more successful of his portraits have been those of Lord Selborne, 
Lord Justice Amphlett, Charles Darwin, Admiral Sir Alexander 
Milner, Hon. E. P. Bouverie, Hon. Russell Gurney, etc. 

"Few. artists of greater promise in his line can be found than W. W. Ouless. His 
texture, handling, and coloring are of the first order." — Benjamin's Contemporary Art 
in Europe 

" • The Mayor of Newcastle,' by Ouless, is an agreeable and vigorous portrait, highly 
creditable to the painter, and honorable to its subject and to its possessors. Mr. Ouless 
has adopted from Mr. Millais what was deserving of imitation, and has used the skill he 
has learned to better ends. All his portraits are vigorous and interesting." — Ruskin'3 
Notes of the Academy, 1875. 

"Mr. Ouless' portraits have vast merit. Painted with equal firmness and freedom, 
they are invariably lifedike and expressive, and display a general grace and brilliancy of 
treatment, which imparts to them a distinctive and resistless charm." — London Morn- 
1877. 

Ouvrie', Pierre Justin. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1810. Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Abel de Pujol and Chatillon. His 
picture of the "Oval Court of the Castle of Fontainebleau " (1840) 
and "The Monument to Walter Scott at Edinburgh" (1863) are at 
the Luxembourg. The pictures of this artist are numerous, and his 
works varied. He paints in both oil and water colors, and makes 
lithographs. 

Overbeck, Friedrich. (Ger.) Born at Lubeck (1789- 18G9). 
iate Member of the Institute of France. After some preliminary 
studies this artisl settled in Pome in 1810, and remained there during 
his life. He became B Roman Catholic, and laid down as the funda- 
mental principle of his art, that it existed only for the service of re- 
ligion. He drew about him many disciples, who with him under- 



158 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

took to accomplish the regeneration of painting. He became known 
through his frescos of the " History of Joseph," at the villa of the 
Consul-General of Prussia, and " Jerusalem Delivered," at Villa Mas- 
sinii, in which works he was assisted by his brother artists and pupils. 
The " Miracle of the Rose," in the church of Saint Agnes at Assisi, 
was almost entirely the work of Overbeck. Among his oil-pictures 
are, " The Entrance of Christ into Jerusalem," at the church of Notre- 
Dame in Lubeck ; " Christ on the Mount of Olives," at Hamburg ; 
the " Marriage of the Virgin " ; several Holy Families ; the " Death 
of Saint Joseph " ; etc. Many engravings have been made after 
the works of Overbeck, and for a time his " new departure " in 
painting was much talked of, and he apparently had great influence. 
His pupils, as they returned to Germany, were employed in the deco- 
ration of churches and chapels, and these remain to show the fruit 
of his influence and doctrines. The chef-d'oeuvre of this painter is 
the " Triumph of Religion in the Arts," which is at the Staedel In- 
stitute in Frankfort. At the National Gallery, Berlin, is his " Jeru- 
salem Delivered." 

" The world of modern German art, as that of old, divides itself into two hemispheres : 
Overbeck rules as the modern Raphael over one; Cornelius, as a German Michael Angelo, 
hears iron sway over the other. Overbeck is the St. John which leant in love on the 
bosom of our Lord ; Cornelius is St. Peter, strong as a rock on which to build the 
Church. And as with Michael Angelo followers were wanting, so with Cornelius he 
walks in that terribile via wherein few can venture to tread. The lot of Overbeck is more 
blessed. Like to Raphael, his forerunner, he draws by love all men unto him ; near to 
him, through fellowship of endearing sympathy, warmed by the emotion which beauty, 

akin to goodness, in the universal heart begets Among the oil-paintings of Overbeck, 

' The Triumph of Religion in the Arts ,' one of the choicest treasures in the Stadel Institute, 
Frankfort, is certainly the most elaborate and ambitious. This grand composition, 
which may be likened in its intent to Raphael's ' School of Athens,' or to the 'Hemi- 
cycle ' by Delaroche, has been aptly termed by German critics, ' The Christian Parnas- 
sus,' the dawn of light in Europe. I wish that space were left for detailed description 
of this work, weighty in thought, and loaded with symbolism, — a work meant as a dec- 
laration of faith, the programme of a creed, preaching to the world a homily. Yet 
while pondering on this picture well worthy of veneration, I could not but regret once 
more, that Overbeck, in maturing his pictorial thoughts, had not shown like diligence 
in the perfecting of the material instruments, through which alone ideas can be made 
visible. In the remembrance of the heavenly harmonies of Angelico and Perugino, it 
is hard to forgive even a spiritual artist forcrudeness of tone, and for the use of colors 
which are of the earth earthy. In the recollection of Italian pictures, lovely in all per- 
fections, it is not easy to bestow unqualified admiration on figures which, whatever be 
their Christian graces, are severe in outline, ungainly in form, and feeble in bodily frame. 
Such defects, however, may be perchance but motes that darken the sunbeam ; they are, 
perhaps, but the vapors of earth which the light of heaven has struggled in vain to 
dispel." — J. Beavington Atkinson, Art Journal, February, 1865. 

" There is also a conservative religious school illustrated by Overbeck, and an eclectic 
one by Cornelius and Kaulbach, who thought to recast the art of the nineteenth cen- 
tury in old molds, and with about as much permanent success as a new order of Stylites 
might expect. These artists are ambitious, learned, sincere, and skillful. But the com- 
mon people wonder, shake their heads, and straightway forgetting the big paintings 
compounded of defunct foreign systems and feelings, pass on to admire the easel repre- 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 159 

MHiattOttS of tilings familiar and domestic. Modern democratic taste, right or wrong, 
will not tolerate asceticism, allegory, religious or classical idealism, mysticism, roman- 
ticism, or other passion of the past, while it can command a plentiful supply of its own 
loved naturalism. Its idols must talk its own tongue, and have a fellow-feeling. Democ- 
racy has hit the right path for a more wholesome art of its owu than aristocracy ever 
worked out for itself. Believe, and then be baptized. The habit of church or state is 
to baptize lirst, leaving the neophyte to believe if he can, disbelieve if he dare." — 
Jarves, Art Thoughts. 

Pabst, Camille Alfred. (Fr.) Born at Heiteren. Medal at 
Paris in ^74. Medal at Philadelphia. Pupil of Comte. At Phila- 
delphia he exhibited M The Alsatian Bride," and at the Paris Salon of 
1-77, " The Cradle " and " The Album of the War "; and in 1878, "An 
Apothecary in Alsace " and "A Corner of my Atelier." 

Page, William, X. A. (.4m.) Born in Albany, N. Y., 1811. Re- 
moved in 1820 with his family to New York City. Was a pupil in 
the classical school of Joseph Hoxie. At the age of eleven he gained 
a premium from the American Institute for an india-ink drawing. 
He entered the law office of Frederick De Peyster when quite a young 
man, but soon devoted himself entirely to art, studying under Pro- 
r Morse, and in the schools of the National Academy. In 1828 
and 29 he painted portraits in Albany. Again settled in New York, 
and, later, opened a studio in Boston, where he remained until he went 
abroad. For many years he was considered the leading American por- 
trait-painter in Rome. He was made a full member of the National 
Academy in 1836. Among Page's earlier works are a " Holy Family " 
(belonging to the Boston Athenaeum), " The Infancy of Henry IV.," 
and a portrait of Governor Marcy (the last in the City Hall, New 
York). In 1868 he sent to the NationalAcademy portraits of Robert 
B. Minturnand Mrs. Theodore Tilton; in 1869, Henry Ward Beecher 
(belonging to Theodore Tilton); in 1870, Governor Fenton (belonging 
to the city of New York); in 1874, Col. R. G. Shaw. His "An- 
tique Timbrel-Player" was in the National Academy in 1871; "Far- 
ragut's Triumphant Entry into Mobile Bay," in 1872 ; " Shakspere," 
in 1374; and " Shakspere, from the German Death Mask," in 1876. 

Among his other works may be mentioned, " Ruth and Naomi " (in 
the possession of the New York Historical Society), "Moses," " Ruth," 
aus," and portraits of Robert Browning, and Charlotte Cushman. 
A head of Christ, painted by Page for Theodore Tilton, and exhibited 
at the National Academy and elsewhere, attracted much attention. 
The lectures which this artist delivered at the National Academy 
were fine, and much valued by the students who listened to them. 
A number of Page's pictures were on exhibition in New York in 
the winter of 1877, including his bust and full-length portrait of 
Shakspere, his copy of Titian's " Venus," and his own " Venus," 
painted in Rome in 1859, and exhibited in London in 1860 and in 
York in 18G7. Mr. Page has for some years occupied a studio 
in New York. 



1G0 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY, 

" There is much in Page to command respect. He experiments boldly in pursuit of 
the combined splendor and purity of Titian, thinks profoundly, reasons plausibly, and 
always essays high art. Ever ready to confound or convince, he surprises, delights, 
confuses, and disappoints all at once. Some of his portraits exhibit nice discrimination 
of character, while his ideal works, notwithstanding faults of grammar and much want 
of good taste, when he departs from direct copying, have something grand in suggestion, 
showing familiarity with great work." — Jarves, Art Idea. 

" Of all the American portrait-painters, Page is the most originally experimental ; he 
has studied his art in theory as well as practice He seems to unite the conserva- 
tive instincts of the old-world artists with the bold experimental ambition of the young 
Republic." — Tuckerman's Book of the Artists. 

" Page's portrait of President Eliot of Harvard College [N. A., 187C] is in many re- 
spects the finest work in the Exhibition. It is a striking likeness, and the pose is emi- 
nently characteristic of the man. We look upon this work as the highest aim in 
portraiture. The painting is solid, the drawing firm, and every detail of the work is 
finished with conscientious care." — Art Journal, May, 1876. 

Palizzi, Joseph. (Ital.) Born at Lanciano, 1813. Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. Pupil of the Academy of Naples. He went to 
Paris in 1844. He paints landscapes, figures, and animals. Naturally, 
with such endeavors, some things must be good and some bad. It 
is quite necessary to choose carefully if one buys a Palizzi. At the 
Salon of 1877 he exhibited " Asses in a Forest " and " Cows in a 
Pasture " ; in 1876, " The Return from the Fair" and "The Road of 
San Germano, near Mount Cassin" ; and in 1875, "An Italian Herds- 
man descending the Mountain with his Sheep." His " Landscape 
with Goats" and "A Neapolitan Boy" beloug to J. H. Weeks of 
Boston. 

" Joseph Palizzi is a Neapolitan, naturalized Frenchman, even a Parisian by his mind, 
his talent, his success. I know few artists more fruitful, more varied, more anxious to 
attempt painting in all phases ; he goes from landscape to figures ; he knows animals by 
heart ; he leaves one pocket picture in the size and finish of a miniature to undertake 
a grand canvas of historic dimensions. At times he throws aside his palette to essay 
charcoal and water-colors. He is a seeker ; an insatiable, an ambitious man in the best 
sense of the word. We can see that success and failure (there are some heights and 
depths in his history) stimulate him equally." — Edmond About, Salon del864. 

Palmaroli, Vicente. (Span.) A medal at the Exposition Univer- 
sal, Paris, 1867. He is one of the chief painters of his school, and 
may be compared with Fortuny in certain points, and with Meissonier 
in others. Two works by Palmaroli, " The Listener " and " The Con- 
noisseur," are in the collection of Mr. Theron R. Butler, New York. 
When his picture of " The Sermon in the Sistine Chapel " was on ex- 
hibition it attracted much attention. The following extract from a 
writer in the " Gazette des Beaux- Arts " relates to this work : — 

"Since the first day of the Exposition the critics, whose enthusiasm was immediately 
excited, group themselves eagerly before the ' Sermon in the Sistine Chapel.' It is be- 
cause one is always attracted by works in which effect and style are in unity. The pic- 
ture of Palmaroli has this merit ; it is harmonious, it is tranquil, it is sober, and, more- 
over, adequately colored ; the reds, the blacks, the whites, the browns, are so marvel- 
ously mingled that this flourish of trumpets (in color) does not cover up the monotonous 
voice of the preacher. What is wanting in this picture (but in so small a measure that 
perhaps I ought not to speak of it) is a more marked character in the physiognomies of 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 161 

the personages. It seems that such an artist as might be named — Mcissonior, for ex- 
ample — would have burini with more hu-isive traits the faces of the canlinals ami 
archbishops. But what W9 say OQght not to hinder the sympathy which is awakened by 
the picture of I'almaruli. Even after the 'Sistine Chapel ' of Ingres, this work is excel- 
lent." 

Palmer, Samuel. (Brit.) Born at Walworth, Surrey, 1805. 
He studied in the Antique School of the British Museum and else- 
where, and has spent his professional life in London and the counties 
of Kent and Surrey, passing two years in study and observation in 
Italy. lie has painted in oil and water colors, and turned his atten- 
tion somewhat to etching. About 1853 he was elected a member of 
the Etching-Club and a full member of the Society of Painters in 
Water-Colors. Among his more important drawings sent to the 
Water-Color Exhibitions in different seasons are, " A Dream on the 
Apennine," in KsG4 ; " The Ballad," in 1860 (belonging to F. 
Craven) ; "Pompeii" and "St. Paul landing in Italy," in 1868; 
-The Fall of Empire," in 1871 ; "A Golden City," in*1873 ; draw- 
ings from " Connis," " L' Allegro," and "II Penseroso," and "Tityrus 
I to his Patrimony," in 1877 ; etc. 

'• Palmer's studies of foliage are beyond all praise for carefulness. I have never seen 
a stone-pine or a cypress drawn except by him, and his feeling is as pure and grand as 
his fidelity is exemplary. I look to him, unless he loses himself in over-reverence for 
certain conventionalisms of the elder schools, as one of the probable renovators and 
correctors of whatever is failing and erroneous in the practice of English art." — Ruskin's 
Moilern Painters. 

" Samuel Falmer is one of the few really great English etchers, but as it results from 
the nature of his work that each plate of his is very costly in time, and as he happens 
to l>e a very successful painter in water-colors, the consequence is that his production 
in etching lias been extremely limited. .... If ever a true appreciation of art shall be- 
come general among our descendants, they will wonder how it is possible that Samuel 
Palmer, to whom was given genius and length of days, and who in his time, as they 
will see, was one of the most accomplished etchers who ever lived, should have left 
behind him just half a dozen plates." — IIamerton's Etching and Etdiers. 

Palmer, Erastus D. {Am.) Born in Onondagwa County, N. Y., 
1817. He lived in Utica, N. Y., for many years, following his trade, 
that of a carpenter. In 1846 he settled in Albany, and began his 
professional career as a cutter of cameos, pursuing this branch of his 
art with decided success until 1852, when he executed his first im- 
portant piece of sculpture, " The Infant Ceres," which was exhibited 
at the National Academy in New York, and attracted much atten- 
tion. " Ceres " was followed by " The Morning Star," u The Evening 
Star," and other subjects in bas-relief. Among his ideal busts are, 
ring," "Resignation," etc. His first full-length figure was the 
"Indian Girl," followed by the "White Captive," "Faith," "The 
Emigrant's Children," and "Peace in Bondage"' Among his other 
works are, "The Little Peasant," "The Sleeping Peri," and "The 
Infant Flora." He has executed portrait busts of Moses Taylor, 
Alexander Hamilton (belonging to Hamilton Fish). Erastus Corning, 
Governor Morgan, Commodore Perry, and other prominent men. 

K 



162 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

His "Disappointment," at the Johnston sale, in 1876, brought 
$660. His bronze statue of Robert Livingston was at the Phil- 
adelphia Centennial Exhibition of 1876, and was " commended for 
artistic excellence," receiving a medal. 

Mr. Palmer's professional life has been spent in Albany. He made 
his first visit to Europe in 1874, observing and studying the masters, 
ancient and modern, in the different art centers of the Continent, and 
working for some time in Paris. 

" Palmer's cameo-cutting was bold, distinct, unevasive ; some of his works in that 
line are perfect gems, and far more satisfactory than most of the cameo portraits for 

which travelers pay such exorbitant prices in Rome ' Ceres ' was idealized with 

strict regard to Nature as a basis. The exquisite contour and sublimated infantile ex- 
pression of the bust attracted a crowd of delighted gazers. The conception proved a 
remarkable eye for beauty, while the finish indicated an exactitude and refinement of 
chiseling." — Tuckerman's Book of the Artists. 

" Undoubtedly Palmer has a poetic, versatile mind. .... His favorite mode of ex- 
pression is allegory or symbolism. Aiming at original invention, he has attained 
a style peculiar to himself. .... Perhaps his finest conception is the 'Indian 
Maiden finding the Cross in the Wilderness.' It is simple and suggestive, the figure of 
the maiden being far more refined than his white women. 'The Ambush Chief is 
forcible and natural. 'The Peri,' ' Spirits' Flight,' 'Peace in Bondage,' ' Resignation,' 
'Morning,' 'Evening,' ' Memory,' mostly medallions, although somewhat capriciously 
baptized, manifest the varied idealism of his thought." — Jarves, Art Idea. 

"While noting how thoroughly American the fine head of this angel is [ 'The Angel 
at the Sepulcher'], we are also bound to note that both in face and figure he is 
of a very fleshy and unangelical type. Indeed, Palmer has always shown a singular 
preference for phlegmatic modes, and his two most important studies from the nude, 
' The White Captive ' and 'The Indian Girl,' are lacking in precisely that litheness 
which is one of the chief charms of the best antique representations of the nude human 
figure. Both of these statues, however, have very admirable qualities." — Great Ameri- 
can' Sculptors. 

Palmer, Walter L. (Am.) Native of Albany, 1ST. Y. Son of 
Erastus D. Palmer. He studied in Paris, returning to New York, 
where he opened a studio in 1877, devoting himself to landscape-paint- 
ing. He sent to the National Academy, in 1878, "An Interior" (be- 
longing to H. G. De Forest) and " Montigny-sur-Loing." 

"An ' Interior ' with figures is one of the brightest things in the room [Union League 
Club, 1878]. Mr. Palmer's sense of light and color is acute, and he has made more than 
a faithful transcription in his choice of characteristic accessories, and in the admirably 
introduced young gentlewoman who gives to the scene a profoundly human interest." — 
Neiv York Evening Post, March 15, 1878. 

Pampaloni, Luigi. (Ital.) Born at Florence (1791 - 1847). Pro- 
fessor in the Academy of Florence. In 1827 he first attracted atten- 
tion by a group made for a Polish lady, — a monument, which 
represented a little girl sleeping, and a boy kneeling by her side with 
upturned face and clasped hands. The figure of the boy, under the 
name of the " Praying Samuel," became popular the world over. It 
was also called the " Orphan," and as it appeared at about the same 
time with the engraving of the Duke of Reichstadt in the same atti- 
tude, it added to its popularity in some quarters, wherex it was believed 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CEXTURY. 163 

that Pampaloni had the son of Napoleon in mind. The plaster copies 
sold in immense numbers. He made several other similar rep- 
resentations of children, but the majestic figures of Arnolfo dei Lapi 
and Brnnelleschi on the eastern side of the Cathedral at Florence show 
more fully the talent of this sculptor. He modeled the Leonardo of 
the loggia of the Ullizi, and made the colossal Pietro Leopoldo at 
Tisa, and that of the poet Papi at Lucca. 

Pape, Eduard Friedrich. (Oer.) Born at Berlin, 1817. Mem- 
ber of the Berlin Academy and Professor there, where he also studied 
as well as under Gerst. His principal works are landscapes and 
decorative paintings, of which there are a number in the new Museum 
at Berlin. He frequently chooses scenes in which there are water- 
falls. At the National Gallery, Berlin, are, " The Rhine- Fall at Schaff- 
hausen " and M Erl-Gletscher auf Handeck." At Berlin, in 1876, he 
exhibited " Lake Maggiore," " A Woody Landscape," and " Chiem- 

See."' 

Paris, Camille. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Medal in 1874. Pupil 
of Picot and A. Scheffer. At the Salon of 1876 he exhibited "The 
Temple of Neptune, in the Latium." His picture of 1874, U A Bull 
of the Roman Campagna," is at the Luxembourg. 

Parker, John A., A. N. A. (Am.) Born in New York, 1827. 
He was brought up to commercial pursuits in his native city. He 
displayed a marked taste for art as a youth, but did not adopt it as 
a profession until 1859, when his first picture was exhibited at the 
National Academy, New York. He studied from nature in the Cats- 
kills and elsewhere, and has spent his professional life in Brooklyn, 
N. Y. He was one of the original members of the Brooklyn Art 
iation, and was elected an Associate of the National Academy, 
York, in 1864. His landscapes are in the possession of Dr. Storrs, 
H. E. Pierrepont, A. A. Low, Cyrus Butler, and other gentlemen. 
To the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia, in 1876, he sent " Twi- 
light in the Adirondacks," belonging to Charles Baxter. 

•' A late 'Twilight,' by John A. Parker, with a pathway through a grove, a herdsman 
and cattle in the foreground, and the church-spire showing through the trees, is sugges- 
tive of Gray's elegy. The artist's honesty of purpose is shown in the tenderness witli 
whk-h the several varieties of foliage are suggested. Every leaf is an effort carefully 

painted The sky is painted in rich golden tones, and against it is shown, in delicate 

relief, the old belfry of the little church, and the interlaced branches of the trees. Usu- 
ally very little drawing is shown in a landscape picture, but in this it was required in 
the tree branches, and consequently there is a fine display of it." — Brooklyn Eagle, De- 
cember. 

Parker, Edgar. (Am.) Born in Framingham, Mass., 1840. Por- 
tr.iit-painter. He has spent his professional life in Boston, and has 
received no instruction in painting. Three of bis portraits are in 
Faneuil Hall, namely, those of Charles Sumner, Henry Wilson, and 
-Admiral John A. Window. He has also painted Hon. Charles 
Hudson, ex-Gov. 0:. New Hampshire, Nathaniel Haw- 



164 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

thorne, etc. William and Mary Howitt own his portrait of Margaret 
Foley. Mr. Whittier gave him sittings in 1875 for a portrait, which 
is the only original likeness of the poet in existence except one, painted 
when he was a young man, by Hoyt. 

Parmentier, Luisa von. (Aus.) Of Vienna. Medal at Phila- 
delphia, where she exhibited " Interior of the Castle Euin, Taufers, 
in the Tyrol " and " A Landscape." John F. Weir, in his report, 
says:— 

" In landscape Austria did not exhibit works of decided merit ; perhaps nothing in 
this branch of art was more pleasing than the pictures of Luisa von Parmentier." 

Parrot, Philippe. (Fr.) Born at Excideuil. Medals in 1868, 
'70, and '72. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited two portraits ; in 
1875, "Judgment of Paris" and two portraits ; in 1874, "The Foun- 
tain " and a portrait. Among his other works are " Galatea " and 
numerous portraits. 

Parsons, Charles, A. N. A. (Am.) Born in England, 1821. He 
has spent, however, the better part of his life in the city of New 
York, studying in the National Academy schools and from nature in 
the vicinity of the metropolis. He has furnished illustrations for nu- 
merous books, magazines, and weekly journals, and since 1862 has 
been superintendent of the Art Department of the publishing-house of 
Harper and Brothers. In 1860 he was elected an Associate of the Na- 
tional Academy, is a member of the Artists' Fund Society and of the 
Society of Painters in Water-Colors, contributing occasionally to the 
exhibitions of the Academy. He sent, in 1876, to the Water-Color 
Society, "Salem"; in 1877, "November" (belonging to J. Henry 
Harper) ; in 1878, " Gravesend Bay." 

Parton, Arthur, A. N. A. (Am.) Born at Hudson, N. Y., 1842. 
Pursued his art studies under William T. Richards of Philadelphia, 
spending his professional life in the city of New York. He went to 
Europe in 1869, and returned to America the next year. He is a 
member of the Artists' Fund Society, and was elected an Associate of 
the National Academy in 1872. Among the more important of his 
works are, " On the Pvoad to Mount Marcy," exhibited at the National 
Academy in 1874, and owned by Hon. Charles Farwell of Chicago, 
" A Mountain Brook," at the National Academy in 1875 (purchased 
by A. T. Stewart), now in the Stewart Gallery. His " November " is 
owned by Lord Moncke, formerly Governor-General of Canada ; his 
" Sycamores in Old Shokan "is in the possession of Amherst Col- 
lege ; " Loch Lomond " is owned by H. P. Cooper. His " Solitude" 
(belonging to W. D. Judson) and "Stirling Castle" (belonging to 
Bryce Gray) were at the Centennial Exhibition of 1876. 

" Arthur Parton, who is one of our youngest landscape-painters, is finishing a large 
study from nature on an Adirondack brook. It is a work of rare merit, and the fidel- 
ity with which the trees of the forest and undergrowth are painted in detail, together 
with the running water, merits the highest praise." — Art Journal, April, 1875. 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 165 
" The very name - ' Mountain Brook ' — suggests to the Imagination just what it is, a 

quiet, lonely, retired spot, among the recesses of a wooded pass where Nature in her 
wildest mood lias spread out her giant trees, etc. The artist has Imparted to the scene 
the ' still quiet' which seems to reign over all, and the ' wcirdness ' which ever attaches 
itself to Nature's forest relies." — Xcw York Expire , Jane, 1875. 

Parton, Ernest. (Am.) Born in Hudson, N. Y., 1845. Younger 
brother of Arthur Parton, in whose studio he spent two winters, re- 
ceiving, however, no instruction in art from regular masters or in 
any schools. He was elected a member of the Artists' Fund Society 
of Xcw York in 1873, contributing one work each year to its sales. 
In 1873 he went to Europe for the purpose of spending a few months 
in Great Britain, but, meeting with success in London, he has since 
remained there, exhibiting frequently at the Royal Academy and 
eKwhere. In 1876 he visited the Swiss Lakes and Northern Italy, 
making many sketches. Among his most important works are, 
"Morning Mist " (exhibited in New York in 1873; belonging now to 
Dr. Lut kins of Jersey City), " Papa's Lunch " (at the Royal Academy 
in 1S75), "The Placid Stream " (R. A., 1876), "Sunny September" 
and "The Poet's Corner" (R. A., 1877), " The Silent Pool," " Reflec- 
tions," "Au bord de l'eau," "On the River Loing " (R. A., 1878), 
•• N rear Capel Craig, North "Wales," "Borrowdale Meadows," "The 
Valley of the Derwent" and "The High Hall Garden" (R. A., 1877). 
The last was purchased by the Art Union of London. 

Pasini, Alberto. (ItalA Born at Busseto. Chevalier of the Or- 
ders of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, and of the Legion of Honor. 
OlHcer of the Orders of Turkey and Persia. Honorary Professor of the 
Academies of Parma and Turin. Pupil of Ciceri. His pictures are 
principally of Oriental subjects. There were eleven of them at the 
Paris Exposition of 1878, and at the Salon, same year, he exhibited 

liil Turbc, a Brousse (Turkey in Asia)," and " The Door of a Khan 
at Brousse." 

Passini Ludwig. (Aus.) Born at Vienna, 1832. Member of the 
Academies ot Berlin, Vienna, and Venice. Medals at Berlin, Paris, 
and Vienna. Studied at the Vienna Academy, under Karl Werner, 
and in Italy. Spent some time in Venice and Rome, and settled in 
Berlin about 1864, but has made several journeys to Italy. He is 
very skillful in water-colors. He paints architectural and yenre sub- 
jects, also portraits. In the National Gallery at Berlin is a cartoon 
by Passini representing the "Choir Men in St. Peter's at Rome." His 
technique is perfect, and many of his scenes from Roman life are inter- 
esting. Among his works are, "A Roman Woman with an Infant," 

bendaries in the Church," and "Penitence." At the Johnston 
sale, New York. l^TC. a wa tor-color, "The Monk in his Cell" (10 by 

Id for $270. At the Paris Exposition, 1878, he exhibited "A 
Procession at Venice," " A Bridge at Venice," and " A Public Reader 



166 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

" Passini, who should not be confounded with Pasini of Paris, is widely and justly cele- 
brated as a consummate artist in water-color representations of Italian life." — Benja- 
min's Contemporary Art in Europe. 

Paton, Sir Noel. (Brit.) Joseph Noel Paton was born in Dunferm- 
line, Scotland, 1821. He was the son of a designer of patterns, who 
gave him his first instruction in drawings. He was subsequently a 
pupil of the Royal Scottish Academy in Edinburgh, and of the Royal 
Academy in London. In 1845 he received from the Commissioners 
of Decoration of Westminster Hall a prize of £ 200 for his cartoon, 
" The Spirit of Religion," and in 1847 a prize of £ 300 for his " Recon- 
ciliation of Oberon and Titania." His " Quarrel of Oberon and Ti- 
tania " was purchased by the Scottish Academy in 1849, and placed 
in the National Gallery in Edinburgh, at a cost of £ 700. Among 
his works may be mentioned, " Thomas the Rhymer and the Queen 
of Fairyland," " The Pursuit of Pleasure," " Nicker the Soulless," 
"The Bluidy Tryste " (1858), "The Fairy Raid" (R. A., 1867), 
" Caliban "(R. A., 1869), " In Memoriam," and " Home from the Cri- 
mea," the property of the Queen, and exhibited at the International 
Exhibition in 1862, engraved, and very popular. Paton was knighted 
in 1867, upon his appointment as Queen's Limner for Scotland. His 
" Good Shepherd " (belonging to the Queen) and " Caliban listening 
to the Music " were at the Paris Exposition of 1878. 

11 Paton aims always at a higher province of art than the common class of incidents, 
and his pictures are full of minute detail, not only natural, which he paints with great 
delicacy, but of that antiquarian character which cannot be obtained without pains and 
study. All this makes us regret that Mr. Paton persists in attempting subjects which, 
judging from the results, must be pronounced quite above his abilities. He is an exam- 
ple of the intellectual illusion which mistakes interest in an art for a power in it." — 
Palg rave's Essays on Art. 

"Foremost in its class, or rather prominent in that original walk which the painter 
[Noel Paton] holds exclusively his own. we pause before ' Oskold and the Ellemaids ' 
[at the Royal Scottish Academy, 1874],— Oskold, the former, being the embodiment of a 
pilgrim soul, fighting his way through the perils of a false, lying world ; the latter repre- 
sentative of the five senses, beautiful sirens, bent on the cavalier's ruin through their 
many glittering temptations. Like most of this artist's allegories, the rigidly poetic con- 
ception with its thousand dreamy suggestive accessories can find but scant justice in 
word description. As the whole scene is in a sense spiritually originated, it must be not 
only materially but spiritually discerned." — London Art Journal, April, 1874. 

Paton, Waller H. (Brit.) A native of Dunfermline, Scotland. 
Younger brother of Sir Noel Paton and of Mrs. D. 0. Hill. He was 
brought up as a banker. Possessing, however, much of the inherent 
talent for art which has made his family remarkable, he turned his 
attention to painting, devoting himself particularly to landscapes. 
He is an artist comparatively self-taught, and has spent the better 
part of his professional life in Edinburgh. He has been a member of 
the Royal Scottish Academy for some years, contributing frequently 
to its exhibitions, as well as to those of the Royal Academy in Lon- 
don. Among his later works are, " Old Homes " and " New Tenants," 
" Decay of the Forest," " Falls of Tummell," and others, at the Royal 



AKTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 1G7 

Scottish Academy in 1878. His " Lamlash Bay, Isle of Arran " is 
in the National Gallery of Scotland ; his " Dell without a Name " 
was at the Philadelphia Exhibition of 1876. 

" In all of Waller PaUm's landscapes there is a strong leaning to the spiritual above 
the material, — as little of the human a.s must l>e, as much of the divine as may. The 
•Summer Evening, Invercloy Arran ' [11. A., 1S74], although entirely faithful in feature 
to the hx-alc, is handled with such delicate grace, and is so redolent of the sweet sanctity 
of perfect peace, that we seem to gaze rather on a fairy region than on any this world 
can offer." — Art Journal, March, 1874. 

Patrois, Isidore. (Fr.) Born at Noyers. Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited "The Visit'' 
and " The First Suspicion " ; in 1876, " In the Garden " and " Le 
juge intime"; in 1874, "The Reading, — Young Russian Girls," 
" Confidences,'' and " Fruits." Many of the pictures of Patrois are 
scenes from Russian life. " The Young Mother " is in the collection 
of Mrs. H. E. Maynard of Boston. Near St. Petersburg there is an- 
nually a procession of Holy Images, which is intended as a memorial 
of the procession of 1832, when the cholera proved so fatal in Russia. 
Patrois painted a picture of this procession in 1861, which is in the 
Luxembourg. 

Patten, George. (Brit.) (1802 - 1865.) Received his first in- 
struction in art from his father, a miniature-painter of some repute, 
devoting himself, after studying in the Royal Academy, to that 
branch of art, but, later, turning his attention to portraits on a 
larger scale. He was appointed Portrait-Painter to the Prince Con- 
sort shortly after the marriage of the Queen, enjoying for many years 
the patronage of British Court circles. He painted a few ideal pic- 
tures, but was more successful in his portraiture of living subjects. 

Patten, Alfred Fowler. (Brit.) Born in London, 1829. Son 
of George Patten, pupil of his father, studying also for some time in 
the Royal Academy. He has exhibited frequently at the Royal Acad- 
emy, and in the gallery of the Society of British Artists, of which 
institution he has been a member for some years. Among his later 
works at the Royal Academy may be noted, " May-Day Revelers 
fetching forth their Queen," in 1870 ; " Happy Springtime,' - ' in 1873; 
"Reading Robinson Crusoe," in 1878. To the Society of British Art- 
ist- he sent, in 1877, "Lovers, beware!" and "Fresh Flowers"; in 
1878, " Feeding the Ducks " and " La belle fleuriste." 

Pauwels, "William F. (Dutch.) Born at Eeckeren, 1830. Di- 
rector of historical painting in the Academy at Weimar. Pupil of 
Wapi>ers and De Kevser. Painter of historical and genre subjects 
and portraits. Among his works may be mentioned, u The Widow 
of Van Artevelde," "The Proscribed Victims of the Duke of Alba," 
and the "Calling of St. Clara." Pauwels has decorated the interior 
of the Hall at Yprea ; the subjects are historical scenes from 1187 to 
1 3-3, such as "The Founding of the First Hospital in Flanders," 
u The Return of Warriors after the Battle of the Golden Spurs," etc. 



168 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

One of his later works is a genre picture of " Queen Philippa of Eng- 
land succoring the Poor of Ghent." At the Corcoran Gallery, Wash- 
ington, is his " Justice to Lievin Pyn, 1541." 

Pazzi, Enrico. (Ital.) Born at Ravenna, 1818. Knighted by 
Victor Emmanuel, he has received from King Humbert the highest 
pension of the Commandery of the Order of Saints Maurice and Laz- 
arus. Professor in the Academy of Florence and honorary member 
of many Italian and foreign academies and societies. He first stud- 
ied in the Academy of Bologna under Professor Santi; later, in Flor- 
ence under Dupre. He received a subsidy from the city of Ravenna 
for six years, to enable him to continue his studies. In 1848 he re- 
turned to Bologna. In 1868 his statue of Dante was erected in the 
Piazza Santa Croce at Florence. Later he modeled a statue of Savo- 
narola (intended for a large hall in the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence) 
and a group called " Venice Enslaved." He was summoned to Bel- 
grade in Servia, where he received from that government a commis- 
sion to erect (in bronze) an equestrian statue to Michael Obrenovicht 
III. About the same time he was charged with the erection of a 
monument to the illustrious Luigi Carlo Farina, the patriot historian, 
in the Piazza della Stagione at Ravenna. At the unveiling of this 
monument Pazzi was made a citizen of the town of Russi, the birth- 
place of Farini, and it was also upon this occasion that he was so 
highly honored by King Humbert. One of the earliest works of this 
sculptor was " The Child Moses trampling on the Crown of Pharaoh," 
and one of his latest is " Lucretia." 

Peale, Rembrandt. (Am.) Born in Pennsylvania (1778-1860). 
He early evinced a taste for art, and in 1795 painted from life a por- 
trait of General Washington, frequently copied by himself and others, 
and well known through the engravings after it. It was purchased 
by the United States Government in 1832. Peale studied art under 
his father Charles W. Peale, one of the early American portrait- 
painters in Philadelphia, opening a studio of his own in Charleston, 
S. C, in 1796. In 1801 he went to London, where he was a pupil of 
Benjamin West until 1804. He lived for three years in Paris, return- 
ing to America in 1809. Among the better known of his portraits 
are those of President Jefferson, Mrs. Madison, Commodores Bain- 
bridge, Perry, and Decatur (in the Gallery of the New York Histori- 
cal Society) ; of Houdon the sculptor (in the Pennsylvania Academy 
of Fine Arts) ; of General Armstrong, and an equestrian portrait of 
Washington (in Independence Hall), and many people of note on 
both sides the Atlantic. His " Errina " is in the collection of H. C. 
Carey of Philadelphia. " Wine and Cake " and " Italian Peasant " 
belong to James L. Claghorn ; " Babes in the Wood," to Marshall O. 
Roberts ; and " Song of the Shirt," to G. W. Riggs. His " Court of 
Death " (a large canvas, 13 feet by 24 feet) has been frequently litho- 
graphed and engraved, and is probably the best known of his works. 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 169 

It was exhibited in almost every important city of the United States. 
Rembrandt Peale was the author of several books : "Notes on Italy," 
published in 1831 ; "Reminiscences of Art and Artists," published 
in 1S45 ; besides a biography of his father, and occasional papers on 
art topics. 

Peale, Sara M. (.1 m.) Daughter of James Peale. She studied 
under her father, and under her uncle John Peale (the founder of 
Peale's Museum), devoting herself to portrait-painting, and working 
at her profession for some years in Baltimore and Washington, where 
she had among her sitters Lafayette, Benton, Henry A. Wise, Caleb 
Gushing, and other distinguished men. She resided in St. Louis from 
1S47 to *77. painting there, among other portraits, one of Father 
Mathew. She went to Philadelphia in 1878. Of late years she has 
turned her attention to fruit-pieces. 

Pearce, Charles Sprague. (.4m.) A native of Boston. He has 
lived for some time in Europe, painting under Bonnat in Paris, and 
spending his winters at Nice. He has also made tours in Africa, 
Algiers, etc. He has devoted himself to portraits and figure-pieces, 
exhibiting in the Paris Salon. To the Centennial Exhibition at 
Philadelphia in 1876 he sent " L'ltalienne " ; to the exhibition of the 
Society of American Artists, in 1878, " The Lamentation over the 
First-Born in Egypt." His " Pet of the Harem" (belonging to R. S. 
Fay), and the "Lamentation" and others, were exhibited at the 
Mechanics' Fair, Boston, 1878. 

Peduzzi, Renato. (Ital.) Of Milan. At Philadelphia he ex- 
hibited ' ; A Chimney-Piece with a Boy representing Silence," " A 
Boy and a Swan," and " A Dancing Fawn," and received a medal. 

Peele, John T., A. N. A. (Brit-Am.) Born in Peterboro', Eng- 
land, 1822. Carried to America by his parents in 1824. Began the 
practice of art in Buffalo, N. Y., under difficulties and with no art 
education. He painted portraits in New York, Albany, and London, 
England, settling finally in New York about 1846, where he turned 
his attention to the painting of ideal subjects, in which children form 
the principal feature. He went again to England in 1851, to the Isle 
'! m in 1858, remaining eight years, and finally took up his 
residence in Kent. He is an Associate of the National Academy of 
Design, New York, and a member of the Society of British Artists, 
in whose galleries, as well as in those of the Royal Academy, London, 
he frequently exhibits. Among his works are, " The Children of the 
Wood," " Grandma's First Lesson in Knitting," " Music of the 
Reeds," "The Little Laundress," "Children of Robert Thornton" 
(R. A., 1874), " Grace before Meat," " Highland Supper," " Sunny 
Days of Childhood," "Asleep on Duty," "One Tune More," "Blowing 
Bubbles," " A Monument of Suspense," and " The Prayer for Health," 
many of which have been engraved. His "Children of the Wood " 
(purchased by Prince Albert) is in Osborne House, Isle of Wight 

VOL. II. 8 



170 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

" Peele's method of treating juvenile portraiture is both commendable and pleasant ; 
it retains the individuality while it takes the impersonation out of the category of 

a mere portrait, dressed and set up for the occasion In all of his works Mr. 

Peele's aim and purpose seem to have been to show as much of the poetic side of nature 
as is consistent with his subject, to preserve its individuality, while imparting to it 
something beyond mere naturalism." — Art Journal, May, 1876. 

Feiffer, Auguste-Joseph. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Pupil of Klag- 
mann. Medal of the third class in 1878, when he exhibited " The 
Swallows," a statue in marble. 

Peinte, Henri. (Fr.) Born at Cambrai. Prix du Salon, 1877. 
Pupil of Guillaume and Cavelier. The sensation which the " Sarpe- 
don" of this artist made is well shown in the extracts below, and 
when it is found so artistic and beautiful in plaster what may it be in 
some more artistic material ! 

" The ' Sarpedon ' of Peinte is one of the statues most justly remarked by all those 
who have studied the human body and the difficult art of reproducing it with originality. 
It merits the prix du Salon which it received." — Charles Timbal, Gazette des Beaux- 
Arts, June, 1877. 

" The figure is solidly, firmly planted. The attitude and the movement are exact and 
correct. The design, without angles or heurts, is of a rare elegance. The muscles are 
wisely treated, without exaggeration. The ensemble is irreproachable, and the ' Sarpe- 
don,' in bronze, will become classic." — Mario Proth, Voyage au Pays des Peintres, 1877. 

Pellegrin, Louis Antoine Victor. (Fr.) Born at Toulon, 1836. 
Made his debut at the Salon of 1864, with a picture of "Louis XIV. 
making Presents to the Duchess of Bourgogne in the Apartments of 
Mme. Maintenon." This was followed by " Marie Antoinette wait- 
ing to be taken to the Tribunal," " Vert -Vert," " Interior of the 
Church of Saint-Severin/' " Marie Antoinette conducted to the Scaf- 
fold," etc. He exhibited at the London Academy, in 1873, " Saint- 
Severin 's Church at Paris on Christmas Eve." 

Pelouse, Louis Germain. (Fr.) Born at Pierrelaye. Medals 
in 1873 and '76. Landscape-painter. His " Souvenir of Cernay " 
(1872) is in the Luxembourg. ' At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited 
two views in Finistere, one an evening and one a morning effect. 
They belonged to M. Tabourier and M. Hoschede. 

Penley, Aaron Edwin. (Brit.) (1806-1870.) Water-color 
artist, painting landscapes, portraits, and rustic figure-pieces. ^ He 
was Professor of Drawing at Woolwich Academy, Water-Color Painter 
to William IV., and author of several valuable books upon art sub- 
jects. 

Penne, Charles Olivier de. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Medal in 
1875. Pupil of Cogniet and Jacque. At the Salon of 1877 he ex- 
hibited "Dogs of St. Hubert" and "Fox Hounds"; in 1876, 
" The Cry of 'the Wild Boar" and "English Dogs" ; in 1875, "Nor- 
man Dogs" and "Cerf force,— tenant les abois." At the Johnston 
sale in 1876, "The Lost Scent" (12 by 18) sold for $190 (water- 
color). At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited "English Dogs" and 
" Dogs of Saint-Germain and Skye." 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 171 

Pennethorne, Sir James. (IJrit.) Born in Worcester, England, 
1801. At an early age he went to London, studying architecture 
under Nash, Pugin, and others. About 1825 he visited the Conti- 
nent, spending some time in study in Rome. In 1840 he was appointed 
architect and surveyor to the Commissioners of Woods, and turned his 
attention particularly to the improvement of the streets of London. 
Among the better known of his architectural works are the new wings 
of Buckingham Palace and Somerset House, and the new University 
of London. He also furnished designs for the laying out of Battersea 
and Victoria Parks. He was knighted by the Queen in 1870. 

Pereda, Raimondo. (Ital.) Of Milan. At Philadelphia he ex- 
hibited, u Love's Net," "A Child's Grief," and "Pretence and Sym- 
pathy,*' in sculpture. At the Paris Exposition of 1878 he exhibited 
a group in marble, called " Orphelins de mere." 

Perigal, Arthur. (Brit.) A native of London, residing for many 
years in Edinburgh. Landscape-painter. Member of the Royal 
Scottish Academy, exhibiting there and at the Royal Academy in 
London. Among his later works may be noted, " Loch Assynt, 
Sutherlandshire, " " Vesuvius, from Naples," "At the Pier at Nairn," 
" Arran," " On the Jed." " A Rough Day," " Evening in Skye, " " Loch 
Tromlie," " Morning in Glen Nevis, " etc. His " Moorland near Kin- 
lochewe, Ross-shire " is in the Scottish National Gallery. 

Pengnon, Alexis. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1806. Officer of the 
Legion of Honor. Pupil of Gros. This celebrated portraitist is dis- 
tinguished by " a true color, a firm and fine pate, with elegance of form, 
grace in modeling, and a sober and wise execution." Large numbers 
of his portraits have been exhibited at the Salons. Perignon be- 
came, some years since, the Director of l'licole des Beaux- Arts at 
Dijon. He exhibited two portraits at the Paris Salon of 1878. 

Perkins, Charles C. (Am.) Born in Boston, 1823. Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor, 1867. Corresponding Member of the French 
Institute, 1868. President of the Boston Art Club since 1871. Mem- 
ber of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1874. Honorary 
Director of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1876. Member of 
the New England Historical Society, 1876. Honorary Member of 
the Metropolitan Art Museum, New Vork, for life. President of the 
Handel and Haydn Society since 1875. Mr. Perkins studied oil- 
painting under Ary Scheffer, and etching under Bracquemond and 
Lalanne. Though not a professional artist, he devotes himself to the 
study of art in various directions, delivers lectures upon subjects con- 
1 with etching and other kindred topics, and published " Tuscan 
Sculptors," two volumes, in 1864, and " Italian Sculptors," one vol- 
ume, in 1867. The plates in these books were etched by the author, 
many of them from his own drawings. In 1878 Mr. Perkins pub- 
lished " Raphael and Michael Angelo," a biographical and critical 
essay. 



172 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

" ' Italian Sculptors ; being a History of Sculpture in Northern, Southern, and East- 
ern Italy.' Mr. Perkins continues, we trust he does not conclude, his valuable popular 
dissertation on the sculpture of Italy. Having, four years since, given us an excellent 
account of the arts in marble and bronze as they were practiced in the seats of the old 
Etruscans and their accessories, he turns to other fields in that peninsula, which, if it 

was not the birthplace, has been the Capua and the grave of the nobler arts The 

author reviews with much tact, excellent taste, and ample learning, the sculptural 
schools of Rome, Lombardy, — a very interesting branch of the subject, wherein he 
points out the error of ascribing the arts of their Italian buildings to the Lombard tribe, 
rather than to the Maestro Comacini, or freemasons, and traces the whole history of 
that noble branch of design, — Venice, with a charming school of the greatest wealth, 
Verona, Vicenza, Padua, Mantua, and Brescia, all of which have marked characteristics, 
and the cities of Central Italy, Bologna, Ferrara, Modena, Genoa, Carrara, etc. Our 
verdict on this admirable work is given with pleasure, not only on account of the taste, 
tact, learning, and comprehensive views of the author, but because his literary style is 
clear, his research large, and his illustrative power rich." — London Athenceum, January 2, 
1869. 

" In choosing Raphael and Michael Angelo for his subjects, Mr. Perkins sets his feet 

in a well-worn track Next best to new material, however, is a novel and lively 

presentation of the old. And to so much of originality, Mr. Perkins in this scholarly 
and refined treatise can lay claim. No one before, if our memory serves, has given a 
sketch of these two great artists set side by side like the double profile on an antique coin, 
one shining in the sunshine of youth and love and divine achievement, the other somber 
with the mighty shadows of his own stormy power." — Literary World, March, 1878. 

Perraud, Jean Joseph. (Fr.) Born at Monay (1821 - 1876). 
Member of the Institute, ]865. Officer of the Legion of Honor, 1867. 
Medal of Honor, 1869. This sculptor was the pupil of Ramey and 
A. A. Dumont, and of l'Ecole des Beaux- Arts. He gained the grand 
prix de Rome in 1847. In 1863 he exhibited "The Infancy of Bac- 
chus," now in the Luxembourg, which reappeared at the Exposition 
of 1867; in 1869, "Despair," now in the Luxembourg, which was 
much remarked, and " Sainte-Genevie ve," for the church of Saint-Denis- 
du-Saint-Sacrament. Perraud executed a figure of " Justice " and 
two caryatides for the Palace of Justice, and a group of the " Lyric 
Drama " for the New Opera House at Paris. He followed the classical 
traditions, and has been called cold and mannered. In 1866 he ex- 
hibited at the Salon two portrait busts; in 1875, " The Day," a group 
in marble, for the Avenue de l'Observatoire, and two portrait busts; 
in 1874, two portrait busts ; in 1873, " Galatea," statue in marble. 

'"The Infancy of Bacchus • is the work of a sculptor who knows all the secrets of the 
human form, and excels in expressing them, even in the attitudes, which, like those he 
has given to these figures, make most prominent the hidden details of the interior 
structure of the bones. The trunk, the limbs, the shoulders of the fawn, are of superb 
workmanship ; the flesh, although virile and firm, has a supple delicacy and much life ; 
the head is expressive ; the little Bacchus is also full of delicacy and force ; in fine, the 
work is marvelously brilliant in all its details. We believe, at the same time, that 
in the next figure which Perraud cuts in marble he will preoccupy himself more with 
the beauty of the whole eflect and with the eurythmy of the lines. Perraud is a sculp- 
tor, he is not yet a statuary." — Paul Mantz, Gazette, des Beaux-Arts, July, 1S63. 

Perrault, Le'on. (Fr.) Born at Poitiers. Medals at Paris in 1864 
and '76, and one at Philadelphia. Pupil of Picot and Bouguereau. 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 173 

At Philadelphia he exhibited " The Bather" and " Repose," and at the 
Sal m of 1877, " Jesus Christ in the Tomb" and a portrait ; in 1878, 
•• Maternal Tenderness n and a portrait. 

Perret, Aims'. (Fr.) Born at Lyons, 1847. Third-class medal in 
1877. Pupil of 1' Lcole des Beaux-Arts of his native city, and of Vollon 
at Paris. He exposed several works at Lyons, and had already attracted 
much attention when he made his debut in Paris, at the Salon of 1870, 
with the "Gossips of the Banks, of the Rhone, — in the Fog." This same 
year he came under the influence of Vollon, who was of great advantage 
to him. He joined the army in 1870, and after his duties there were 
ended, he made his journey to La Bresse, the quaint country from 
which he has drawn so many inspirations. Among his works are, 
"A Baptism in La Bresse" (1877), "A Wedding in Bourgogne in 
the Eighteenth Century " (187G), " Between two Fires " and a" Ravine 
of Bugey " ( 1 s75), " The Oriental " and " Young Girls of Macon." At 
the Salon of 1878 he exhibited a portrait and " A Dream on the Grass." 

Perry, E. Wood, N. A. (Am.) Born in Boston, 1831. Was for 
some time in a mercantile house in New Orleans. In 1852 went to 
Europe to study art, visited London and Paris, and settled in Diissel- 
dorf, .studying under Leutz for two years and a half, and was in the 
studio of Couture in Paris for one year. In 1857 he went to Venice, 
holding the position of United States Consul. In 1860 he returned to 
the United States, and visited many of the cities of the South and 
West, where he was well regarded as a portrait-painter. He spent 
three or four years in San Francisco, and went to the Sandwich Isl- 
ands ; on his return painting portraits of Brigham Young and other 
Mormon leaders. He settled in New York in 1866, and contributed 
to the National Academy, in 1867, " Counting the Spoils." In 1868 
he was made Associate of the National Academy, and in 1869, when 
he exhibited " The Weaver," he was made Academician. In 1870 he 
exhibited " Huldy," " The Contraband of Peace," and " The Story of 
the Tiles" ; in 1871, " The Garibaldian," " The Lost Art," " The Clock- 
Doctor," and " Saturday Afternoon " ; in 1874, " He 's coming, — Anne 
Hathaway " (belonging to E. E. Dorman) ; in 1875, " The Old Story," 
"A Good Egg," and " Heart's Ease" ; in 1876, " A Quilting- Party," 
"A Bit of Gossip," "A Quiet Afternoon," and others ; in 1877, "The 
Sower," "Sweet Corn," and "A Helping Hand"; in 1878, "The 
Story." In 1876 he sent to the Water-Color Exhibition, " A Month's 
Darning" and " Anne Hathaway's Kitchen" ; in 1877 (when he was 
elected a member of the Society), he contributed " Spun Out," " A 
Book," and " The Milkmaid." His " Young Franklin and the 
Press " belongs to the Buffalo Academy of Fine Arts; "A Month's 
Darning," at Philadelphia, in 1876, is in the collection of S. V. 
Wright.' 

" Perry at the present time occupies a place very nearly at the head of our American 
genre painters. He was one of the first of them to paint American subjects , and the 



174 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

most lowly are invested with a poetry of feeling and delicacy of expression which are 
not exceeded by any of his contemporaries. That he is a close student, the wide range 
of his domestic subjects gives ample evidence. His style is broad, but, in connection 
with it, there are an apparent mellowness of execution and unity of sentiment, which are 
so noticeable in the best works of the modern Frjnch schools." — Art Journal, July, 1875. 
" Mr. Perry exhibited three pictures, ' The Weaver,' ' Kept In,' and ' Young Franklin,' 
all characteristic and distinctively American. This artist has made steady progress, and 
adhered with commendable strictness to subjects within the scope of his powers and 
sympathies, and he has gradually, but surely, attained a command over his materials that 
is worthy of high praise. His pictures are illustrative and pleasing, and evince a con- 
scientious study of his subject. He has not yet attained complete mastery of the figure, 
nor are his pictures free from labored manipulation and thinness of method, but they 
evince genuine qualities of merit." — Prof. Weir's Official Report of the American Cen- 
tennial Exhibition of 1S76. 

Perry, lone. (Am.) Born in the city of New York, 1839. She 
studied in the art schools of the Cooper Institute, New York, and for 
some months was a pupil in painting of Mr. Henry Loop. Her pro- 
fessional life has been spent in New York, and her works are exhibited 
in the galleries of Schaus, Goupil, and others. Among her paintings 
may be mentioned, " Called by the Angels " (belonging to Mrs. 
Younglove of Cleveland, Ohio), " Fadalma " (belonging to Mrs. A. C. 
Longstreet of New York), " Hypatia " (belonging to Miss Mary L. 
Booth of New York), " Romola " (belonging to Miss Bunce), and 
" Heavenward," " Consuelo," " Aida," " Zenobia," " Elsa at the Com- 
ing of Lohengrin," etc. 

"In conception, originality of treatment, and spirited drawing, this work ['Heaven- 
ward'] may be regarded as the chef-d'ceuvre of this gifted lady. It has been reproduced 
by a Paris artist. Mrs. Perry painted, some years ago, another ideal picture, entitled 
' Called by the Angels,' which was similarly reproduced and is now having a large sale 
in the United States. Both works evince a profound study of the old masters, and 
are more spiritedly treated than almost any of the subjects of a similar character 
that we have seen in the American school. " — American Register, Paris. 

" Mrs. lone Perry is a figure-painter. Her ideal heads are widely known through 
their lithographic reproductions. She is fond of making studies from great creations 

in literature Her coloring is rich and yet delicate. Her draperies are graceful 

and conscientiously arranged and completed. Her attitudes are both natural and dig- 
nified. Her flesh-tints and textures are tender and natural, but more than all is a 
superiority of character which she never fails to create for her pictures." — Chicago 
Times. 

Perry, John D. (Am.) Born at Swanton, Vt., 1845. By profes- 
sion a sculptor. He is not a graduate of any of the schools of art, but 
has studied diligently from Nature in his native country, and from the 
works of the masters on the continent of Europe. He lived in New 
York in 1869 and 70, but has passed the rest of his professional life 
in Italy and Boston. A statue for the Soldiers' Monument of Swan- 
ton, Vt., his first public work, was unveiled in 1868. He was in 
Rome in 1872 and again in 1873, and spent the years 1876 to '78 in 
the same city. He has made many portrait busts, including those of 
Horace Greeley, C. E. Train, Attorney-General of Massachusetts, Dr. 
Winslow Lewis, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Mack, H. D. Parker of Boston, 



ARTISTS OF TI1E NINETEENTH CENTURY. 175 

and others. His bust of Greeley and two ideal works, Tennyson's 
ggar Maid " and "Christmas Homing," all in marble, are in the 
private library of C. Baker of Stanbridge, Canada. He made the 
statue of " Morality" (one of the sitting figures of the Plymouth Mon- 
ument), "Spring" (a marble bust for Mr. Sankenau of Philadelphia), 
44 The Two Buds " (in bas-relief, plaster, the original of which belongs 
to Mrs. II. B. Stowe), statuette of Charles Sumner, etc. His " Widow's 
Mite," life-size, is his most important work, not yet in marble. It 
has been highly praised in Rome, where it was modeled in 1878. Of 
bis statuette of Sumner, the late J. T. Sargent wrote in the Boston 
Globe : — 

" It lias the true otium cum dijnitate which the right treatment of the subject 
claims, and withal a sort of home look and familiar social grace and expression which 
so many of our statues of public men seem to lack. Its facial truthfulness is admirable, 
and as a likeness from head to foot it is without defect The pose of the Bgun is tine, 
representing Mr. Sumner in an easy sitting posture at a desk, with his right arm resting 
thereupon, while the whole person has the dignified aspect so peculiar to him." 

" The character study of Charles Sumner, sitting at his desk, will also be remembered 
as one of his successful efforts. A bust of a little child, in marble, at the Mechanic Ex- 
hibition, is interesting as showing a strong bent of the artist's inclination, his children's 
heads l»eing among his most successful realizations of character. He has a decided sym- 
pathy with childhood, and their natural ways and unstereotyped expressions are always 
attained. We write this especially after having seen a photograph of a semi-ideal bust 
of a child, in marble, the original of which has not yet arrived from Rome. It is entitled, 
we believe, ' The Butterfly,' and represents a little child looking down at a butterfly that 
has alighted on its little bare shoulder, its own bust being lost in a bouquet of roses. The 
face of the child is charmingly represented, and the cutting of the marble has been done 
Ro deftly that almost the softness of texture of the skin has been realized. " — Boston 
Transcript, October 29, 1S78. 

Perugini, Charles Edward. (Ital.-Brit) A native of Italy, 
but for many years a resident of England, constantly exhibiting at the 
Royal Academy. Among his later pictures are, " Playing at Work," in 
1-72 ; " Between School-Hours," in 1873 ; " A Cup of Tea" and "A 
Labor of Love," in 1874 ; "Gardening," in 1875 ; "Choosing a Nose- 
in 1876 ; " Finishing Touches," in 1877 ; "Roses and Butter- 
flies," in 1878. He sent a portrait of his wife to the Philadelphia 
Exhibition of 1876, and " The Labor of Love" to Paris, in 1878. 

" There is much grace showing itself [in 'A Cup of Tea,' R. A., 1S74], as well in the 

carefully drawn figure of a young lady who sips the cup of tea as in the general harmony of 

color secured for the whole composition. Mr. Perugini understands the sense of rich 

n setting the creamy tints next the flesh, and in banishing almost entirely the 

colder colors." — Art Journal, June, 1874. 

Perugini, Mrs. C. E. (Kate Dickens). (Brit.) Younger daugh- 
ter of Charles Dickens, and wife of Charles Edward Perugini. She 
works in her husband's studio, and sent to the Royal Academy in 
1878 "A Competitive Examination " and "In for a Scrape "; the pre- 
ceding year she contributed "An Impartial Audience." Her " Music 
hath Charms" was at the Winter Exhibition of the Dudley Gallery in 



17G ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

" Mrs. Perugini, who is a daughter of the late Charles Dickens, inherits much of the 
subtle and delicate humor that characterized her father. A picture near completion, 
charming in color and feeling, represents a dainty little lady seated on a bench in a 
garden, with a finger uplifted, reading to, or cross-examining, a grown-up peasant girl, 
with hands held in orthodox fashion behind her back. On the seat at the child's side 
are an attentive group of dolls, amongst them a quaint Japanese.'' — Magazine of Art, 
May, 1S73. 

Pesenti, Domenico. (Ital.) Born at Medole, near Brescia, about 
1852. Medal at Naples, 1877. A fine artist, who paints both in oil and 
water colors. His " Choir of Santa Maria Novella, Florence," in oils, is 
in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. The " Arch of San Giorgio at 
Florence," in water-colors, is owned in Boston, and is very fine. It 
was painted upon a special commission, and has never been duplicated 
or exhibited in public. The character and costume figures, in water- 
colors, by this painter are fine, and are very popular among the Eng- 
lish and American connoisseurs who visit Italy. Several of these are 
owned in Boston. " A Violin-Player " belongs to Dr. G. C. Clement. 

Peters, Anna. (Ger.) Born at Mannheim, 1843. Medals at 
Vienna, London, Munich, Amsterdam, and Antwerp. Pupil of B. F. 
Peters in Stuttgart. She has traveled extensively, and has painted 
some decorative works in several German castles. Her subjects are 
flowers and fruits. At the National Gallery, Berlin, is her " Roses 
and Grapes." 

Petersen, John E. C. (Dane.) Born at Copenhagen (1839-1874). 
Studied at the Academy of Copenhagen, and under Melbye and Dahl. 
During the Schleswig-Holstein war he served as an ofhcer of Danish 
infantry. In 1865 he went to America, where he remained during 
his life. There was an exhibition of his works at the Boston Art 
Club, which showed his progress during ten years. Some of these 
pictures were considered quite remarkable, and the later were far 
superior to the earlier ones. 

Petri, Heinrich. (Ger.) Born at Gottingen (1834-1871). His- 
torical painter at Diisseldorf. In 1858 he went to Rome. Among 
his works are a "Mater Dolorosa" and a large altar-picture, for a 
church in Portugal ; a mural painting, in a church at Wellbergen in 
Westphalia ; a decorative work, consisting of three pictures, in a 
church on the island of Nonnenwert, near Rolandseck ; a " Descent 
from the Cross " and a " Madonna," which were painted for the Queen 
of Holland ; a " Madonna at the Cross," for a church in Russia ; etc. 
Petri also made cartoons for glass paintings, and superintended their 
execution. His portraits were excellent. 

Pettenkofen, Auguste. (A us.) Born at Vienna, 1823. Cheva- 
lier of the Order of the Crown of Oak. Studied at the Academy of 
Vienna at a period when the school was in decadence. At length, 
after passing the required time in the army, where he became a 
captain, he laid aside the sword for the brush. He studied Wouver- 
mans, Paul Potter, and Van de Velde, and about 1851 went to Paris. . 



.1 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 177 

While there he painted k< Soldiers in Wait for a Spy at the Door of 
ittage* and "Marauders in a Field of Grain dividing their 
Booty." The last was purchased for the collection of ■ Sir Richard 
Wallace. M. Van Cuyck so admired the " Marauders " that he gave 
the artist an order for two pictures, " Scene after a Duel" and " Hun- 
garian Volunteers." The last established the reputation of the artist, 
and was sold to M. Rone, who exhibited it at the Cercle de l'Union 
Artistique. But M. Van Cuyck regretted the picture so much that at 
length he repurchased it, saying that only death should separate him 
from it. After his decease it was sold to a London merchant, who 
sent it to Vienna. At length it was purchased by M. Sedelmeyer for 
16,200 florins. This work was also exhibited at the Palais Bourbon 
for the benefit of the Alsaciens-Lorraines, and also at Vienna in 
1873, at which time the Emperor of Austria decorated the painter of 
it. Among the works of Pettenkofen may also be mentioned, " A 
Hungarian Village " (in the Collection Dreyfus), "Gypsies Bathing" 
(Baron Liebig), " The Market of Sznolnok " (the architect (Etgelt, 
Vienna), etc. He has also executed numerous drawings and water- 
colors, which always sell for high prices. He now resides much in 
Italy, and sends out no pictures. At a Paris sale, in 1871, "A Hun- 
garian Market" sold for i) 228. At Paris, in 1876, "Hungarian 
Gypsies " sold to Herr Kolbacher of Frankfort for 5,360 francs. At 
the Oppenheim sale, Paris, 1877, "Austrian Cavaliers passing a 
Ford " sold to the Frankfort Museum for 5,400 francs. In 1876, at 
Vienna, in the yearly exhibition, Pettenkofen exhibited a remarkable 
picture of a " Market-Scene in Hungary." 

Pettie, John, R. A. (Brit.) Born in Edinburgh, 1839. Re- 
ceived his art education in the Trustees Academy and in the Life 
Schools of the Royal Scottish Academy, exhibiting his first picture, 
" The Prison Pet," in Edinburgh in 1859. Among his early works 
are, " False Dice," " Distressed Cavaliers," " One of Cromwell's Di- 
vines," etc. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in London in 
1860, " The Armorers," followed by " The Trio," " The Tonsure," and 
" The Drum-Head Court-Martial" (which attracted much attention, 
and led to his election as an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1867). 
In 1866 he sent " Arrest for Witchcraft"; in 1868, "The Re- 
hearsal"; in 1869, "The Disgrace of Cardinal Wolsey"; in 1870, 
"Tis Blythe May-Day"; in 1872, "Terms to the Besieged"; in 
1873, "Sanctuary" ; in 1874 (when he was elected Academician), 
"Juliet and Friar Laurence" ; in 1875, "Jacobites, 1745" (his di- 
ploma work) ; in 1876, "The Threat "and "Home Ties" ; in 1877, 
" Hunted Down " and " A Sword and Dagger Fight, " ; in 1878, " A 
Member of the Long Parliament," " Rob Roy," and " The Laird." 

Among Pettie'l other works are several portraits in modern 
and ancient costume, and " Battledoor," " Persuading Papa," "Old 
Mother Hubbard" "The Visit to the Necromancer," etc. He re- 



178 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

moved to London, in 1863. To Philadelphia, in 1876, he sent 
" Sanctuary," " Touchstone and Audrey," a portrait of George H. 
Boughton, and " The Smuggler and Exciseman" (belonging to W. P. 
Frith, R. A.) ; to Paris, in 1878, " The Flag of Truce," " Terms to 
the Besieged," " The Threat," and several portraits. 

" Without exaggeration, but with enough of sympathetic treatment, the sentiment of 
the scene [ ' The Flag of Truce,' R. A., 1873] is brought home to the spectator. It is a 
story on canvas, well and clearly told, serious in its import, and tenderly pathetic in its 
influence." — Art Journal, July, 1873. 

" I have been examining the painting of the chief Jacobite face very closely. It is 
nearly as good as a piece of old William Hunt, but Hunt never loaded his paint, except 
on sticks and mosses and such like. Now there 's a wrinkle, quite essential to the ex- 
pression, under the Jacobite's eye, got by a projecting ridge of paint, instead of a proper 
dark line." — Ruskin's Notes of the Academy, 1875. 

Pfuhl, Johannes. (Ger.) Born in Lowenberg, 1846. Studied 
under Schievelbein in Berlin. With no hope of success he sent in for 
approbation sketches for the Uhland, Goethe, and Stein monument 
erected at Nassau. The decision of the judges gave him the com- 
mission. His success was such that he also received a , command for 
an elaborate frieze for the Cadet-house at Lichterfelde. Pfuhl has 
visited Italy. He has also executed some portrait busts and a few 
ideal subjects, among which are " The Inquisitive Girl." In Berlin, 
in 1876, he exhibited a bust of Goethe made from a mask taken when 
he was fifty years old, a bust of Prince Otto von Bismarck, and a por- 
trait bust of a woman. 

Phelps, W. P. (Am.) Born in New Hampshire. Began life as 
a sign-painter in Lowell, Mass., his work in that line attracting much 
attention. Later, he devoted himself to landscape art, entirely with- 
out a master. Through the kindness of several Lowell gentlemen he 
was enabled to go to Germany, and he remained three years in Mu- 
nich under Velten. He returned to Lowell with some twenty of his 
landscapes, all of which met with ready sale ; two companion pieces, 
" Morning " and " Evening," being purchased by the Art Association 
of that city. He is now in Munich, where he is likely to remain. 
His " Forest Scene near Munich " and " Morning " and " Evening" 
were at the National Academy, New York, in 1878. 

Philippoteaux, Felix-Emmanuel-Henri. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 
1815. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Cogniet. The 
works of this artist are seen in many European galleries. " Louis 
XV. visiting the Battle-Field of Fontenoy " is at the Luxembourg. 
Many of his subjects are military, but he has occasionally painted 
other pictures, such as " Deception," " Return from the Inn," " Moor- 
ish Women," etc. His larger works are so numerous that no proper 
list can be given here. At the Royal Academy, London, 1876, he 
exhibited, " The Charge of the English Heavy Cavalry at the Battle 
of Balaklava" ; in 1875, "The Charge of the French Cuirassiers at 
Waterloo." Some of his works are at Versailles ; and " The Last 



AliTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 179 

Banquet of the Girondins," at the Museum of Marseilles. Philip- 
poteaux has made many designs lor illustrated publications. 

Phillip, John, R. A. (Brit.) Born in Scotland (1817-1867). 
Studied and practiced drawing at home under many discouragements 
until 1834, when he made his first visit to London to see the Ex- 
hibition of the Royal Academy. Through the kindness of influential 
Scottish friends he was enabled to enter the schools of the Royal 
Academy in L837, remaining two years. Between 1839 and '41 he 
painted portraits in Scotland, when he settled permanently in London, 
exhibiting his first picture, " The Catechism," in the Royal Academy 
in 1847. Later, he sent " The Free Kirk," " The Baptism," " Draw- 
ing for the Militia," and other kindred and clever studies of Scottish 
character. He went to Spain in 1851, in '52, in '56, and '60, re- 
maining some time at each visit, studying enthusiastically in the 
Spanish schools, and changing visibly the style of his own w r ork. In 
1853 he painted his "Visit to the Gypsy Quarter"; in 1854, his 
"Andalusian Letter- Writer" (belonging to the Queen). His " Death 
of the Contrabandists " was painted in 1858, shortly after his election 
as Associate of the Royal Academy. He was made Academician in 
1859. In 1860 he painted his " Marriage of the Princess Royal," a 
commission from the Queen. He continued to paint Spanish pictures, 
of which he was very fond, and in which he was very successful, un- 
til his death in 1867. In 1862 he exhibited, at the Royal Academy, 
" Dolores " and " A Spanish Volunteer" ; in 1863, " Acqua Bendita "; 
in 1864, " La Gloria, — a Spanish Wake "; in 1865, " The Early Career 
of Murillo " ; in 1866, "A Chat round the Brasiers " ; in 1867, " An- 
tonio " and two Scottish figure-pictures ; " Nannie, wilt thou gang 
with me?" and "A Highland Lassie Reading." His "Doubtful 
Fortune," "Round the Brasiers," " Dolores," and " Wine- Drinkers" 
were at Paris in 1878. 

" Remembering the more delicately executed and more carefully composed scenes 
with which Mr. Phillip some years ago founded his reputation as a painter of Spanish 
life, we doubt whether the brilliant ' Early Career of Murillo,' which forms, we suppose, 
the most popular success of the Exhibition [R. A., 1S65], will be valued quite as highly 

when its first chann has passed On the whole, while cordially admiring the work, 

we feel that this is rather a case in which, according to the old proverb, ' accident helps 
art* than an example of advancing excellence."— Palghave's Essays on Art. 

" Phillip's prominent faults were an amount of coarseness and an absence of subtlety 
in his works. His merits were those of native vigor, and of the acquisition of a rich 

and mellow, if exaggerated, type of form and color The Spectator says, 

' Phillip, with a nice discrimination of character, bad a subtlety in its expression which 
belonged to him alone.' '' - Km. Tytler's Modern Painters. 

Pickersgill, Henry W., R. A. (Brit.) (1782-1875.) Brought 
up to commercial pursuits, but relinquished business for art while 
still a young man. and entered the Royal Academy in 1805. In the 
commencement of his professional career he devoted himself to sub- 
jects of historic or ideal character ; later, turning his attention to por- 



180 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

trait-painting, in which branch of the profession he was popular and 
successful. He had among his sitters many distinguished men of 
Great Britain, including Robert Vernon (painted in 1846, and now in 
the National Gallery), Sir John Bowring, George Peabody, etc. Mr. 
Pickersgill was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1822, 
and Academician in 1826, Librarian in 1856, and in 1873 he was 
placed on the list of Honorary Retired Academicians. At the Na- 
tional Gallery are his " Nun " and " A Syrian Maid." Among his later 
works, exclusive of portraits, are, " A Falconer of the Olden Time," 
in 1861 ; "The Rivals," in 1862 ; "The Murder of Desdemona," in 
1864; "The First Lesson," in 1871 ; "The Streamlet" (his last ex- 
hibited work), in 1872. In 1870 he sent to the Royal Academy his 
portrait of the Countess Guiccioli, painted from life in 1832, but 
completed in 1869. 

Pickersgill, Henry H. (Brit) Son of Henry "W. Pickersgill, and 
an historical portrait-painter of some promise, who died in 1861. He 
received his art education in Germany and Italy, and resided for 
some time in St. Petersburg, spending, however, the later years of his 
life in England. His portraits were highly regarded. 

Pickersgill, Frederick R, R. A. (Brit.) Born in 1820. A 
relative of Henry W. Pickersgill, R. A., and nephew of W. Withering- 
ton, whose pupil he was. He entered the Royal Academy in 1840, 
exhibiting the next year, and regularly for many seasons. He was 
elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1847, and Academician 
in 1857. Among his early works may be noted, " Amoret delivered 
from the Enchanter," " Britomartis unveiling Amoret," " Sampson 
Betrayed," "Christ blessing Little Children," and others. In 1861 
he exhibited " Frederick banishing Rosalind " ; in 1862, " The Re- 
turn of a Crusader " ; in 1863, "Ferdinand and Miranda"; in 1865, 
"Unfriended"; in 1868, "Columbus at Lisbon"; in 1875, "Old 
Letters." He was elected Keeper and Trustee of the Royal Academy 
in 1874. In 1843 he received a prize at the first Cartoon Exhibition 
for his "Death of King Lear." His "Burial of Harold" (in the 
House of Parliament) won a prize in 1847. His " Amoret, Amelia 
and Prince Arthur" (R. A., 1845) was purchased by Mr. Vernon, 
and is in the National Gallery. His " Death of Francesco Foscari " 
was in the collection of the late Prince Albert. 

Picknell, W. L. {Am.) Born in the State of Vermont, about 
1852. Went to Europe in 1874, studying with Inness in Rome two 
years, and, later, for a few months, under Gerome in Paris. He has 
lived and painted in Brittany, working under Robert Wylie until 
the time of that artist's death. To the Royal Academy, London, in 
1877, he sent, "Breton Peasant-Girl feeding Ducks" ; in 1875, "On 
the Lande, Brittany." To the Paris Salon, in 1878, he contributed 
" The Fields of Ken-en." 

Picot, Francois-Edouard. (Fr.) Born at Paris (1786- 1868). 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 181 

Member of the Institute. Officer of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of 
Vincent and I'^cole dee Beaux-Arts, Soon after bis debut he was 

commissioned to decorate two ceilings at the Louvre, where lie exe- 
outed some grand compositions. He has also painted ceilings in the 
galleries at Versailles. He was associated with Flandrin in the 

interior decoration of the church of Saint-Vincent de Paul. 

Pietrasanta, Angelo. (Ital.) Born at Milan (183G- 1876). Pu- 
pil of Have/, and a pensioner at Rome. On his return to Milan he 
was made Honorable Member of the Academic des Beaux-Arts. He 
tted frescos in Bevera] churches in the neighborhood of Milan, 
and, tor the gallery of Victor Emmanuel in that city, the allegorical 
figures of Europe and Science. His drawing was very correct. At the 
Villa Oppenheim, Florence, he painted "Love and Psyche" and nine 
figures of women of the time of Louis XIV. These last were so ad- 
mired that he had several orders to copy them. His frescos were his 
best works. 

Pille, Henri. (Fr.) Born at Essommes in l'Aisne. Medals in 
1 ^t'.'.) and '7± Pupil of Francois Barrias. Many of his pictures are his- 
torical and familiar scenes, but whatever he paints he pays great atten- 
tion to his costumes and details, and renders all with much skill, 
lie exhibited at the Salon in 1870, " Sancho recounting his Exploits to 
the Duchess" and "A Cabaret at Todtnau " ; in 1872, "Autumn" ; 
in 1873, " Matrimonial Accord " and " The First-Born " ; in 1874, 
"A Pardon near Guemene " ; in 1875, " The Reading of the Decree 
of February 24, 1 793, in Brittany," " Market at Antwerp," and 
"Old Clothes " ; in 1876, "The Morning Interview," " Intemperance," 
and "Sobriety"; in 1S77, "An Inn" and "A Portrait." He has 
also exhibited drawings in pen and ink, which are excellent. Among 
them are, "Esmeralda," "The Fountain," "The Tithing," etc. At 
the Salon of 1878 he exhibited a portrait of M. Coquelin as he ap- 
pears in " l'Ami Fritz." 

" We have said that the talent of Henri Pille is eminently spirited. That is not all, 

his compositions are true, they have style Style is a manner of right seeing and 

true doing, and Henri Pille poaseMM this manner; and in such a degree that he has 
known how to make it of value in genre painting, where the savoir-faire seems sufficient 
to the great numt»er. More, his painting is fundamentally honest, calm, frank, placid, 
like himself ; for after speaking of the painter it is necessary to speak also of the man. 

A dreamer, doubled by an observer ; a character modest and simple Let us say 

the word, he is a peasant in appearance. But whoever regards him with the attention 
which he merits will soon see that his small, brilliant eyes reflect a sagacious mind, and 
that his lips are elegantly retroussees with a finely raillcuse expression. He is endowed 
with a prodigious memory. One of his friends tells us that having been with him to the 
theater, he saw him the next day, while making his reflections on the intrigues and the 
whole effc<t of the play, design with rigorous exactness the costumes of the actors in their 
least details, indicating the colors and the shades." — Charles Flor, Galerie Conlem- 
poraive, Litterairc ArtitUqu*, 1S77- 

Piloty, Carl Theodor von. (Ger.) Born at Munich, 1- 
Member and Professor of the Academy of Munich. Medal at Paris 



182 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

in 1867. After studying under his father he entered the Academy of 
Munich, and pursued his studies under the direction of his brother-in- 
law, Charles Schorn. Piloty visited Paris, England, and Brussels. 
Upon his return to Munich he was commissioned by Maximilian I. to 
paint for the Maximilianeum a large historical work, " The Elector 
Maximilian I. adhering to the Catholic League in 1609." This paint- 
ing was completed in 1854, and gained Piloty much reputation, to 
which the seal was set in the following year by his picture of " Seni 
before the Dead Wallenstein." Among his other works are, " The 
Battle of the White Mountain, near Prague," " The Murder of Wal- 
lenstein," "Galileo in Prison" (1864), "Wallenstein marching against 
Eger" (seen at the Paris Exposition of 1878), mural paintings on the 
exterior of the Maximilianeum, portrait of the Baron de Schack, a 
chef-d'muvre, a large representation of the " Discovery of America," 
and " Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn." 

As an instructor, Piloty has been very successful, and large numbers 
of pupils have gathered about him. He is a prominent representative 
of the modern, realistic German school. His " Nero walking among 
the Ruins of Pome " is marvelous in the intensity of its realism. His 
" Thusnelda at the Triumph of Germanicus " was purchased by the 
Emperor of Germany for 35,000 florins, and placed in the Pinakothek 
at Munich. Mr. Probasco of Cincinnati owns his " Elizabeth and 
Frederick of Bohemia receiving News of the Loss of the Battle of 
Prague," painted in 1868. 

" In even the best paintings of Piloty, who is pre-eminently an historical painter, there 
is often perceptible a certain theatrical, sensational effect in the composition which takes 
away from its naturalness. His ' Columbus ' ofTends very strongly in this respect ; 
'Thusnelda at the Triumph of Germanicus,' his most ambitious work, is perhaps more 
satisfactory; while 'Seni discovering Wallenstein Dead' is more simple, and is un- 
doubtedly a work of great power Piloty has founded a school. He achieved his 

fame and influence early ; but so rapidly has 'German art ripened of late years, that he 
has lived to see the scepter pass from his hand. Such is the fate of all reformers. The 
genius which entitles them to our veneration, and increases the world's stock of culture 
and progress, so tends to educate the rising generation that the very efforts which placed 
them on so high a point aid to carry their pupils still higher and beyond them. We can- 
not, perhaps, ascribe to Piloty original powers equal to those of Kaulbach or of some of 
the rising school. But there is some brilliant work, notwithstanding, in a painting 
which he is now executing for the new Rathhaus, or City Hall, of Munich, for which he 
is to receive 50,000 florins ; a large sum for Germany. It is an allegorical representation 
of the city, and contains portraits of all her citizens Avho have been distinguished in her 
past history. It seems thus far to contain more of the good qualities of his style and 
less of the faults of his other works."-— Benjamin, Contemporary Art in Europe. 

" In Piloty's much-admired picture of ' The Death of Wallenstein,* the truth with 
which the carpet, the velvet, and all other accessories are painted, is certainly remark- 
able ; but the falsehood of giving prominence to such details in a picture representing 
the death of Wallenstein, as if they were the objects which could possibly arrest our at- 
tention and excite our sympathies in such a spectacle, is a falsehood of the realistic 
school. If a man means to paint upholstery, by all means let him paint it so as to de- 
light and deceive an upholsterer ; but if he means to paint a human tragedy, the. uphol- 
sterer must be subordinate, and velvet must not draw our eyes away from faces." — Mr. 
Lewes, Fortnightly Review. 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CEXTURY. 183 

" In tliis art, whatever ba its worth, Filoty is a master, —what a baton is to the con- 
ductor of an orchestra, what I bow is to the leader of violins, such is the brush in the 
hands of this painter. Manipulation so dexterous, and for detail so minute, does not 
stop with the delineation of form ; it goes on even to the illusive imitation of surface. 
Texture is got by loaded solid paint, transparency by thin liquid wash. As an example 
of the former method, look at the crumbling and calcined ruins of Nero's Golden House. 
Gaze, too, when next in Munich, on the glitter of that diamond ring which dazzles on 
the hand of W dlenstein." — J. Beavinoton Atkinson, Art Journal, October, 1865. 

Pils, Isidore Alexandre Augustin. (Fr.) Born at Paris (1813- 
1^7")). Member of the Institute. Officer of the Legion of Honor, 
and Professor in L'Ecole ties Beaux-Arts. Pupil of Picot, and a grad- 
uate ofl'Ecole dea Beaux-Arts. In 1838 his picture of "St. Peter 
hading the Cripple at the Gate of the Temple " won for him the 
grand prix de Rome. After his studies in Rome he traveled consider- 
ably, and went to the East during the Crimean war, where he made 
studies for some of his most notable pictures. That this painter suc- 
ceeded in addressing himself to popular favor in France cannot be 
doubted, when we remember the honors bestowed upon him ; but his 
works are open to severe criticism, and this has not been wanting. His 
principal works are, "Christ preaching in Simon's boat" (1846); 
" Death of Mary Magdalene " (1847), purchased by the Minister of the 
Interior ; " Bacchantes and Satyrs " (1848) ; " Rouget de l'Isle sing- 
ing the Marseillaise for the first Time" (1849) ; "Death of a Sister 
of Charity" (1850) ; "The Athenian Slaves at Syracuse" (1852) ; 
"Prayer at the Hospital" (1853); "A Trench before Sebastopol" 
(1855) ; " Disembarking of French Troops in the Crimea " (1858) ; " De- 
file of Zouaves in the Trench before Sebastopol "; "School of Musketry 
at Vincennes" (1859) ; "Battle of Alma" (1861), purchased for the 
Minister of State, — a chcf-(Vamvre, the work which in the future will 
give him the most fame ; " Fete given to the Emperor and Empress 
at Algiers in 1860" (1867) ; and many pictures in aquarelle which we 
have not space to enumerate. The four paintings in the vault over 
the great staircase in the New Opera House are by Pils. 

"The most coarse and truly vulgar of military painters is Pils, whose glaring daubs, 
of gigantic dimensions, are liberally purchased by the government, whilst their author 
receives the honors of his profession. The reader may remember a picture by him in 
the Exhibition of 1SG7, representing a reception of Algerian chiefs by the Emperor and 
Empress of the French. I have never seen so perfect an Instance of this particular kind 
of art-degradation. Painters have often before condescended to flatter the pride of pow- 
erful sovereigns, but the adulation has been accompanied by art. In this instance the 
picture was as much painting in the true sense as the reports of the unu scmio by the 
government penny-a-liner* were literature ; the fierce glare of the colors corresponded to 
the ardors of the bought journalist. In another picture of nearly equal dimensions are 
a company of colossal riflemen sprawled on their bellies in the foreground, displaying a 
row of gaiters and shoes, with odd results to the grace of the composition." — Hamer- 
tos's Contemporary French PainUrs. 

" M. Pils paints mldien with manly simplicity, without bluster and artificial swag- 
gering. He puts a soul under their uniform, and gives each one a character You 

can examine them one by one. they all interest you ; they live, they think, and they act." 
— Tufcor-mLE Galtier, Abcc daire du Salon de 1801. 



184 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

" By a singular and rare privilege, that which Pils said of his master can be applied 
exactly to himself ; and we know not how to better close this notice than to borrow of him 
the lines which he has consecrated to M. Picot : ' He had neither pride nor vanity ; he 
never spoke of himself or of his works ; this soul, so honestly born, so sincerely good and 
instinctively worthy, had no need of any sort of mask in order to make itself respected. 
He spoke not willingly of art, and took pity on the declaimers on this subject. His love 
for art was so profound that words seemed to him powerless to express it. All insuffi- 
cient expression seemed to him a profanation.' I repeat it, Pils is a French artist in the 
most rigorous acceptation of the term. An artist, he possessed all the beautiful quali- 
ties, — the genius, the warmth, the disinterestedness. French he was also, by his emi- 
nent qualities as a designer ; his sketching was bold, spirituel, very skillful in lightness, 
and full of freedom He never made merchandise of his art, or speculated on his tal- 
ent. He demanded of his natural gifts only the translations of the conception of his 
thought, or the dreams of his imagination, without disturbing himself with the demands of 
fashion or the fondness of the multitude. He was never preoccupied with making a fortune. 
After having been one of the masters of the French school, after enjoying a fame which 
to the clever or the complaisant brings infallibly riches, he died poor, very poor. I know 
no better eulogy to give him. A French painter, his talent had the grand national quali- 
ties, — simplicity, neatness, brilliancy. His legitimate ancestors are Lebrun, Jouvenet, 
Lemoine, Natoire, Gros, Gerard, Gericault. He had the power to take his inspirations 
or demand his instructions in Germany or Flanders, in Spain or at Genoa. The tradi- 
tions of his country appeared to be sufficient for him ; he remained indissolubly at- 
tached to it, — a merit more rare than one thinks in these times. In studying attentively 
our contemporaneous art, one discovers some exotic currents, some foreign intrusions, 
some influences in antipathy to the national temperament ; and this state of things 
allows us only to reflect sadly enough upon whoever has it at heart to maintain in France 
the preponderance in works of taste. It is our last superiority ; let us not compromise it ; 
let us sustain it with all the ardor of filial piety. From this side, perhaps, the rising 
again and the salvation will come. Pils would have raised a warning finger to those 
who follow us; he can take his rest." — L. Clement de Ris, Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 
December, 1875. 

" He wished to consecrate the last years of his life of suffering to a work which should 

class him among the painters of history Pils deceived himself ; he was not born 

for grand mythological painting. He was well able to make his zouaves scale the 
heights of Alma, but the summits of Olympus are not taken by assault. His figures 
were too heavy to sustain themselves on the golden clouds of the Homeric heaven. His 
qualities of life, of movement, of picturesqueness, his lively feeling for the modern mili- 
tary type, which is the characteristic of his talent, only hindered him. To succeed in 
this new<7enre, it was necessary to become another painter, — to be transformed. That 
is what he did ; the metamorphosis was sad. He was Isidore Pils ; he was a painter like 
so many others, skillful, ingenious, experimental, but stripped of originality, of power, 
of nobility. Happily for this valiant artist, the paintings at the Opera will soon have 
been forgotten, also the Arab Chiefs and the Holy Thursday ; he will be remembered as 
the painter of Alma. — that name which so afflicted Pils, but the only one by which he 
will be known to posterity." — Henry Houssaye, Revue des Deux Mondes, February, 1S7G. 

Pilz, Vincenz. (Bohemian.) Born at Warnsdorf, 1819. Pupil of 
the Academy of Vienna. In 1849 he went to Rome, and remained 
until 1855. Among his works are a relief of " The Descent from the 
Cross," in the chapel of the Princess of Lichtenstein ; " Twelve Apos- 
tles," for a castle in Grafenegg ; a bronze group of " Wissenschaft und 
Handel," sent by the Emperor of Austria to Queen Victoria, now at 
Windsor Castle; statue of Hannibal, for the Arsenal at Vienna; and 
numerous portrait busts and statues. v 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 185 

Pinwell, George John. (Brit.) Born in London (1842- 1875). 
Educated at the Heathly School of Art. Originally devoted bis time 
to wood-engraving for book illustrations, manifesting a decided talent 

in that branch ot art. He WM elected an Associate of the Society of 
Painters in Water-Colors in 1869, contributing frequently to the ex- 
hibitions in Dudley Gallery until 1871, when he was made a full 
member, but failing health prevented his active work after that time. 
In 1869 he contributed " The Pied Piper of Ilamelin " and " A Seat 
in St James' Park"; in 1870, "The Elixir of Love"; in 1871, "Away 
from Town"; in 1872, "The Saracen Maiden" and " The Strolling 
Player." He illustrated Jean Ingelow's Poems, Buchanan's " Ballads 
of the Affections," Dalziel's " Wayside Posies," etc. Many of his 
sketches and studies were exhibited in London in the winter of 
1876. 

" Pinwell painted some of the most pathetic of modem popular pictures, but we think 
he did too much to do all things well, and that the shortcomings of his art were in part 
due to lack of balance in his technical judgment, as well as to his need of severer train- 
ing than it has been his lot to receive," — London Athenccum, September, 1875. 

'* In all he [Pinwell] has shown himself a man of earnest thought, and an artist who 
would win the applause of those who think, rather than of those who are attracted by 
qualities more on the surface than underlying the subject." — London Art Journxd, 
July, 1ST3. 

Place, Henri. (Fr.) Born at Paris about 1820. Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor. A painter of still-life and marines. His " Marine- 
Cliffs of Dover " (1849) is in the Luxembourg. 

Plassan, Antoine Emile. (Fr.) Born at Bordeaux. Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honor. Medal at Philadelphia, where he exhib- 
ited " Before the Mirror." At the Wilson Exposition, Brussels, 
1^73. "The Breakfast" was much admired. At the Walters Gallery, 
Baltimore, are several of his pictures ; among them the " Bourgeois 
Gentilhomme " is a spirited and characteristic work, and " A Sleeping 
Girl " is very charming. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited " Con- 
templation " and "A Beading." At the Johnston sale, New York, 

1876, " The Physician's Visit " (4 by 3) sold for $ 450, and " The Old 
Bachelor'' (6 by 4) for $280. At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited 
" The Family of Viscount C. " and " Le jour des rameaux." His 
"Table Supplies" is in the collection of Mr. T. R. Butler of New 
York. 

Plassman, Ernest (Ger.-Am.) Born in Westphalia. Died in 

1877. Plassman removed to America about 1850, and followed the oc- 
cupation of a modeler of statuary for many years in New York. He 
was the founder of the Society of Art, a flourishing association of 
German artists and art-lovers in New York. Among the better 
known of Plassman's works are the statue of Franklin, in Printing- 
House Square, New York ; the Vanderbilt statue, in the Freight 
Depots on Hudson Square; and the statue of Gutenberg, on the 
building of the New York " Staats Zeitung." 



186 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Plockhorst, Bernhard. (Ger.) Born at Brunswick, 1825. Medal 
at Berlin. Professor at Weimar, 1866-69. Studied at Munich 
Academy ; was associated with Piloty ; also studied under Couture 
at Paris. He painted an altar-piece for the Cathedral at Marienwer- 
der. Most of his historical subjects are religious ; those best known 
are, " Mary, with St. John," and " St. Michael and Satan struggling 
for the Body of Moses." These have been engraved. His portraits 
are his best works. At the National Gallery at Berlin are those of 
the Emperor and Empress of Germany. At the Leipsic Museum are 
two of his religious subjects. 

Pointelin, Auguste-Emmanuel. (Fr.) Born at Arbois. Pupil 
of Maire. Medal of the third class in 1878, when he exhibited " A 
Prairie in the Cote-d'Or" ; in 1877, "A Valley in the Jura"; in 
1876, " On a Plateau of the Jura, — Autumn." 

Foittevin, Eugene le. (Fr.) Born at Paris (1806-1870). Chev- 
alier of the Legion of Honor, and of the Belgian Order of Leopold. 
Pupil of TEcole des Beaux-Arts and Louis Hersent. He traveled 
much on the Continent and in England. His subjects were varied. 
In the Luxembourg is a " View near Etretat in the Bathing-Season " 
(1870); at Versailles, " The Capture of Baruth," " Naval Engagement 
at Embro," " The Battle of Wertingen," and other maritime subjects. 
Among his works are, "The Turkey-Drover" (1853), "Winter in 
Holland " (1855), " Dutch Pilots" (1859), etc. At the Johnston sale, 
1876, " Lighthouse, Coast of Holland " (48 by 35) sold for $ 1,300. 
At the Leipsic Museum is his " Fishermen saving a Wreck." 

" Upon even his most ordinary subjects M. le Poittevin bestowed the utmost care. 
His touch is decided, his general manner broad, and in his color the utmost harmony 
prevails, combined with a brilliancy seldom seen in the works of French landscape and 
marine painters. Thus his execution may be traced to the works of the Dutch and 
Flemish artists, while his compositions show more point and anecdote than are gener- 
ally found in the latter. For his well-earned and duly merited reputation, he was evi- 
dently indebted to his close and continual observation of nature ; studying not only in 
his atelier, but yet more in the green fields and by the open sea, where humanity was 
busied, and where character was to be found ; for figures, as a rule, play even a more 
important part in his pictures than do the inanimate objects amid which they are 
placed." — Art Journal, October, 1870. 

Pollastrini, Enrico. (Ital.) Born at Leghorn (1817-1876). 
Professor in the Academy of Florence, and a member of several other 
Academies. Pupil of Bezzuoli. He was original in conception, correct 
in drawing, and a good colorist. Among his best works are, "The 
Raising of the Son of the Widow of Nain," in the church of the Soc- 
corso at Leghorn ; an " Episode of the Inundation of the Serchio," 
in the Gallery of Modern Painting at Florence ; the " Death of Fer- 
ruccio " ; the " Exiles of Siena " ; " San Lorenzo distributing Alms " ; 
and the " Battle of Legnano." 

Poole, Paul Falconer, R. A. (Brit.) Born in 1818. Studied 
art without a master and in none of the established schools, exhibit- 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 187 

ing his first picture at the Royal Academy, London, in 1830, "The 
Well, — a Scene at Naples." In 1837 he 6ent to the Royal Acad- 
emy, "The Farewell"; in 1838, "The Emigrants' Departure"; in 
1843, "The Great Plague of London." In 1846 (when he was 
elected Associate) lie exhibited "The Surrender of Sion House in 
the Reign of Henry VIII. " ; in 1851, " The Goths in Italy " ; in 1852, 
"The May Queen" ; in 1860, "The Escape of Glaucus and lone from 
Pompeii" ; in 1864, "Greek Peasants"; in 1865, "The Eruption of 
Vesuvius, A. D. 70"; in 1868, "A Border Raid"; in 1869, "The 
Prodigal Son"; in 1872, "Remorse" (his diploma work) ; in 1873, 
"A Lion in the Path" ; in 1874, "The Grape-Gatherer" ; in 1875, 
"EzekiePs Vision" ; in 1876. "The Meeting of Oberon and Titania" ; 
in 1877, " Leading the Blind," "The Dragon's Cavern," and "Au- 
tumn " ; in 1878, "Solitude " and " Harvest-Time." He was elected 
Academician in 1862. 

"Mr. Poole's drawing we fear will be to the end of time a stumbling-stone, not 
only to his friends, but to his reputation ; but his scene from Pompeii during the eruption 
[R A., ISGbj is filled with well-imagined incidents, and renders vividly the effect of that 
lurid and preternatural light which would arise when a midday Southern sun is veiled 
by clouds of ashes, and reddened by stealthy interminglings from Vesuvian tire." — 
Palgrave's Essays on Art. 

" There is no artist of our time who has acquired greater success by such realistic pic- 
tures as this [' Rest by the Way '] than Mr. Poole. He has produced many of them, but 
it is not by these that he has won his way into the Royal Academy. The painter of 
' Solomon Eagle ' (' The London Plague '), of ' The Moors beleaguered by the Spaniards in 
Valencia,' ' The Visitation and Surrender of Sion House,' and many other pictures of a 
like high character, takes up, it may be presumed, these pretty rural scenes by way of 
relief from the more important labors of his studio." — Art Journal, November, 1874. 

" ' The Lion in the Path,' by P. F. Poole [American Centennial Exhibition, 1876], is a 

landscape of great strength and color The colors in it are so strong and deep that 

it is really a great picture." — Art Journal, July, 1876. 

" There has always been in Mr. Poole's work some acknowledgment of a supernatural 
influence in physical phenomena, which gives a nobler character to his storm painting 
than can l»elong to any merely literal study of the elements." — Ruskin's Notes of the 
Academy, 187& 

Porcelli, Antonio. (Ital.) (1800-1870.) Distinguished in land- 
scape and figure painting. He imitated Flemish art with Italian 
ideality. A fine work of his is " The Fountain Dell Acqua Antosa, 
close to the Flamminian Way, with a Concourse of People." "The 
Cobbler's Monday " was purchased by the Emperor of Russia. He 
painted numerous carnival scenes and kindred subjects, as well as 
" The Pine Forests of Ravenna " and other fine landscapes. His 
water-color* and drawings are much prized. 

Portaels, Jean Franqois. (Belgian.) Born at Vilvorde, 1820. 
Chevalier of the Order of Leopold. Member of the Antwerp Academy. 
Director of the Academy of Ghent, and later Profeaaoi in that of 
Brussels. Medal at Paris, 1856. Pupil of Naves ai Brussels, and of 
Delaroche at Paris. At Antwerp, in 1842, he gained the grand ]>rix de 
Rome. Portaels has traveled in Italy, the East, Hungary, Spain, and 



188 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

other European countries. Among his well-known works are, " The 
Flight into Egypt," " The Drought in Egypt " (in the Corcoran Gallery 
at Washington), " The Funeral in the Desert," " A Syrian Caravan sur- 
prised by the Simoom " and " Leah and Rachel." The pediment of 
the church of Saint- Jacques at Brussels is adorned by frescos of Por- 
taels, representing Christianity. Another fresco by him is in the 
chapel of the Brothers of the Christian Doctrine, and in the Tympa- 
num of the Royal Theater at Brussels is another of a dramatic subject. 
His portraits are famous, among them those of Mehemet-Ali, the 
Empress of Mexico, the Queen of Holland, etc. His ideal portraits, 
such as " A Young Girl of Trieste," " Glycine," " An Eastern Girl," 
and " A Jewess of Asia Minor," are much admired. At the Cottrell 
sale in London, in 1873, " The Daughter of Zion " sold for 710 guineas. 
At the Paris Salon, in 1877, he exhibited " Portrait, of M. P. D." 
His picture of " Judith " is a pleasing conception of this well-worn 
subject. 

Porter, Benjamin Curtis, A. N. A. (Am.) Born in Melrose, 
Mass., 1843. As an artist he is comparatively self-educated. He has 
spent the better part of his professional life in Boston, where of late 
years he has devoted himself almost exclusively to portrait-painting, 
and with marked success, numbering among his sitters many promi- 
nent people of Boston and vicinity. He went abroad in 1872, and again 
in 1875, to study, spending some months in Venice and Paris. In 
1878 he was elected an Associate of the National Academy in New 
York. Among his ideal figures are, " The Hour-Glass " and " The 
Mandolin Player." 

" Mr. Porter has placed himself in a high position by close and persistent study of the 
fundamental principles of his art. The secret of his color, which commands so much 

admiration, is the tone which governs its value But it is not color alone that 

gives so much importance to this artist's productions, nor is it his general mastery of 
technique ; there is in his works a depth and purity of sentiment, an undemonstrative 
thoughtfulness, which gives them a peculiar charm, and which makes of them some- 
thing much higher than pieces of color. We see in both his portraits and ideal works 
the painter of refined and poetic feeling, one who can conceive a subject of expressive 
beauty and so develop it with wealth of palette and richness of impasto, that it shall 
gain in meaning as the execution progresses. The full-length portrait of a lady which 
Mr. Porter has sent by invitation to the Paris Exposition [of 1878] is a marked example 
of his power of combining magnificence of color with chaste design and elevated feeling. 
Mr. Porter is of no school, and therefore this picture will take its place in the exhibi- 
tion as essentially an American production." — Darius Cobb, Boston Evening Traveller, 
May 9, 1878. 

Pott, L. J. (Brit.) Born in Nottinghamshire, 1837. Displayed 
phenomenal talents as an artist at an early age, and drew cleverly 
when not more than five years old. He was articled to an architect 
when sixteen, but soon left that branch of art for the study of paint- 
ing in London. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy, in 1860, 
"Studying from Nature" and "Erne Deans"'; in 1861, "Dark and 
Fair" : in 1863, "Puss in Boots" : in 1864, " Rebecca describes the 



ARTISTS OF TEE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 189 

Fight to Ivanhoe" ; in 1865, "Old Memories M ; in 1867, "The De- 
fence"; in 1868, "The First Success"; in 1869, "Fire at a Thea- 
ter"; in 1871, "Mary Queen of Scots led to Execution"; in 1872, 
"Charles I. leaving Westminster Hall after his Trial"; in 1873, 
"On the March from Moscow" ; in 1874, "Paris in 1793" ; in 1875, 
" Don Quixote at the Ball" ; in 1876, " His Highness in Disgrace" ; 
in 1877, " Waiting for the King's Favorite"; in 1878, " Fallen among 
Thieves." 

" When this picture [' Mary Queen of Scots led to Execution '] was exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in 1S71, very many, if not all of those who had made dose acquaintance 
with the artist's previous works, wen satisfied that in it he had accomplished a sur- 
prising advance. Pott's ' Defence,' and his ' Fire at a Theater,' showed him to be on 
the right road, but it was this work which at once gave him something more than an 
ordinary reputation as a painter of historical subjects." —Art Journal, May, 1875. 

Powell, William H., A. N. A. (Am.) Native of the State of 
Ohio. He is an Associate Member of the National Academy, and 
has for some time had a studio in the city of New York. He devotes 
himself to portrait and historical painting. He is the artist of " The 
Discovery of the Mississippi by De Soto " (in the rotunda of the Capi- 
tol at Washington) and of " The Battle of Lake Erie," painted for 
the State of Ohio. His " Landing of the Pilgrims " belongs to 
Marshall 0. Roberts. His portraits of General McClellan and of 
Major Anderson are in the City Hall, New York. He has had 
among his sitters Washington Irving and many private individuals. 

Powers, Hiram. (Am.) Born in Vermont (1805- 1873). When 
a boy Powers was taken with his family to Cincinnati, Ohio, where 
he learned the art of modeling, and acquired some local reputation 
for his busts and medallions of such men as Calhoun, Webster, Jack- 
son, and Clay. After a short residence in Washington, D. C, he went 
to Italy in 1837, settling in Florence, where the rest of his life was 
spent. In 1839 or '40 he completed his "Eve," and the "Fisher- 
Boy " a little later. u The Greek Slave " (the work upon which 
much of his fame now rests) was finished in 1843. Of this figure 
some six or eight copies came from Powers' studio : the first, sold to 
Captain Grant for $ 4,000, was taken to England, and is now in the 
gallery of the Duke of Cleveland ; the second, brought to America 
in 1647, attracted great attention when exhibited in New York, and 
is now at the Corcoran Gallery in Washington ; the third copy be- 
longs to Earl Dudley ; the fourth, purchased by Prince Demidoff for 
$4,000, was sold at that nobleman's death for $ 11,000 to A. T. Stew- 
art of New Fork ; the fifth copy is in the possession of lion. E. W. 
Stoughton. Other works of Powers have been extensively repeated. 
Among his ideal subjects are his " Penseroso" (in the Lenox Library, 
New York ; never copied), "America" (destroyed by fire in Brook- 
lvn), "Eve Disconsolate" (belonging to E. D. Morgan), "Faith," 
• : Hope," "Charity," " Clytie," "Proserpine," "California," "Christ," 
and " Paradise Lost." His statues of Washington, Webster, Franklin, 



190 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Jefferson, Calhoun, and others are in different American cities. The 
original Webster, lost at sea, cost $ 12,000, the duplicate $ 7,000. 
Among the distinguished persons who have sat to Powers for their 
portrait busts, were John Q. Adams, Calhoun, Jackson, Van Buren, 
Marshall, Abbott Lawrence, Slidell, Grand Duchess of Tuscany, 
Nicholas Longworth, Winthrop, Sparks, George Peabody, Vanderbilt, 
Everett, and Dr. Bellows. The Calhoun statue in Charleston, S. C, 
was taken to Columbia, and destroyed in that city by fire during the 
Civil War. 

Of an exquisitely carved hand, that of an infant daughter of the 
sculptor, Hawthorne makes Miriam speak very pleasantly in the 
" Marble Faun." Although small and simple, it is one of the most 
artistic and touching of Powers' creations. It has been occasionally 
reproduced. One fine copy is in the possession of Mr. John Erskine 
of Boston. 

" Hiram Powers fitly represents the mechanical proclivities of the nation. His female 
statues are simply tolerably well-modeled figures, borrowed in conception from the 
second-rate antiques, and somewhat arbitrarily named. . . . . ' California,' ' Eve,' 
4 America,' ' The Greek Slave,' are the same woman, and each might be called some- 
thing else with equal felicity of baptism. The ' California ' is essentially vulgar in pose 
and commonplace in allegory." — Jarves, Art Idea. 

" Powers is an eclectic in the study of nature, and has triumphed over academic dog- 
mas and dictation. Thorwaldsen visited his studio, and pronounced his bust of 

Webster the best work of the kind executed in modern times The genius of 

Powers is singularly healthful. There is something in the career of this remarkable 
artist which strikes us as eminently American." — Tucker.man's Book of the Artists. 

"Hiram Powers cannot be ranked among the great sculptors of our time. His ' Eve ' 
is undoubtedly his masterpiece among ideal figures, although his ' Greek Slave ' has at- 
tained larger popularity, simply from being more widely known. The dignity of some of 
his allegorical statues, such as ; California,' and of some of the portrait statues, as that 
of Washington, is greatly impaired by the too lavish introduction of accessories or by 
peculiarities of costume. The statue of Franklin, on the other hand, is simple and 
thoughtful. Of his busts, particularly those of females, nothing can be said but what 

is commendatory If he made no real advance after the production of ' Eve ' and 

'The Greek Slave,' he maintained to the last the reputation acquired by these." — Art 

Journal, July, 1S73. 

"Appeal, fair stone, 
From God's pure height of beauty against man's wrong : 

Catch up in thy divine face not alone 
East's griefs, but West's, and strike and shame the strong, 
By thunder of white silence overthrown." 

Mrs. Browning's Apostrophe to the Greek Slave. 

Powers, Preston. (Am.) Born in Florence, 1843. Second son 
of Hiram Powers, whose only pupil he was, receiving his constant in- 
struction for six years. His professional life has been spent in the 
United States and in Florence, where his studio, that occupied by his 
father, now is. Among the better known of the works of Preston 
Powers are the statue of Senator Jacob Collamer of Vermont (origi- 
nally ordered of Hiram Powers), to be placed in the Old Hall of 
Representatives in Washington, D. C; a bust of Charles Sumner, 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 191 

from photographs and casts taken by Mr. Powers after the statesman's 
death, and now owned in Washington ; a bust of Agassiz, from a 
death-mask, exhibited in Boston, the original being in the Cambridge 
Museum. His bust of J. G. Whittier, from life, is in the Public 
Library at Haverhill, and a replica is to be placed in the Public 
Library of Boston. His bust of Swedenborg belongs to the New 
Church Society of Boston ; his bust of Senator Morrill of Vermont 
belongs to the family of that gentleman ; and his bust of General 
Grant is for the War Department in Washington. An ideal figure, 
" Maud Muller," still unfinished, is in his studio in Florence. 

" Mr. Powers' style of work reproduces that of his father, and is remarkable for deli- 
cacy and finish ; while his devotion to his profession promises an equal amount of work 

in the future The figure of Senator Collamer is distinguished by a quiet dignity 

and ease which is apparent to the casual observer, but only those who know something 
of the work can appreciate the difficulties that have been overcome in dealing with our 
modern costume." — Boston Transcript. 

"Mr. Powers is also engaged on an ideal figure and on several portrait busts, and 
has already crowded his studio with the numerous works he has executed in the ten 
years of his artistic life. His love for his profession is extreme, and is proved by his 
careful and delicate modeling of details. Nothing escapes his eye ; every line is turned 
to account if useful, and the result is the same vivid and life-like look which is so no- 
ticeable in his father's work His views on the subject of art are essentially the 

same as his father's, but his mind works in its own way to turn them to the best possi- 
ble account" — Boston Advertiser, October 8, 1877. 

Powers, Longworth. Son of Hiram Powers. Resides in Flor- 
ence. 

[No response to circular.] 

Poynter, Edward J., R. A. (Brit.) Born in Paris, 1836. Son 
of Ambrose Poynter, an architect, and grandson of Thomas Banks, 
R. A., an eminent sculptor of the last century. Poynter was taken 
to England in his infancy, commencing the study of art in 1854. 
Went to Paris in 1856, studied under Gleyre, and was also a student 
of Tlicole des Beaux-Arts. He settled in London in 1860. In 1859 
he exhibited in the British Institution, " Two Italian Pifferari " ; in 
1861, at the Royal Academy, " Alia Veneziana " ; in 1864, "The 
Siren" ; in 1865, "Faithful unto Death"; in 1866, "Offerings to 
Isis " ; in 1869 (when he was elected an Associate of the Royal Acad- 
emy) he sent " Proserpine "; in 1870, " Andromeda"; in 1871, " The 
Suppliant to Venus"; in 1872, "Perseus and Andromeda"; in 
1874, "Rhodope"; in 1876, "Cecil Wedgwood" and " Atalanta's 
Race " ; in 1877, " The Fortune-Teller " (deposited on his election 
as an Academician) ; in 1878, " Zenobia Captive" and a portrait of 
Mrs. Langtry. Poynter was the first " Slade " Professor of Art at the 
University College, London, and for some time a Director of the Art 
Schools at South Kensington Museum. His " Ibis Girl," " The 
Golden Age," and " The Festival" were at Philadelphia in 1876. 
" Israel in Egypt," " Proserpine," and " The Catapult " were at Paris 
in 1878. He is also a contributor to the Grosvenor exhibitions. 



192 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

" Among the younger painters of England whose work departs from traditions exclu- 
sively English, and is such as to take its place in the general stock of trained European 

art, Mr. Poynter is one of the most noteworthy Were one to try to analyze the 

characteristics of this central example of Mr. Poynter's talent [' Israel in Egypt'], one 
would have to speak first of a clear and determined practical sense, showing itself in 
the carefully rational and probable arrangement of the general scene, and the effective 
realization and solution of every problem, whether of archaeology or mechanics, which 
it suggests." — Sidney Colvin, in English Painters of the Present Day, 1871. 

" The figure, although somewhat statuesque, is striking and graceful, and the birds are 
most picturesquely grouped, but the composition as a whole [' Feeding the Sacred Ibis 
in the Halls of Karnac '] loses much of its harmony in the engraving by the obtrusive- 
ness of the background of Egyptian architecture with its redundancy of varied and promi- 
nent ornamentation." — Art Journal, January, 1874. 

"I wonder how long Mr. Poynter thinks a young lady could stand barefoot on a 
round-runged ladder [' The Festival '], or that a sensible Greek girl would take her sandals 
off to try, on an occasion when she had festive arrangements to make with care. The 
ladders themselves, here and in No. 236 [' The Golden Age '], appear to me not so classi- 
cal or so rude in type as might have been expected, but to savor somewhat of expedi- 
tious gas-lighting Both these pictures are merely studies of decorative composition, 

and have far too much pains taken with them for that purpose. " — Ruskin's Notes of the 
Academy, 1875. 

Pozzi, Francesco. (Ital.) Born at Portoferraio (1790-1844). 
The colossal statue of Ferdinand III. at Leghorn, and the Farinata 
degli Uberti of the loggia of the Uffizi at Florence are fine works by 
Pozzi. His "Dancing-Girl," "Bacchante," "Mercury," and "Cipa- 
risso " have been frequently repeated. 

Pradilla, F. (Span.) Of Madrid. At the Paris Exposition of 
1878 this painter was awarded the medal of honor for his picture of 
"Dona Juana La Loca." She was the daughter of Ferdinand and 
Isabella and the mother of Charles V. She is represented upon one 
of the occasions when the funeral cortege of her husband halts for the 
night. It will be remembered that she followed this sad procession to 
the place of burial. The atmosphere in this picture speaks of chill 
and desolation, and the whole effect is that of strength and sincerity 
on the part of the artist. 

Pratere, Edmond de. (Belgian.) Born at Courtrai. Medal at 
Philadelphia, where he exhibited " Animals, — a Halt." At Paris, in 
1877, were " Dog-Keepers at the Rendezvous of the Hunt " and "Dogs 
at Bay." 

Pre'ault, Antoine-Augustin. (Fr.) Bora at Paris, 1809. Pupil 
of David d' Angers. Made his debut at the Salon of 1833, but was 
excluded from the Salons during fifteen years. At length, in 1849, 
his works were admitted for exhibition, and he gained reputation 
rapidly. His works are seen in churches and other public places. 
In 1877 he exhibited a " Funeral Bas-Relief," belonging to Carolus 
Duran ; in 1876, a portrait, medallion, plaster, and " Ophelia," bas- 
relief in bronze, bought by the Ministry of the Beaux- Arts ; in 1875, 
" Jacques-Cceur," statue, marble, bought by the Ministry of the Beaux- 
Arts, and two medallion portraits in bronze ; in 1874, funeral me- 
dallions in bronze ; etc. 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 193 

Preller, Friedrich Johann Christian Ernst. (Ger.) Born at 
Eisenach, 1804. Professor of Drawing in the School of Fine Arts at 
Weimar. Court painter. Studied under various masters at Weimar 
and Dresden, and at the Academy of Antwerp. Goethe was the 
friend of Preller, and through his influence the Grand Duke Karl 
August became interested in the young artist, and took him on a 
journey. Preller was very ill, and the Grand Duke cared for him 
must tenderly. In 1^2.") the artist went to Milan, where he studied in 
the Academy. He went to Rome in 1828; there Joseph Anton Koch 
influenced his studies, and directed his attention to the study of 
drawing, as he was inclined to regard only the grand effects of nature, 
to the injury of the whole effect of his composition. In 1831 he 
went to Weimar, and was employed from 1835 to '37 in decorating 
the. Wieland Hall in the museum of that city. In the Castle of 
Weimar he executed six historical Thuringian landscapes. In 1840 
he visited Norway, and afterwards painted Northern landscapes and 
marine views. He had already painted in Leipsic his series of Odys- 
iey pictures which seemed to be his one entrancing thought ; he 
repeated them three times. The Grand Duke gave him a commission 
to repaint them, and he went to Italy for the purpose of making 
studies for them. This occupied two years, and the sixteen cartoons 
are in the Museum at Leipsic. Two of his works, " Calypso " and 
" Leucothea," are at Munich. At the National Gallery of Berlin are 
his u Styrian Landscape " and a "Norwegian Coast Scene." About 
1830, at Weimar, he became interested in etching, and for a long 
time was very active in an etching-club which he had established. 
His own works of this sort are much prized by collectors. 

" In Preller's representations we find energy and conscientiousness which surpass, 
not only in execution, but in the whole spirit, the works ordinarily considered as up to 
the required level. The peculiarity of historical representation —that peculiarity of it 
which makes the figures appear as if molded from nature — he has forcibly presented 
to us once more. Nothing in Nature is hidden from him. — her beauty is naked to his 
observation. The remarkable knowledge of forms and their organic connection which 
he has gained by unceasing study and an industry never satisfied by itself, shows him 
outlines through any ami every covering. In his landscapes he renders justly both the 
vegetation and the outlines or undulations which it conceals, and takes from the spirit 
of neither by over attention to details. He has not thus mastered Nature by prying 
and digging : she has been revealed to him spiritually, and has become his through a 
devotion of thought and an inexorable earnestness of contemplation. This, far from 
making him a slave to trivial things, makes him a ruler with a sort of loving authority." 
Dr. Max Joi.i-an, Zeitschrift jur bildende Kunst, 1S66. 

Preyer, Johann Wilhelm. (Ger.) Born at Rheydt, 1803. 
Studied in DoMeldoff Academy. Passed some years at Munich and 
settled at DuaseldoTt Traveled extensively in Europe. His pic- 
tures are of flowers and fruit. Seven] are in the Berlin National 
Gallery. At the Johnston Bale in New York in 1878, "Fruit" (21 by 
20), from the old Dusseldorf Gallery in New York, sold for $ 1,400. 

VOL. II. 9 M 



194 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

At the Leipsic Museum is one of his fruit-pieces. Mr. T. R. Butler 
of New York has his " Fruit and Wine." 

Princeteau, Rend (Fr.) Born at Libourne. Pupil of l'Ecole 
des Beaux- Arts. Medal at Philadelphia, where he exhibited a por- 
trait of Washington and " Horses frightened by a Bail way-Train." 
At Paris, in the Salon of 1875, he exhibited the preceding picture and 
"Halte!" and a group in plaster, "The Punishment of Brunehaut"; 
in 1872, "A Patrol of Uhlans surprised by French Sharp-Shooters" ; 
in 1878, a picture of " The Return from the Promenade " and an 
equestrian portrait of Count T. L. 

Prinsep, Valentine C. (Brit.) Born in India, 1836. He was 
originally intended for the Indian Civil Service, but, resolved to devote 
himself to art, he went to England to study, exhibiting at the Royal 
Academy in 1862, " How Bianca Capello sought to poison the Car- 
dinal de' Medici" ; in 1864, " My Lady Betty " ; in 1865, " Belinda" 
(from Pope's "Rape of the Lock") ; in 1867, "Miriam watching the 
Infant Moses" ; in 1868, "A Venetian Lover" ; in 1869, "Bacchus 
and Ariadne" ; in 1870, "The Death of Cleopatra " ; in 1871, "News 
from Abroad " ; in 1872, " The Harvest of Spring" ; in 1873, " Lady 
Teazle "; in 1874, " Newmarket Heath, — the Morning of the Race "; 
in 1875, "A Minuet"; in 1876, "The Linen-Gatherers"; in 1878, 
"A Kashmiree Nautch-Girl" ; and many more, besides an occasional 
portrait. His " Minuet" and " Death of Cleopatra " were at the Cen- 
tennial Exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876 ; "Reading Grandison," 
" Linen-Gatherers," and "A Bientot," at Paris, in 1878. 

" Mr. Princep, if he does not this year try any subject of powerful interest, has 
gained in mastery over his art. His 'Berenice,' although not exactly the lady of 
whom Mrf Browning speaks in the verse quoted, is a grand piece of decorative coloring, 
although rather coarse in design. This same artist's ' Lady of the Last Century,' in her 
full court dress and fan, sweeping gracefully by, shows command over motion, color, 
and life. " — Palgrave's Essays on Art. 

'"A Bientot' [R. A., 1876] is by Val. C. Princep. He is always exceptionally strong 
in these charming little pieces of drawing-room incident, and this picture is an admira- 
ble illustration of the care and skill with which he handles such subjects. " — Art Jour- 
nal, July, 1876. 

Priou, Louis. (Fr.) Born at Toulouse. Medals in Paris in 1869 
and '74, and at Philadelphia, 1876. Pupil of l'Ecole Municipale of 
Bordeaux, and of Cabanel. At Philadelphia he exhibited the " Edu- 
cation of Young Satyrs," and at Paris, in 1877, the same picture 
and a " Venetian Duo " ; in 1876, " Nymph of the Wood " and " A 
Souvenir" ; and in 1874, "A Family of Satyrs," now at the Cor- 
coran Gallery in Washington. The catalogue says : — 

" The prodigious vigor of the composition and its fine color are equal to the artist's 
thorough classical conception of the subject. The whole scene is replete with the spirit 
of the wild, joyous sylvan life, associated with those imaginary wood deities of the 
ancients." 

To the Salon of 1878 he contributed " The First Miseries of a Young 
Satyr " and a portrait. 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 195 

Probst, Karl. (Austrian.) Of Vienna. Medal at Philadelphia, 
whore be exhibited a " Portrait Study, — Female Figure," of which 
Weir says : — 

" A i-ortrait study by Charles Probst has exceptional merit The expression and atti- 
tude are very natural, and the technical treatment skillful. It was one of the best por- 
traits of the Exhibition." 

Protais, Paul Alexandre. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1826. Cheva- 
lier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Desmoulins. He followed the 
French armies in the Crimea and in Italy, and devoted himself almost 
entirely to military subjects. He received his first medal in 1863, 
and his decoration in 1865. Among his works the following are the 
most important: " Battle of Inkermann," u Death of Colonel Brandon," 
u Taking of a Battery of the Mamelukes " (1857), " Attack and Tak- 
ing of the Mamelukes," " The Last Thought " (1859), " Brigade of 
General Cler on the Route to Magenta," u Passage of the Sezia," " An 
Evening March," "A Sentinel" (1861), "The Morning before the 
Attack " and " The Evening after the Combat " (1863), — the last two 
are his most admired works, and were in the Exposition of 1867, — 
■ The End of the Halt," " Passage of the Mincio," u An Interment in 
the Crimea," "The Conquerors, — Return to the Camp " (1865), — the 
last was also in the Exposition of 1867, and was purchased by Count 
W. de la Valette, — "A Wounded Soldier," "A Bivouac" (1866), 
" The Grand Halt," purchased by the Princess Mathilde (1868), " En 
Marche ! " and " The Night of Solferino " (1870), " The Separation," 
-Army of Metz," October 29, 1870, and "Prisoners," near Met/, No- 
vember 1, 1870 (1872), "The Repose" (1873), "An Alert," "Metz," 
(1874), " French Guards " and " Swiss Guards " (1875), " La garde 
du drapeau " (1876), " Passage of a River " (1877). 

" Protais has discovered new material in warfare, leaving to others the purely military 
spirit, and studying soldiers, for the first time in the history of art, simply as human 

beings, placed in circumstances of great interest The picture called 'Morning 

before the Attack ' represents a small body of Chasseurs de Vincennes. marching warily 
towards the enemy, on hilly ground, in the cold light of early morning. There is no 
glare of color ; but the dark uniforms harmonize pleasantly with the gray sky and dewy 
green mountain ground. The execution is modest and simple, a little too methodical 
perhaps, but without dash or bravura ; ami the spectator is made to understand that the 
artist would rather he felt the awfulness of the moment than wandered from the matter 
to admire pretty tricks of execution or clever bits of detail." — Hamerton, Contem- 
porary French Painters. 

"He paints soldiers as a comrade ; we see that he knows them, understands them, 
and loves them. He knows war to the bottom in all familiar aspect*, heroic and mel- 
ancholy. He will tell you how the men lie down and shield themselves during a halt, 
and how they replace themselves en mvlit. If you reproach him with having exhibited 
in 1SC4 the same troopers as in 1SG3 and '62, he will reply to you, not without reason, 
that the troopers change little, that they resemble each other more or less ; that flic 
army, like the convent and the prison, and all institutions outsi<le of nature, is a mold, 
a gauffer-iron, in which man models and forms himself anew on a uniform type. From 
this comes that uniformity which penetrates, whatever happen*, through the most 
varied episodes." — Edmond About, Salon de 1864. 

It was said that the Emperor paid £5,000 for two pictures, " The 
Morning and Evening of the Soldier," at the Salon of 1863. 



196 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Prout, Samuel. (Brit.) Born at Plymouth (1785-1852). He 
evinced a decided talent for water-color painting as a youth, and, going 
to London early in the century, he found a ready sale for his works. 
About 1820 he visited the Continent, making many sketches of the 
scenery of the Rhine, the Alps, etc., which were subsequently en- 
graved. He was made a member of the Society of Painters in Water- 
Colors very early in his career, and contributed regularly to its 
exhibitions for many years. He turned his attention particularly 
to architectural drawings, and his works were very popular, and by 
collectors are still highly prized. Among the better known of his 
pictures are, " Chartres Cathedral," " City of Venice," and the draw- 
ings illustrating "Views in the North and West of England," " The 
Continental Annual," " The Landscape Annual," and other volumes 
of a similar character. 

" We owe to Samuel Prout, I believe, the first perception, and certainly the only ex- 
pression, of precisely the characters which were wanting to old art, of that feeling which 
results from the influence among the noble lines of architecture, of the rent and the rust, 
the fissures, the lichen, and the weed, and from the writings upon the pages of ancient 

walls of the confused hieroglyphics of human history For numerous as have been 

his imitators, extended as his influence, and simple as his means and manner, there has 
as yet appeared nothing at all to equal him. There is no stone drawing, no vitality of 
architecture, like Prout's." — Ruskin's Modem Painters. 

Pugin, Edward W. (Brit.) Born in 1834. Pupil of his father, 
a well-known English architect, whom in 1852 he succeeded. He has 
designed and completed many important buildings, principally church 
edifices, in all parts of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Puvis de Chavannes, Pierre. (Fr.) Born at Lyons. Died, 1871. 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Henri Scheffer and Cou- 
ture. He has devoted himself to mural and decorative painting. His 
" Peace " and " War" were immense symbolical works ; small repro- 
ductions of them were seen at the great Exposition of 1867, and they 
were much noticed and discussed. In 1865 he executed for the Mu- 
seum at Amiens " Ave Picardia nutrix," a monumental work with 
eight figures, for Le Cercle de l'Union Artistique. He painted a deco- 
rative figure called " Sport " for the grand staircase of the Museum of 
Marseilles, " Massilia, a Greek Colony," and " Marseilles, — the Gate of 
the Orient " (1869). At the Salon of 1870 he exhibited " The Beheading 
of St. John the Baptist " and " Mary Magdalene in the Desert " ; in 
1872, "Hope"; in 1873, "Summer"; in 1874, "The Year 732,— 
Charles Martel saved Christianity by his Victory over the Saracens 
near Poitiers," and a design for " The Sixth Century, — Radegonde, 
retired to the Convent of Sainte-Croix, gives an Asylum to Poets, and 
protects Letters from the Barbarity of the Age," — both of these sub- 
jects were for the decoration of the Hotel de Ville at Poitiers ; in 
1876, one painting and one sketch for his scenes in the life of St. 
Genevieve, which he was commissioned to execute in the Pantheon, 
now the church of Sainte-Genevieve, by the Ministry of Public In- 
struction and Beaux-Arts. 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 197 

" The artist so Ion? disputed is henceforth in full favor in public opinion ; he seems to 
have disarmed criticism, triumphed over the most rebellious, ,uid rallied the most frivo- 
lous among the worldlings who felt themselves much affected by this epic simplicity and 
this profound sincerity. He has not a useless gesture, not a line which has not its 
value ; all the words are ideas, and the poem is accessible to all. M. de Chavannes had 
Ins public restraint, he isolated himself in his intellectual aristocracy, and people remem- 
ber that curious inauguration of frescos at the Museum of Amiens presided over by 
Theophile Gautier, where only a few of the initiated had a place. To-day, after having 
so long suffered, he is honored, and his hour is decidedly come." — Charles Yriarte, 
Gazette des Beaiuc-Art.<, June, 1S7G. 

"The truth is that, for intensely poetical sentiment, few living painters may be com- 
pared to Pnvis ile Chavannes. His art is a poetical abstraction ; the region that he paints 
is not the world, but a painter's dreamland, and the figures that dwell in it are not 
men and women, but the phantoms of a powerful yet tranquil imagination. To enjoy 
works of this kind thoroughly, we must surrender ourselves to them, and live an hour 
in this world of strange beings, —so strong, so stately, so magnificent in irresistible ac- 
tion, so calm in their everlasting rest." — Hamerton's Painting in France. 

Pye, John. (Brit) (1782-1874.) Settled in London in 1800, 
and was an apprentice of Heath. He engraved Turner's "Pope's 
Villa," one of Lis earliest works, in 1808, and later, Turner's "Temple 
of Jupiter," and the paintings of Claude, Michael Angelo, and other 
prominent British and Continental artists, ancient and modern. 

Pyne, James B. (Brit.) (1800-1870.) Spent the early part of his 
life in Bristol, his native city, painting and teaching drawing. He 
removed to London in 1835, exhibiting for the first time at the Royal 
Academy the next year. His works, however, have not "been seen 
at the Royal Academy since 1841. He was elected a member of the 
Society of British Artists in 1839, and was for some years its Vice-Presi- 
dent. In 1841 he went to Italy, where he painted many attractive 
Venetian landscapes. In 1848, for the Agnews, he painted a series of 
twenty-four pictures of English landscapes, which were subsequently 
lithographed. In 1851 he visited Italy and the Rhine. 

" Pyne has very accurate knowledge of limestone-rock, and expresses it clearly and 
forcibly ; but it is much to be regretted that this clever artist appears to be losing all 
sense of color, and is getting more and more mannered in execution, evidently never 
studying from nature except with the previous determination to Pynize everything." — 
Rlskin's Modem Painters. 

" As a rule, Pyne's pictures are not popular. Like Turner's, they are not generally 

intelligible But he lias left works behind him which, if the colors are found to be 

permanent, will be rained hereafter as among the best of our modern school of landscape- 
painting." — Art Journal, September, 1870. 

Quarnstrom, Carl Gustav. (Swede.) Born at Stockholm (1810- 
Member and Director of the Academy of Stockholm. Pupil 
of the same antler HasselgreiL He at length studied sculpture under 
:om. In 1836, by means of a stipend from the King, he went to 
Rome. Since then he has visited Paris, and been again to Italy. 
Among his works are. u Martyrs in the Amphitheater," " Neapolitan 
Fishermen " (in the Museum of Stockholm), busts of Wasa, Frederika 
Bremer, and other notable people. Some of his motives are drawn 
from Northern mythology, such as " Hoder von Loke," etc. 



198 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Quartley, Arthur. (Fr.-Am.) Born in Paris, France, 1839. As an 
artist, he is self-taught, having studied in no schools and under no mas- 
ters. His professional life has been spent in Baltimore and New York, 
opening a studio in the latter city in 1875 or '76. He first exhibited at 
the Royal National Academy, in 1875, " Calm Days, Isles of Shoals," 
and " Evening at Narragansett." Among the more important of his 
works are, " Low Tide " (N. A., 1876) and " Making the Landing, 
White Island, Isles of Shoals," both owned by John B. Thorns of 
Baltimore ; " Morning Effect, North River" (N. A., 1877), the prop- 
erty of John Taylor Johnston ; " An Afternoon in August, Coast of 
Maine " (N. A., 1878), belonging to Mr. Colgate. He was elected a 
member of the Artists' Fund Society in 1876. His " Morning Effect 
in New York Harbor " was sent to the Paris Exposition of 1878. 

" 'The Close of a Stormy Day' is the strongest thing Arthur Quartley has yet done, 
and it admits him without demur into the front rank of our marine-painters." — Art 
Journal, May, 1877. 

"Among the most progressive landscape-painters in this country is Arthur Quartley, 
whose 'Afternoon in August' is, so far as we know, the best marine he has yet 

painted With its exquisitely soft and beautiful far distances and skies it contains 

several special bits of decoration that are absolutely tinsel. But what especially interests 
one in him is the rapidity of his growth. Even now he is almost, if not quite, at the 
head of American marine-painters ; and the creditable appearance which he is making 
is one of the distinct and bright features of the Academy Exhibition." — New York 
Evening Post, April 20, 1S7S. 

Raabe, Joseph. (Ger.) Born at Deutsch Wartenberg (1780- 
1849). Painter to the Court of Hesse-Darmstadt. Professor at the 
Academy of Bonn. Member of the Academie des Beaux- Arts at Dres- 
den. Painter to the Court of Saxony and Professor at l'Ecole des 
Beaux-Arts at Breslau. He had a varied talent, a sure hand, and 
exquisite taste. He made a large number of fine copies in Italy. 
His " St. Peter and St. Paul " is in the principal church of Naum- 
bourg-sur-la-Queiss, Silesia. In the Dresden Gallery there is a series 
of sketches and paintings, illustrating " L'antique histoire de la Ger- 
manie et de l'Allemagne au moyen age." 

Radclyffe, Edward. (Brit.) (1810-1863.) Son of William 
Radclyffe, a noted English engraver, whose pupil and assistant he 
was for some years in Birmingham, his native town. He went to 
London about 1842, where he became associated with the Art Journal, 
and other illustrated periodicals, furnishing many fine plates after the 
leading artists of the day. "Kenilworth Castle," "Peat-Gatherers," 
" Outskirts of the Forest," " Changing the Pasture," and others, after 
David Cox, were among his later works. 

Radford, Edward. (Brit.) Born at Plymouth, 1831. At the 
age of fifteen he was articled as a pupil to a civil engineer, practicing 
as an architect in Canada and the United States from 1854 to '61. 
He was some months a lieutenant in an Ohio battery in the Amer- 
ican Civil War, and was engaged upon ordinance until 1862. In 






ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 199 

1863 he commenced painting as a profession, in Cincinnati, Ohio, 
returning to England the sanu* year, and becoming a subscriber to the 
Artists' Society, Langham Chambers. He was elected an Associate 
of the Society of Painters in Water-Colors in 1S75, and is also a mem- 
ber of the Adelphi Society of Arts. Among his more important 
works are, " The Soldier of the Cross," at the Royal Academy in 
1868 (owned in New York) ; " Flora," at the Dudley Gallery in 1873 ; 
and u Weary,'' at the Water-Color Exhibition of 1875 ; "The Con- 
valescent " (belonging to Mr. Baring, M. P.) ; " Footprints " and 
" Caveas Emptor," in 1876 ; " A Little Chilly " (belonging to Col- 
lingwood Smith) ; " The Introduction " and " Godiva," in 1877 ; " In 
Consultation " and " The Critics," in 1878. 

"Edward Radford'g 'Weary' is a picture painted with much care and attention to 
detail, especially in the imitation of the textile fabrics ; the figure of the woman is ex- 
cellently modeled, and the pose easy and natural." — Art Journal, March, 1877. 

Raffet, Denis- Auguste-Marie. (Fr.) Born at Paris (1804- 
1860). Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Charlet, l'Ecole 
des Beaux-Arts, and of Gros. At the time of his studies it was quite 
the custom for artists to publish an annual album of lithographs. 
Raffet's first album was dated 1826, and his success was more than 
usual for a young man. The subjects which he drew from military 
life have, with good reason, remained celebrated. Raflet early re- 
solved to be a painter of soldiers and the incidents of their lives. He 
studied hard, and neglected no means to fit himself for his chosen 
specialty. It is said that at one time he obtained the head of a young 
soldier who had died in the hospital, shut himself up with his ghastly 
treasure, and made repeated pictures of it in order to master the 
strange pallor and painful mysteries of death. He still wished to see 
war itself, and in 1832, at the siege of Antwerp, he made many 
sketches. At the Salon of 1835 the lithographs of these scenes were 
exhibited ; they gave promise of the future success of the artist, and 
attracted much attention to him. Prince DemidofF became his friend, 
and took him on a long journey in Russia, Moldavia, Wallachia, the 
Crimea, Smyrna, etc. During this time Raffet had always the pencil 
in hand, and his lithographs illustrating this journey are most val- 
uable, and are a perfect reflection, as in a mirror, of the scenes repre- 
sented. Raffet was often asked to paint an historical picture for the 
Gallery at Versailles ; this he intended to do, but his lithographs 
were so much sought, and his series of plates (especially that of 92, 
for the " Journal de l'Expedition des Portes-de-Fer," for the Duke of 
Orleans) so important, that the painting was always deferred. Raffet 
visited Belgium, and in 1840 he went to Italy to study the motley 
soldiers. The t Garibaldi, the Swiss Papal Guards, the 

Austrian, tin- Piedmontese, the French armies, and the picturesque 
■ o-t nines of the Italian women, afforded great scope to the painter. 
He sketched much in water-colors, and his picture of ** The Evening 






200 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

of the Battle of Navara," where all were seeking and burying their 
dead, is a splendid example of his art. After the siege of Rome 
Raffet divided his time between Paris, where his family were, and 
Florence, or San Donato, where Prince Demidoff always wished for 
him. In 1853 these two friends went to Spain, and Raffet had not 
completed at the time of his death the album of his Spanish sketches, 
which is much to be regretted, but at the same time he had in train 
his illustrations of the siege of Rome, and was so suddenly cut off 
that much was left unfinished. His works are far too numerous to 
be mentioned, but his sketches show the true heroism, the sad, tender, 
and brave elements, of the soldier's life, and in them one will find 
harmonized history and poetry. 

Rahl, Charles. (Ger.) Born at Vienna (1812-1865). Pu- 
pil of the Academy of Vienna. He had an extensive atelier in 
Vienna, and received many pupils. His works are numerous, and 
some of them are important. They are seen in the galleries and 
churches of his native city. He executed some frescos and monumen- 
tal painting, and four hundred portraits. His picture of " Christians 
surprised in the Catacombs " is in the National Gallery, Berlin. 

Rajon, Paul-Adolphe. (Fr.) Born at Dijon. Medals in 1869, '70, 
and '73. Pupil of Gaucherel and Flameng. The etchings of this artist 
are fine. Hanierton says that he " never issues Blovenly or careless 
work." He is a painter as well as an etcher, and has consequently a 
certain understanding which is of service to him, but which is want- 
ing in one who is only an engraver. His engravings are very numer- 
ous, and are principally (in late years entirely) etchings. 

Ramsay, Milne. (Am.) A native of Philadelphia, he has lived 
for some time in Paris, studying under Bonnat, and contributing to 
the first exhibition of the Society of American Artists in New York, 
in 1878, " The Bird-Fanciers." To the Paris Salon he sent, in 1876, 
"The Home of a Naturalist" ; in 1878, "Cromwell and his Daughter 
Elizabeth." Several of his genre pictures have been purchased and 
photographed by Goupil & Co. Among them are " A Moral Lesson " 
and " Douce Beatitude," which have been highly praised for fineness 
and finish of detail. 

Rankley, Alfred. (Brit.) (1820 - 1873.) A genre painter of con- 
siderable reputation in England. Among his works are, " The Vil- 
lage School," " Old Schoolfellows," " The Benediction," " The Fare- 
well Sermon," "After Work," "The Doctor's Coming," "The Hearth 
of his Home," " The Lonely Hearth," " Eugene Aram," " Dr. Watts 
visiting some of his Little Friends," " George Stephenson at Darling- 
ton," " Milton's First Meeting with Mary Powell." He last exhibited 
at the Royal Academy, in 1871, " The Benediction." 

" Rankley's pictures are carefully painted. The story, whatever it may be, is attrac- 
tively set out, and for the most part convoys some good and wholesome moral, and with- 
out any forced or vapid sentiment. They were hung in the Academy in various years ; 
all were directed to awaken dormant sympathy in favor of what is kindly in feeling and 
of good report." — Art Journal, February, 1S73. 






ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 201 

Ranvier, Victor Joseph. (Fr.) Born at Lyons. Medals in 18G5 
and '73. Pupil of Janmot and J. Richard. At the Salon of 1876 he 
exhibited "The Morning"; in 1874, '*The Deliverance of Prome- 
theus"; in 1873, " Echo" and "The Exiled Virtues" (water-color). 
His " La chasse an Met " (1864) and " The Infancy of Bacchus" (1865) 
are in the Luxembourg. 

Rapin, Alexandre. (Fr.) Born at Noroy-le-Bourg. Medals in 
1875 and '77. Pupil of Gerome and Francois. Landscape-painter. 
At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited " Le Valbois (Doubs) in No- 
vember." 

Raven, J. S. (Brit.) He was the son of the Rev. J. Raven of 
Preston, an amateur painter. As an artist J. S. Raven was compara- 
tively self-taught He exhibited at the Royal Academy, the Dudley 
Gallery, and elsewhere. He was drowned while bathing at Harlich 
in 1877. Among his pictures are, " Midsummer Moonlight " (R. A., 
1866), "A View of the Tay near Dunkeld," " Baiff and Lord's Seat 
from the Slopes of Skiddaw," " Summer Haze," and " Part of the 
Land-Slip, Chapel Rock, Lvme-Regis," etc. After his death a collec- 
tion of his works were on exhibition in the Gallery of the Burlington 
Fine Art Club, in London, of which the London Times said : — 

" The loss to art will be felt with the more regret now that we have brought before us 
the whole work of his life, and see such fine poetic endowments and strong development 
of long-cherished aspirations, with such vigorous and energetic application of a most 
observant study of Nature." 

Read, Thomas Buchanan. (Am.) Born in Chester County, 
Pa. (1822-1872). In 1839 he entered the studio of a Cincinnati 
sculptor, intending to learn that branch of art. He quickly relin- 
quished it for painting, however, and opened a studio of his own in 
New York, two years later. In 1846 he settled in Philadelphia, and 
in 1850 he went to Europe, working and studying in Florence and 
Rome. He made the latter city his home, with occasional visits to 
America, upon one of which, in 1872, he died in New York. Among 
the better known of his works are, "The Water-Sprite," "The Lost 
Pleiad," "The Star of Bethlehem," "Sheridan and his Horse." He 
D his career as a portrait-painter with some success. His portrait 
of George Peabody is in the Peabody Institute, Baltimore. Mr. 
Claghorn of Philadelphia, an early friend of Mr. Read's, purchased a 
number of his pictures, painted at different periods, illustrating his 
progress from time to time. His was a very versatile genius. He 
occasionally turned his attention to sculpture in his maturity, and 
executed a bust of General Sheridan, which proved how successful he 
might have been with his chisel, had he so elected in his youth. By 
his poems, perhaps, he will be best known in the future. His " Sheri- 
dan's Ride " is one of the most popular productions of the minor 
poets of America. His first book of " Poems " was published in 1847 ; 
bis "Lays and Ballads" in 1848, "The New Pastoral" in 1855, 
9* 



202 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

" The Home by the Sea " in 1856. A collected edition of his works 
was published in 1860. 

Ream, Vinnie (Mrs. Hoxie). {Am.) American sculptress, re- 
siding for some years in Washington, D. C. She went to Italy in 
1869 or '70, executing in Rome her statue of Lincoln (for the United 
States government), now in the Capitol at Washington. Among her 
works are busts of Lincoln, Thaddeus Stevens, Reverdy Johnson, etc. ; 
and medallions of Father Hyacinthe, Gustave Dore, and Kaulbach. She 
is at present (1878) at work upon statues of General Custer and 
Admiral Farragut. Her "Spirit of the Carnival," "The West," 
" Miriam," a bust of Senator Morrell, and a bust of a child were at the 
Philadelphia Exhibition in 1876. 

[No response to circular.] 

Redgrave, Richard, R. A. (Brit.) Born in 1804. Brought up 
to commercial pursuits. Studied from the Elgin Marbles in the 
British Museum in 1823 or '24. Sent his first picture to the Royal 
Academy, " The Brent, near Hartwell," in 1825. In 1831 he sent his 
" Commencement of the Massacre of the Innocents " ; in 1833, " Cym- 
beline"; in 1840 (when he was elected Associate of the Royal 
Academy), " The Reduced Gentleman's Daughter." Among his early 
works maybe mentioned, " Quintin Matsy's First Picture" (1839), 
"The Poor Teacher "(1843), "The Seamstress" (1844), "Fashion's 
Slaves " (1847), " The Lost Path," " The Old English Homestead," 
"The Flight into Egypt" (1851), and other well-known pictures. 
He was elected Academician in 1850, and has held several high official 
positions under the government in the different art institutions of 
the country. His " Olivia's Return to her Parents " and " Country 
Cousins" are in the National Gallery, London, and his "Gulliver on 
the Farmer's Table " belongs to the Sheepshanks Collection. He ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy, in 1861, "The Strayed Flock" ; in 
1863, " The Way through the Woods" ; in 1864, " Jane Shore doing 
Penance" ; in 1866, " The Woodman's Dinner" ; in 1868, "Eugene 
Aram" ; in 1869, "From Autumn to Winter" ; in 1870, "Jack-o' 
Lanthorn" ; in 1871, "The Charcoal-Burners" ; in 1872, "Expecta- 
tion" ; in 1873, " The Lady of the Manor" ; in 1874, " Sermons in 
Stones" ; in 1875, " The Mill Pool " and " Starting for a Holiday" ; 
in 1876, "Calling the Sheep to Fold" and "The Oak of the Mill- 
head " ; in 1877, " Deserted," " Help at Hand," and " A Well-Spring 
in the Forest" ; in 1878, "The Heir come of Age" and "Friday 
Street." To Paris, in 1878, he sent " Deserted " and " Starting for a 
Holiday." He is a member of the Society of British Artists. 

" ' Sunday Morning ' is one of those avenues which Mr. Redgrave now paints with so 
much grace and truth. When we remember the very highly finished figure-pictures 
which he was accustomed to exhibit in former years, it is at least remarkable that he 
should have forsaken a very fascinating manner of minute execution for the free but by 
no means ineffective method he now professes." — Art Journal, September, 1873. 

" Mr. Redgrave, the now veteran painter and writer upon art, has been a contributor 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 203 

to the publications of the Etching Club. The temper of liis work is always studious 
ami sincere ; ami, K-sides these qualities, it has a certain tenderness of sentiment ; but, 
from the technical point of view, it has been injured by a striving after finish, which 
was due in part to the habit of working on a small scale." — Hamilton's Etching and 
Etchers. 

Reed, Helen. (Am.) A Boston artist. She began her profes- 
sional career in that city by the drawing of portraits in crayon. 
Later, she went to Florence, where she studied sculpture under Pres- 
ton Powers, sending to America bas-reliefs in marble, which have 
been exhibited at the Boston Art Club, in New York, and elsewhere. 

Regnault, Alexandre - Georges - Henri. (Fr.) Born at Paris 
(1843-1871). Prix de Home, I860. Medal, 1869. Son of the acade- 
mician who was director of the manufactory at Sevres. Pupil of 
Lamothe and Cabanel. Regnault contended for the prix de Rome in 
1863, and was much disappointed at not winning it. In 1864 he 
sent two portraits to the Salon, which were coldly received. At length 
iti 1866 the prize was his, and he went to Italy. Soon after he re- 
turned to Paris for the Exposition. After he was again in Rome he 
made twenty-seven designs' for the illustration of " Wey's Rome." These 
designs are excellent. In 1867 he sent to the Salon a decorative panel ; 
in 1868, one painted portrait and the sketches of two other portraits. 
In the autumn of 1868, not being well, this artist went to Spain, and 
saw General Prim, from which resulted the portrait of the Salon of 
1869, which is now so well known ; it is in the Luxembourg. From 
Spain Regnault went to Tangiers, and even in the short time he was 
able to spend there, fell so in love with the life of that country that he 
determined to return when at liberty to do so. In 1869 he painted his 
"Judith." and in 1870 sent to the Salon the " Salome," which is a 
remarkable work. In the summer of 1870 he went again to Tangiers, 
and painted " The Execution without Judgment under the Moorish 
Kings of Granada," now in the Luxembourg. Hearing of the war, 
Regnault returned to Paris to bear his part in the defence of his coun- 
try. On the 19th of January, 1871, he left Paris with a spirited 
party who made a sortie attempting to join the expected army of suc- 
cor. He was killed towards evening on the field of Buzenval. No 
friend saw him die, but the next day an ambulance-driver found his 
body and r«-a<l his name on the lining of his capote. In the confusion 
the traces of him were again lost, and it was not until the 25th that 
his friend* recovered his remains. His funeral took place at the church 
of Saint- Augustin, just at the sad moment when the capitulation of 
Paris was made known. Paul Mantz closes his account of Regnault 
thus : — 

" It will soon be a year since these fatal things occurred ; but the remembrance of 
Regnault remains as fresh as on the day of his death, and yesterday, when at the 
exhibition of the works of the i^nsioners at Rome, we saw in the place where his con- 
tribution for the fourth year should have been, an easel drai>ed in black and decorated 
with green boughs. MCh one felt an oppression at the heart at this spectacle, whieh told 
too well of human injustice, and of the cruelty of the times. Rtgnault, downed already 



204 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

with a precocious glory, was scarcely at the first chapter of his book ; his art was young, 
like his soul ; he knew little of painful experiences, and in the constant holiday of hi.; 
life could not yet understand them. He would without doubt have advanced in the 
sentiment of manner, as in that of the drama. But the dream is ended : the present and 
the future, both have perished together. There remains to us only his work, which is 
but a radiant beginning, and the example of his death, which plainly shows that the 
culture of art extinguishes not the religion of patriotism in the soul. Let us guard faith- 
fully the memory of the artist and the citizen, and on this tomb, where so many hopes 
are buried, let us read, with our regrets for the departed master, our hatred for those 
who killed him." — Gazette des Beaux-Arts, January, 1872. 

In the Luxembourg, besides the works already named, there are 
four water-colors of Spanish subjects (executed in 1868 and '69), and 
fifteen sketches, presented to the gallery by V. Regnault, member of 
the Institute. At a Paris sale of 1872, "A Morocco Soldier at the 
Gate of a Pasha, Tangiers " sold for £ 960. 

" Henri Regnault, who was killed at the battle of Buzenval in 1871, when but twenty- 
eight years of age, was the most remarkable painter of the contemporary school in point 
of promise, and had he lived until maturity would have attained a pre-eminent position. 
The works he left behind him remind one, in fire and force, of Gericault's paintings or 
Schiller's Robbers Winning the prix de Rome at twenty-three, he sent home dur- 
ing his absence such works as 'Judith and Holofernes,' ' Salome,' the famous ' Portrait 
of General Prim,' and an • Execution under the Moors at Granada,' the last two painted 
during a trip to Madrid and Tangiers. In the portrait of Prim the horse is of the Anda- 
lusian type ; the motif of the composition represents the arrival of General Prim before 
Madrid, with the revolutionary forces, October 8, 1868. The execution scene aroused a 
profound sensation on the part of both critics and public, as well it might, for the start- 
ling character of the subject and the tremendous power of the treatment, greatly assisted 
by that simplicity which indicates large reserve strength in the artist and wonderfully 
stimulates the imagination of the observer. It is marvelous that artists so rarely avail 
themselves of this master weapon of simplicity. A marble stairway with two or three 
steps leads to a Moorish court in the style of the Alhambra, which is suffused with a 
glowing light suggesting the burning heat of a Southern sun. In the immediate fore- 
ground are the two figures composing the awful drama, — the executioner and his vic- 
tim. The former, erect, massive, inflexible, impassive as a statue, draws his cimeter 
across his tunic to wipe off the blood ; while the mangled trunk of what was once a man 
has fallen heavily down the steps, and the head lies in a pool of blood. It is not too 
much to say that this blood mantling on the marble slab is one of the finest bits of color 

in modern art This painting is hung in the Luxembourg, and persons have been 

so overcome by its horrible realism as to be seized with faintness when gazing upon it. 
There seems to be an impropriety in admitting such a work to a public national gallery. 
.... Either it is bad as a work of art, and should therefore be excluded, or it is good 
as a work of art, and should therefore be forbidden, on exactly the same grounds that 
the public are guarded from the demoralizing influence of a public execution. This, 
however, would not prevent its more private exhibition, purely as a work of art, to those 
who would study it only from such a point of view." — Benjamin's Contemporary Art 
in Europe. 

Reid, George. (Brit.) Born at Aberdeen. A portrait-painter, 
executing occasional landscapes, generally in the manner of the Dutch 
school, of which he is a disciple. He was a pupil of Mollinger. He 
has spent the greater part of his professional life in his native city, 
where his studio now is. He was elected a full member of the Royal 
Scottish Academy in 1878. Among his works are, " The Washing- 
Day," " Whins in Bloom," etc. To the Royal Scottish Academy in 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 205 

1878 he contributed " Dornoch," " A Highland Kitchen," and several 
portraits. 

•• A more unpretending theme could scarcely have been selected than a stretch of com- 
mon with masses of blooming freeze, a bare pathway, down which sheep are wending, 
and a cool, gray sky overhead. Yet out of these Mr. Reid has constructed a charming 
landscape [' Whins in Bloom ']. — Art Journal, April, 1S74. 

Reid, Archibald D. (Brit.) Native of Aberdeen, where he still 
resides. He is a brother of George Reid, R. S. A., and devotes himself 
to landscape-painting. u A Harvest Scene," by A. D. Reid, was at 
the Glasgow Fine Arts Loan Exhibition of 1878 ; the same year he 
pent to the Royal Scottish Academy, " Boys and Buoys," " An East 
Coast Fishing Village," " Guessing' the Catch," and "On the Find- 
horn, — Autumn." 

Reinhart, Benjamin Franklin, A. N. A. (Am.) Born near 
Waynesburg, Pa., 1829. He displayed a talent for art as a child, and 
notwithstanding many obstacles, decided to follow it as a profession. 
At the age of fifteen he found himself at Pittsburg, Pa., receiving 
there a few lessons in the mixing and application of oil-colors, be- 
ginning his career untutored and alone by the painting of portraits. 
Later, he went to New York, where he spent three years, studying in 
the schools of the National Academy. In 1849 he visited Ohio and 
several cities of the West, painting many notable men of that section. 
In the course of a year or two he was enabled to go to Europe, settling 
first in Diisseldorf, and later in Paris. He availed himself of the best 
schools, studying grand composition and design with a view to becom- 
ing an historical painter. At the end of three years he returned to 
America, following his profession in New York, Ohio, and New Or- 
leans. At the outbreak of the American Civil War he went to Eng- 
land, and lived seven years in London, where he met with decided 
success as a painter of English genre subjects. In 1868 he came again 
to New York, where he has since resided, devoting himself to cabinet- 
sized pictures, genre and historical. He is an Associate of the National 
Academy. About forty-five of his pictures have been engraved. 
Among his more important works are, " Cleopatra" (the studies for 
which were made in Egypt, and which is now in England, where it was 
painted), " Evangeline," "The Nymphs of the Wood," " Katrina Van 
\." " Pocahontas," "Washington receiving the News of Arnold's 
-on," " Consolation," " The Entombment," " Young Franklin and 
Sir William Keith," " The Regatta," and " The Pride of the Village." 
all painted since his last return to New York. Among his portraits 
are those of the Princess of Wales, the Duchess of Newcastle, the 
Countess of Portsmouth, Lady Vane Tempest, Lord Brougham, John 
Phillip, R. A., Thomas Carlyle, Tennyson, Mark Lemon, Chief Justice 
Daly, Charles O'Conor, Dr. Many, George M. Dallas, James Bu- 
chanan, E. M. Stanton, Winfield Scott, S. P. Chase, Bishops McEl- 
vaine and Polk, Elliott, J. C. Breckinridge, Stephen A. Douglas, 
Samuel Houston, and many more. 



20G ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Reinhart, Charles S. (Am.) Born at Pittsburg, Pa., 1844. Was 
engaged upon the United States military railroads in Virginia, during 
the Civil War, for a period of three years, and, later, spent four years 
in a steel manufactory at Pittsburg. In 1 868 he began the study of 
art in Paris, going subsequently to Munich, where he entered the 
Royal Academy, and studied drawing under Professor Streyhuber, 
and etching and painting under Professor Otto. The greater part of 
his professional life has been spent in New York. For six and a half 
years he was in the employ of Harper and Brothers, opening a studio 
of his own in the summer of 1876. He is a member of the American 
Art Club in Munich, the Pittsburg Art Association, New York 
Etching Club, and was elected a member of the Water-Color Society 
in 1876. He has contributed illustrations to various publications of 
the Scribners', Harpers', Appletons', and of Osgood's, and exhibits fre- 
quently at the National Academy, oil and water-color paintings, as well 
as sketches in pen and ink. " Caught Napping " and " Clearing Up * 
in 1875, " Reconnoitering " in 1876, "The Rebuke" in 1877, are 
among his oil-pictures. To the Water-Color Exhibitions he sent, in 
1877, the " Close of Day " and " Gathering Wood "; in 1878, "At the 
Ferry." His " No Trespassing " belongs to Fletcher Harper, Jr., and 
his "Noon and Midnight" (both in black and white), to J. Abner 
Harper. 

"C. §. Reinhart's 'Gathering Wood' is composed in his happiest mood, the least 
ambitious but best water-color he has to show, being remarkable, not only in figures, 
where his strength lies, but in color as well." — New York Times, January 22, 1877. 

Reinherz, Conrad. (Prussian.) Born at Breslau. Pupil of the 
Academy of Munich and of Dietz. His pictures are landscapes, and 
have been exhibited in the prominent German exhibitions for some 
years. He ranks high among the artists of his country. 

Rethel, Alfred. (Fr.) Born at Aix-la-Chapelle (1816 - 1859). 
When thirteen years old this artist executed a design, which gained 
him admission to the Academy of Diisseldorf. At twenty he took 
up his residence in Frankfort. The subjects of his works are very 
varied. His historic portraits are famous. He executed many fres- 
cos. In 1844 he went to Rome, and two years later commenced, in 
the Council Chamber at Aix, a series of scenes illustrative of the life 
of Charlemagne. But his mind became diseased, he imagined and 
suffered more than we have space to recount, and his life was all the 
more sad for its early promise of brilliancy unfulfilled. 
' Among his works may be mentioned, " The Massacre of St. Boni- 
face," " The Swiss in Prayer before the Battle of Sempach, 1386," 
"Death coming as a Friend," "The Dance of Death," "Death as an 
Avenger," etc. In the Berlin National Gallery is his picture of 
"St. Boniface," and several cartoons of his pictures at Aix. At 
the Leipsic Museum is his picture of " Peter and John healing the 
Lame Man at the Door of the Temple." 






ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 207 

Reusch, Friedrich. (Ger.) Of Berlin. At Philadelphia he ex- 
hibited " A < I roup for a Fountain," in bronze, and received a medal. 
Reviere, Briton, A. R. A. (Brit.) Born in London, 1840. Son 
of an artist of considerable ability, from whom his early art-training 
was received. After graduating at the University of Oxford he settled 
in the neighborhood of London in 1867, devoting himself to painting 
as a profession. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy, in 1858, 
• Best from Labor" ; in 1859, " On the Road to Gloucester Fair " ; 
in 1864, '-Iron Bare" and "Romeo and Juliet"; in 1866, "The 
Poacher's Nurse"; in 1867, "Strayed from the Flock" and "The 
Long Sleep," which first attracted popular attention to his work. In 
1868 he sent the " Last of the Garrison " ; in 1870, " A Midsummer 
Night's Dream " ; in 1872, " Daniel " ; in 1873, " Argus " ; in 1874, 
"Apollo"; in 1876, "A Stern Chase"; in 1877, "A Legend of 
St. Patrick " and " Lazarus." He was elected an Associate of the 
National Academy in 1878, contributing " Sympathy " and " An 
Anxious Moment." Among his water-color paintings may be men- 
tioned " Fox and Geese " (in the South Kensington Collection). 
His " Charity " (engraved by F. Stackpole) received a medal at the 
Vienna Exposition, and his " Circe and the Companions of Ulysses " 
(engraved by the same artist) and " War-Time " (R. A., 1875) were 
at the Philadelphia Exhibition of 1876; "The Last of the Garrison," 
" Charity," and "Daniel " were at Paris in 1878. 

" There is a pathos in this composition [* War-Time '] so touching as to make one 
turn sadly away to search after more cheery work, before examining with any minute- 
ness the other contributions of the same excellent artist." — Art Journal, June, 1875. 

" ' Circe and the Companions of Ulysses,' by Mr. B. Reviere, is conceived and executed 
with that rare skill which deservedly entitles this artist to the high reputation he enjoys. 
The humor is admirably rendered, and exhibits a keen appreciation of the possibilities 
of expression in swinish physiognomy." — Prof. Weir's Official Report of the American 
Centennial Exhibition o/1876. 

Rhomberg, Hanno. (Ger.) Born at Munich (1820 - 1869). Stud- 
ied under Schnorr and Bernhard. He was much associated with 
Enhuber, who influenced him. His fame dated from his "Traveling 
Students," which Louis I. bought for the Pinakothek. Among his 
earlier works are, " The Work of a Village Painter," " The Votive 
Tablet," "The Tight Shoe," "The Best Scholar." In 1869 he 
painted " An Inn Scene." 

Ribera, Carlos Louis. (Span.-Fr.) Born at Rome, of Spanish par- 
ents, about 1812. Two medals at Paris. Pupil of his father and of Paul 
Delaroche. This painter has lived much at Paris, and has exhibited 
at many Salons. Among his works are, the " Origin of the Family of 
Los Girones," " Battle against the Moors of the Sagra of Toledo," 
" Don Rodrigo de Calderon led to Execution," and " Mary Magdalene 
at the Segralcher." 

Ricard, Gustave. (Fr.) Born at Marseilles (1824 - 1873). Two 
medals at the Salons. This painter studied in his native city until 



208 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

1844, when he went to Paris and exhibited the portrait of Mme. 
Sabatier, which was much admired. He studied under Cogniet, and 
made many copies at the Louvre. Three years later he went to 
Rome, where he continued to make copies and also original works. 
He visited Florence, Venice, and England. He made his debut at the 
Salon of 1850, and continued to exhibit nine years ; he then appeared 
no more until 1872, when he sent the portrait of Paul de Musset. 
He found the Salons decidedly against his ideas. His portraits, how- 
ever, were much sought. In 1863 the decoration of the Legion of 
Honor was tendered him, but he replied, " It is too late," and could 
not be prevailed upon to change his decision. He lived as simply 
after his fortune was made as before, and admitted but few to his home 
or heart. So sudden was his death that his model knocked at his door 
as he breathed his last. At the Wilson Exhibition at Brussels, in 
1873, was seen his own portrait, painted by himself in his earlier years. 

Richards, T. Addison, N. A. (Am.) Born in London, 1820. In 
his youth he resided in the State of Georgia. In 1845 he removed to 
the city of New York, where, with the exception of occasional Amer- 
ican and European tours, the rest of his professional life has been 
spent. In 1848 he was elected an Associate of the National Academy, 
Academician in 1851, and Corresponding Secretary in 1852. He was 
the first Director of the Cooper Union School of Design for Women, 
in 1858 to '60, and since 1867 he has been Professor of Art in the 
University of New York. Among the better known of Mr. Richards' 
early paintings may be mentioned, " Alastor, or the Spirit of Soli- 
tude" (from Shelley's poem), at the National Academy in 1854 (be- 
longing to Mr. Wolsey of New Haven) ; " The Indian Paradise, — a 
Dream of the Happy Hunting-Ground," at the National Academy in 
1854 ; " The Edisto River, S. C." ; " Live-Oaks of the South " ; "The 
French Broad River, N. C," at the National Academy in 1859 ; " The 
River Rhine" and "Warwick Castle," in 1869 (belonging to N. 
Jarvis). In 1871 a collection of one hundred of his works was on ex- 
hibition at the Somerville Gallery in New York, including American, 
Canadian, tropical, Swiss, and English landscapes, and a number of 
fruit and flower subjects, which were afterwards sold. 

His " Chatsworth, England " and " Lake Thun, Switzerland " be- 
long to A. Jenkins of New York ; " Italian Lake Scene," to A. Aiken, 
New York ; " Lake Winnipiseogee," to Mrs. M. B. Young, Fall 
River ; " Sunnyside," to James S. Virtue, London. Mr. Richards 
has furnished illustrations for many books and magazines. The first 
of these was the " American Artist," treating of flower-painting, pub- 
lished in Baltimore as early as 1838 ; followed by " Georgia, Illus- 
trated," steel-plates, published in 1842 ; " The Romance of American 
Landscape," quarto, in 1854 ; " Summer Stories of the South," in 
1853 ; " Pictures and Painters," in 1870. He was also engaged on 
the Appletons' "Hand-Books of Travel," Illustrated Guide-Books 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 209 

to the Hudson, to Saratoga, to Central Park, etc. ; as well as many 
illustrated papers for Harper's Magazine, including " Sunnyside, the 

Home of Irving," " Idlewild, the Home of Willis," ** Lake George," 
" The Connecticut River," " The Rice-Lands of the South," and so on, 
in a great many instances furnishing the letter-press as well as the 
plates. 

" At various times Mr. Richards has visited all sections of the country, and through 
the medium of the magazines has presented to his countrymen careful and accurate 
pictures of the scenery of the country, from the sunny valleys of New England to the 
wide savannahs and rolling prairies of the South and West. In addition to his art 
labors Mr. Richards has also devoted much time to literary study, and many of the 
papers that have appeared in Harper and the Knickerbocker are the products alike of 
his pen and pencil." — Xcw Yorit Evening Express, February 29, 1S6S. 

" Richards' landscapes range through a considerable variety of subjects, the most of 
them being views studied by the artist from choice portions of American and European 
scenery. Some are compositions, and all show that sure artistic sense of the elements 
of beauty in scenery, which has heretofore given the artist his rank in the art-pro- 
ductions of the country. Of the artist's methods of technical execution it is needless to 
si>eak at this day, his style probably being as familiar to the public as that of any 
of the veteran exhibitors on the walls of the National Academy." — Home Journal, 
March 22. 1S71. 

Richards, William T., N. A. (Am.) Born in Philadelphia, 1833. 
At an early age he turned his attention to the study of art, and be- 
came a painter by profession in 1853. In 1855 he went to Europe, 
spending a year in study and observation in Florence, Rome, and 
Paris. In 1856 he opened a studio in Philadelphia, and in 1866 re- 
turned to Europe for a short visit. He is an Honorary Member of 
the National Academy of Design and an Associate Member of the 
Water-Color Society. His summers of late years have been spent at 
Newport, R. I. Among his works in oil are " Mid-Ocean," " New 
England Coast," " At Atlantic City," " Midsummer," " June Woods," 
'• Wood Scene," "Spring," "Summer Afternoon," "Ebb Tide," " Old 
Orchards at Newport," " The Inlet near Newport," and " Out in the 
Country." In 1871 he sent to the Water-Color Exhibition, " Mount 
Desert," "Pulpit Rock, Nahant " ; in 1874, "Off the Spar Buoy, 
Atlantic City"; in 1875, "Lake Squam" and "The Third Beach, 
Newport"; in 1876, "Almy's Pond" and "Gooseberry Island," 
near Newport ; in 1877, "Autumn, near Newport"; in 1878, "So'- 
Point, Conanicut" and "Almy's Pond, Newport." He sent 
to the Paria Exposition of 1867 his "Foggy Day at Nantucket" 
(belonging to George Whitney) and his "Woods in June" (belonging 
to Robert L. Stuart). To the American Centennial Exhibition of 
1876 he contributed "The Wissahickon" (in oil) and "Old Trees at 
Atlantic City " and " Paradise, Newport" (in water-colors), for which 
he was commended by the judges. His "Going to the Spring" and 
"First Beach, Newport" belonged to John Taylor Johnston, and his 
" Sunset on the Ocean," to S. J. Harriot. His " Spring," at the 
Blodgett sale, brought $ 1,610. To Paris, in 1878, he sent " South- 



210 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

west Point, Conanicut," in water-color, and three pictures in oil, — 
" In the Woods," " Spring," and " The Forest." 

" So carefully painted in some of Richards' landscapes are the leaves, grasses, grain- 
stalks, weeds, stones, and flowers, that we seem not to be looking at a distant prospect, 
but lying on the ground with herbage and blossoms directly under our eyes." — Tucker- 
man's Book of the Artists. 

"Mr. W. T. Richards contributed but a single oil-painting, 'The Wissahickon,' not 
one of his best pictures. This artist is a careful, conscientious student of Nature, but 
it is only recently that he has permitted himself to exercise that freedom and largeness 
of vision characteristic of mature art ; his later works manifest this in a marked degree. 
No painter is more thoroughly master of the sea and waves in motion than is this art- 
ist." — Prof. Weir's Official Report of the American Centennial Exhibition of 1876. 

" William T. Richards' ' Gull Rock, Newport, — Fog coming in ' [in oil, N. A., 1877] 
shows water without life or transparency, and rocks wanting in character. The picture 
is quite without depth or originality. " — New York Times, April 8, 1877. 

" There is no storm [' Gull Rock,' N. A., 1877], but the dark green sea lifts with a deep 
pulsation, and dashes over the rock with a resistless motion that is very suggestive of 
latent power. It is a picture full of large simplicity and quiet truth that study cannot 
easily exhaust." — Art Journal, May, 1877. 

" Richards is one of the first American painters who adopted the pre-Raphaelite style 
of treatment in their pictures ; this was in 1858, and since that time no artist in this 
country has achieved greater success in the profession. .... His drawing is never at 
fault, and the crispness of his touch is charming." — Art Journal, August, 1877. 

Richards, Orren C. {Am.) Born in South Boston, 1842. In 
1857 he began the study of decoration with Thomas Savory in Boston. 
In 1860 he studied under George Inness at Medfield, Mass. He en- 
tered the army at the outbreak of the Civil War. He has painted 
scenery at nearly all of the Boston theaters, and easel-pictures of still- 
life, in oil. His " Peonies " (belonging to Mrs. E. E. Slack) was at 
the Mechanics' Fair, Boston, in 1878. 

Richardson, T. M. {Brit.) Contemporary English water-color 
artist, residing in London, and for many years a member of the Old 
Water-Color Society. He paints landscapes, generally of the High- 
lands of Scotland and the Continent. Among his works, exhibited in 
different seasons, are, "LochTulla," "Loch Awe," "Glen Nevis," "Look- 
ing towards Glencoe," " Argyleshire," " On the River Oran," " Bone 
Church, Isle of Wight," " Lago Maggiore," " Via Mala," " Market- 
Boats, Lake Como," etc. 

" In No. 36 [Society of Painters in Water-Colors, 1873], by T. M. Richardson, we have 
one of those luxuriously colored and elaborately worked drawings on which this artist 
has built his reputation. It is entitled ' In the Neighborhood of the Town of Cozenzos, 
Northern Calabria.' The mountains, of which a mass closes the middle distance, are most 
skillfully drawn and richly colored, and in the entire composition there is a complete- 
ness which almost bespeaks a scenic study." — Art Journal, June, 1873. 

Richet, L£on. {Fr.) Born at Solesmes. Pupil of Diaz, whose 
style he has adopted. His pictures are charming. In the collection 
of Mrs. H. E. Maynard of Boston is " Near Nouvion, in Picardy." 
His works are rare in America. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited 
"Aurora" and "Route of the Artists, Forest of Fontainebleau " ; in 
1876, " The Boundaries of Barbison, Forest of Fontainebleau " and "After 
the Storm"; in 1878, "A Scene near Evreux" and "The Gleaners." 






ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 211 

Richmond, George, R. A. (Brit.) Born in 1S09. Entered the 
schools of the Royal Academy in 1824. lie made his most decided 
success as a portrait-painter, at first in water-colors and crayon, later 
in oils. He was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1859, 
and Academician in 1867. Among his later portraits may be men- 
tioned, " The Earl of Elgin," in 1860 ; "Edward M. Ward, *R. A.," in 
1861 ; "The Dnke of Buccleuch," in 1865 ; "Sir Moses Montefiore," 
in 1875 ; and many prominent people of church and state. Among 
his paintings of another class are, "The Agony in the Garden,'' in 
1858; "Sunset from Hyde Park," in 1861 ; and "A Scene from 
'Conius,' — the Measure," in 1864. 

" The art of George Richmond is studious and painstaking to almost too great a de- 
gree, leaving upon the mind not ■ very vivid sense of freshness of vision in the painter. 
The work is often overlabored, the necessary impression of spontaneous vitality drawn 
unfairly out by hard and cautious style. Still in everything from this painter's hands 
we have work that carries with it a conviction of conscientious and well-directed effort, 
oftentimes yielding a cultured and satisfying result." — Art Journal, July, 1873. 

Richomme, Jules. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1818. Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Drolling. Made his debut as a por- 
trait-painter in 1839. Richomme has executed mural paintings in 
the church of Saint-Severin at Paris, and in several provincial 
churches. His picture of "St. Peter of Alcantara healing a Sick 
Child" (1864) is at the Luxembourg. In 1877 he exhibited "An 
Arab Woman " and " The Chinese Doll " ; in 1876, " The Dove " and 
a portrait of the Marquise Ginori ; in 1875, " The Shower," " The 
Little- Idle One," and the " First Lesson on the Violin." 

Richter, Adrien-Louis. (Ger.) Born at Dresden, 1803. This 
artist was, in early life, a painter and designer, as "well as an engraver. 
But his labors as a designer were the most important, and occasioned 
his traveling quite extensively. In 1828 he was appointed to the 
School of Design of the porcelain factory at Meissen, and later he 
ljecame professor and president of the landscape studio in the Academy 
of Dresden, and also a member of the Council of that Academy. His 
oil-paintings are few in comparison with his designs and engravings, 
but they are such as give him good rank among German landscape- 
paint 

Richter, Gustav. (Ger.) Born at Berlin about 1822. Professor 
and member of the Senate of the Royal Academy of Arts in Berlin, 
and member of the Academies of Munich and Vienna. Grand medal 
in Berlin, 1864, and other medals at Paris, Brussels, Vienna, and 
Philadelphia. This artist is known in America by chiomofl from his 
pictures, which are brilliant in color, and charming to the public gen- 
erally. His Oriental scenes are very rich in effect. His portraits 
excellent. Among his works are, the u Odalisque," "The Raising of 
Jairus' Daughter " (at the National Gallery, Berlin), and many por- 
traits. He sent to the Philadelphia Exposition a portrait of the Hon. 
George Bancroft. At the Exposition at the Academy at Berlin, in 



212 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

1876, he exhibited three portraits and the " Lowenritt," and at the 
Paris Exposition, 1878, three portraits. 

" In spite of the artificial arrangement of his works his excellence is chiefly shown in 
his delicate painting, his well-balanced parts, his careful and often corrected modeling, 
and the beautiful coloring in the principal lights, while his shadows so round the flesh 
parts that they are softened to an ivory-like smoothness." — R. D. in Zeitschrift fur bit- 
dcnde Kunst, 1875. 

Riedel, August. (Ger.) Born at Bayreuth, 1800. Professor of 
St. Luke's Academy at Rome. Member of the Academies of Berlin, 
Munich, Vienna, and St. Petersburg. Pupil of the Academy of Mu- 
nich. His pictures are landscapes and genre scenes, and are in many 
galleries, both public and private. The "Albanian Girls" and "Bath- 
ing Girls " are in the National Gallery, Berlin. 

Riefstahl, Wilhelm Ludwig Friedrich. (Ger.) Born at Neu- 
Strellitz, 1827. Director of the Art School at Carlsruhe. Medals 
at Berlin ; and member of Berlin Academy, at which place he studied. 
In 1848 he made the designs for illustrating " Kugler's History of 
Art." He traveled much in mountainous countries, and was passion- 
ately fond of their scenery. In 1869 he went to Rome. At the Na- 
tional Gallery at Berlin are his " Mountain Chapel with Herdsmen at 
Devotion" and "All Souls' Day in Bregenz." In Berlin, in 1876, he 
exhibited " A Convent on the Inn " ; and at the Paris Exposition of 
1878, "The Pantheon of Agrippa at Rome" and "Attendant le cer- 
cueil." 

Eugene Miintz says of Riefstahl : " He sees justly, feels profoundly, 
and knows how to express what he feels." 

Riesener, Louis- Antoine-Leon. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1808. 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of David and Gros. His 
picture of " Erigone " (1864) is at the Luxembourg. Among his works 
are, " Roses," " Bacchus and Ariadne," " The Awaking," " The Toi- 
lette," " Country Pleasures." " The Brook in the Wood," and " Le doux 
sommeil secoue sur lui ses pavots." 

Rimmer, William. (Am.) Born in Boston, 1821. He was edu- 
cated for the medical profession, devoting himself particularly to 
anatomy. Later, he turned his attention to sculpture and to art in- 
struction. He has delivered a valuable course of lectures on art anat- 
omy at the Lowell Institute, Boston, at the University at Cambridge, 
Mass., before the National Academy, New York, and elsewhere. He 
was Director of the School of Design of the Cooper Institute, New 
York, for some years. He published, in 1864, a volume entitled " The 
Elements of Design." Among his sculptured works are statues of 
Alexander Hamilton, " Falling Gladiator," etc., and a colossal head 
of " St. Stephen," in granite. 

" This artist [Dr. Rimmer] has wrought a figure of the most rare anatomical power 
and truth ; and a group which was mistaken for Bunyan's 'Great-Heart and Giant Grim ' 
in mortal struggle, but which was intended to represent ' Union and Secession.' " — 
Tuckerman's Book of the Artists. 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 213 

" Dr. Rimmer, an accomplished teacher of design, of much original mental force, 
destined to do good service to American art, lias given a striking example of his capacity 
for realistic sculpture in the model of an athlete reeling under the force of a death- 
blow. The knowledge of anatomical science displayed is wonderful .... In a head 
of ' St. Stephen,' carved by himself from granite, Dr. Rimmer has shown a fine capacity 
for lofty expression." - Jarvks, Art I<lca. 

Rineh art, William Henry. (Am.) Born in Frederick, Md. (1825- 
1874). In his youth he was apprenticed to a stone-cutter in Balti- 
more, studying in the night schools of the Maryland Institute. He 
went to Italy in 1855, studying and working at sculpture in Florence 
for three years. He returned to Baltimore in 1858, but after a short 
stay, went again to Italy, opening a studio in Rome, where the rest of 
his life was spent. Among his works maybe mentioned, " The Wood- 
man " (one of the earliest), " Leander," " Night," " Morning," " Woman 
of Samaria," " Indian Maiden," " Rebecca," " A Nymph," " Endym- 
ion," "Hero," " Atalanta," and "Clytie" (in the Peabody Institute, 
Baltimore). He executed many portrait busts. His statue of Chief 
Justice Taney, ordered by the State of Maryland, was unveiled at 
Annapolis in 1872. 

"Rinehart's 'Woman of Samaria ' is admired for the deep and pure thoughtfulness 
of her expression, as if the words of Christ had sunk into her soul. He has charmingly 
illustrated maternal affection in his ' Latona and her Infant,' while two sleeping habeson 
one pillow are full of nature and beauty." — Tuckerman's Book of the Artists. 

Ritchie, Alexander H., N. A. (Brit.-Am.) Born in Glasgow, 
1822. He studied drawing in the Royal Institution at Edinburgh, 
under Sir William Allan, and during his first year received four pre- 
miums, lie has been a resident of New York for many years. In 
1871 he was elected a member of the National Academy. He is a 
painter and engraver, and is highly regarded in both branches of his 
profession. Among his works in oils are, " Mercy knocking at the 
Gate," " Fitting out Moses for the Fair," " Death of Lincoln," " Baby, 
who 'a that?" (portraits), and portraits of Dr. McCosh of Princeton, 
Prof. Charles Hodge of Princeton, etc., all exhibited at the National 
Academy. He engraved " Washington and his Generals " and " Mercy 
at the Gate," after his own pictures ; " Contemplation," after S. J. Guy; 
"Washington entering New York," "The First Blow for Liberty," 
and M The March to the Sea," after Darley; " Lady Washington's Re- 
ception," after Huntington; etc. 

Rivalta, Augusto. (Ital.) Born at Genoa, 1837. Professor in 
the Academy of Florence. He has received many medals. His early 
inclination for art was cultivated, and he soon became known for his 
taste in composition and his skill in execution. He went to Florence, 
and there modeled his statue of " Clinzia," which he sent to the Accade- 
mia Ligure. Hia most famous work is called "An Episode of War," 
and t a wounded soldier supported by a brother soldier and 

rity. It is full of feeling, and admirably executed. 
The subject was suggested to the artist by his own experience as a vol- 



2H ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

unteer. His statues of Niccolini the poet for Florence, and Cavonr 
for Naples, are very fine. For the Hospital for the Poor in Genoa 
he made the statue of Palleri and the monument to the Marchesa 
Corsi Pallavicini. For the celebrated Cemetery of Stagheno he has 
made several monuments; those of Giuseppina Croce and Bartolomeo 
Savi deserve mention. 

Robbe, Louis-Marie-Dominique-Romain. {Belgian.') Born at 
Courtrai, 1807. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor, of the Order of 
Leopold, and of that of Charles III. of Spain. His pictures are of 
animals, and much admired. His " Shepherd and Flock " is in the 
collection of Mrs. H. E. Maynard, Boston. 

Robbe, Henri. {Belgian.) Brother of the preceding. He is a 
painter of fruits and flowers, and has received several medals. 

Robbins, Horace W., N. A. (Am.) Born in Mobile, Ala., 1842. 
When about twenty-one years of age he entered the studio of James 
M. Hart in New York, where he spent a few months. Later, he 
opened a studio of his own. In 1865 he visited Jamaica with F. E. 
Church, going thence directly to Europe. He worked in Paris dur- 
ing three winters, from that of 1865, making sketching-tours during 
the summer months in Switzerland and elsewhere. He returned to 
New York in the fall of 1867, and has since resided principally in 
that city. He was elected an Associate of the National Academy in 
1864, and Academician in 1878. He is Secretary of the Artists' Fund 
Society, and has been a member of the Water-Color Society for some 
years. To the National Academy in 1869 he sent, "The Close of 
a Cloudy Day"; in 1870, "A Tropical View" (belonging to Dr. 
F. N. Otis) ; in 1871, "An Autumnal Morning" (belonging to D. C. 
Blodgett) ; in 1873, "A Morning View in Switzerland"; in 1874, 
"Morning in Jamaica" ; in 1875, "Passing Shower, Jamaica" (be- 
longing to J. Vanderpoel of New York) ; in 1876, " Flooded Mead- 
ows " ; in 1877, "Harbor Islands, Lake George"; in 1878, "Morning 
in the Adirondacks" and " Sunny Banks of the Ausahle." Among 
his contributions to the Exhibitions of the Water-Color Society may 
be mentioned, "A New England Road Scene," in 1877, and "A 
New England Homestead," in 1878. 

To the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia, in 1876, he contrib- 
uted "New England, — Autumn" and "Farmington River, Ct."; to 
the Paris Exposition of 1878, "Harbor Islands, Lake George." His 
" White Mountain Scenery " belongs to W. S. G. Baker of Baltimore ; 
" Mount Madison," to H. W. Robbins ; " Roadside Elms," to Mrs. 
Attwood of Poughkeepsie ; "Mount Philip, from the Farmington 
River," to G. D. Phelps of New York ; and " The Freshet," to Mrs. 
A. R. Phelps of Hartford. 

Rbber, Ernst. (Ger.) Born at Elberfeld, 1849. Pupil of the 
Diisseldorf Academy and of E. Bendemann. At the National Gallery 
of Berlin are some of his decorative paintings in the Halle von der 
Nische. 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 215 

Rober, Fritz. (Ocr.) Born at Elberfeld, 1851. Brother and pupil 
of the preceding. He also painted in the National Gallery at Berlin. 

Robert, Leo-Paul. (Swiss.) Born at Bienne. Medal in 1877. 
Pupil of his lather and Gerome. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited 
'* The Zephyrs of a Beautiful Evening." 

Robert- ITleury, Joseph-Nicolas. (Fr.) Born at Cologne, of 
French parents, 17i)7. Member of the Institute. Commander of the 
Legion of Honor. He studied in Paris under Girodet, Gros, and 
Horace Vernet. Visited Italy, and remained there several years. 
Made his debut at the Salon of 1S24. At the Luxembourg are his 
-Conference at Poissy in 1561" (1840), "Jane Shore" (1850), and 
the " Pillage of a House in the Jews' Quarter at Venice in the Middle 
a " (1855). " The Entrance of Clovis into Tours " is at Versailles. 
This painter has been Professor at l'Ecole des Beaux- Arts in Paris and 
at the Villa Medici at Rome. In 1864 he was a member of the 
Municipal Council of Paris. The following important works were 
executed by Robert-Fleury for the decoration of the Audience Hall 
in the new palace of the Tribunal of Commerce : " The Institution 
of the Juges consuls, in 1563," " The Promulgation of the Ordinance 
of Commerce in 1673,'' " Napoleon receiving the Code of Commerce 
presented to him by President Vignon in 1807," and " Napoleon III. 
visiting the New Palace of the Tribunal of Commerce in 1865." Con- 
cerning these works Rene Menard wrote in the " Gazette des Beaux- 
Arts," February, 1869, a long article, w r hich closes thus : — 

" As a whole, these great canvases are an honor to Robert-Fleury, and prove what 
veritable power there is in that talent which holds its superiority despite the most un- 
favorable conditions. Robert-Fleury had never attempted works of grand dimensions, 
and his debut is the work of a master ; he had never painted official subjects, and in this 
difficult and thankless style he takes a first rank. All that is wanting to make his work 
complete is a greater freedom of inspiration. A man of talent is always master of his 
execution, localise he rules it with all the superiority of his science ; but inspiration de- 
mands that it shall not be shackled by restrictions which straiten it. It is only able to 
soar when it is personal, and has the fundamental laws of art alone for its guide." 

At the Pereire sale in Paris, 1872, "Charles V. in the Monastery of 
St. Just " sold for £ 1,600. At the Oppenheim sale, Paris, 1877, " The 
Sack of Rome " sold for 12,700 francs. 

Robert-Fleury, Tony. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Chevalier of the 
>n of Honor. Son of Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury. Pupil of 
Delaroche and Cogniet. Painter of historical subjects an<l portraits. 
In the Luxembourg are his " Les vieilles de la Plaee Navona, Rome" 
(1867), and "The Last Day of Corinth" (1870). In 1866 he exhib- 
ited " Varsovie, the v th of April, 1861," and received for it his first 
medal; in 1873, " The Danaides " ; in 1874, (f Charlotte Cm-day at 
Caen, 1703" ; in 1876, " Pinel, Chief Physician at the Salpetriere in 
1796" ; in 1877, two portraits. 

Roberts, David, EL A. (Brit.) Born in Edinburgh (1700-1864). 
He served an apprenticeship of seven years in his native city, as 



21 G ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

house-painter and decorator, and was engaged for some time as a 
scene-painter, with a company of strolling players. He received no 
regular instruction in art. He painted scenes for the theaters of 
Edinburgh and Glasgow, and for Drury Lane Theater in London in 
1822. He exhibited pictures in Scotland, and in several provincial 
cities of England, sending his first work to the Royal Academy, in 
1826, " A View of Rouen Cathedral." In 1838 he was elected an 
Associate of the Royal Academy, and Academician in 1841. He trav- 
eled extensively on the Continent and in the East, painting out of 
England some of his best-known works, " Jerusalem from the Mount 
of Olives," " The Church of the Holy Nativity, Bethlehem," " The 
Gateway of the Great Temple, Baalbec," etc. Later, he studied in 
Italy, and in his own country, exhibiting at the Royal Academy, in 
1860, "Venice, the Piazza of St. Mark's," " A Street in Antwerp," 
"The Interior of the Cathedral of Pisa," and " The Coliseum, Rome, 
— Evening" ; in 1861 he sent " Ruins of the Temple of the Sun at 
Baalbec" and " A Fete- Day at St. Peter's" ; in 1862, " A Chapel of 
the Cathedral of Notre Dame, Bruges," and a series of views on the 
river Thames, from Chelsea to Greenwich, which were continued the 
following year, and upon which he was at work at the time of his 
sudden death in 1864. His " Chancel of the Church of St. Paul, 
Antwerp" (1848) and "The Interior of Burgos Cathedral, North 
Transept" (1835, belongiug to the Vernon Collection) are in the Na- 
tional Gallery, London. His " Crypt, Roslin Castle," " The Gate of 
Cairo" (1843), and " Old Buildings on the Darro, Granada" are in 
the Cruikshank Collection. Many of his works have been engraved, 
and £ 16,000 was raised by the exhibition and sale of some of his 
sketches and paintings in 1865. He was an Honorary Member of 
the Royal Scottish Academy, and of several continental institutions 
of a similar kind. 

"From his early occupation as scene-painter, Roberts borrowed broad effects which 
saved him alike from trifling minuteness and servile imitation His work was uni- 
formly scenic, made up of buildings and street scenes, and, although lie knew how to 
vary and animate these by the introduction of numerous characteristic figures, they were 

apt to partake of the groupings of stage processions But he loved the buildings 

which he was content to paint, loved every vaulted arch and wreathed pillar, down to 
the individual stones of the pavement, and rendered them all with rare fidelity and 
grace." — Mrs. Tytler's Modern Painters and Paintings. 

"Among the members of the Academy we have at present only one professedly archi- 
tectural draughtsman of note, David Roberts, whose reputation is probably further ex- 
tended on the Continent than that of any other of our artists except Landseer. .... The 
fidelity of intention and honesty of system of Roberts have been, however, always meri- 
torious ; his drawing of architecture is dependent on no unintelligible lines, or blots, or 
substituted types ; the main lines of the real design are always there, and its hollowness 
and undercutting given with exquisite feeling. His sense of solidity of form is very 
peculiar, leading him to dwell with great delight on the roundings of edges and angles ; 
his execution is dexterous and delicate, singularly so, in oil ; and his sense of chiaro- 
scuro refined." — Ruskin's Modern Painters. 

Roberts, Edward J. (Brit.) (1797-1865.) An engraver. Pupil 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 217 

and for some years an assistant of Heath in London, doing much fine 
work in the illustrating of gift-books and elaborate editions of stand- 
ard authors. His etchings are still highly regarded by critics and 
connoisseurs. He executed bat few large plates. 

Roberts, Thomas. (Brit.) Born in 1820. Educated as an en- 
graver, he followed that branch of the profession for some time, de- 
voting himself to the brush when about twenty-five years of age. He 
was made a member of the Society of British Artists in 1855, and 
lias l^a-n it- secretary for upwards of twenty years. Among his later 
works are, " The Image of his Father," in 1877 ; and " The Missing 
Curl," in 1878. To the Philadelphia Exhibition, in 1876, he sent 
" The Night before Bosworth." 

Roberts, Howard. (Am.) Born in Philadelphia, 1843. He 
began his art studies under J. A. Bailly, in the Pennsylvania Academy 
of Fine Arts. At the age of twenty-three he went to Europe, enter- 
ing l'Ecole des Beaux- Arts in Paris, and spending some years in that 
city in study under Dumont and Gumery. Returning to America, he 
opened a studio in Philadelphia, and modeled his first important 
work, a statuette of " Hester and Pearl," from the " Scarlet Letter," 
exhibited at the Academy of Fine Arts, and attracting much atten- 
tion. This was followed by " Hypatia," " Lucille," and other ideal 
and portrait busts. He went again to Paris in 1873, remaining a year 
at work in that city, and modeling there " La Premiere Pose," which 
was at the Centennial Exhibition of 1876, receiving a medal. His 
latest work is a statuette of "Lot's Wife." On the strength of the 
" Hester and Pearl " he was elected a member of the Philadelphia 
Academy. 

*' ' Lot's Wife ' is a very singular creation, which could only have been imagined by 
the artist in a grotesque mood. It cannot he called beautiful, but it is most original in 
conception and execution ; and in spite of its grotesqueness, it is full of power and ini- 

pressiveness Roberts' busts are charming, those representing childhood and 

womanhood especially. His ideal busts are the inspirations of a most rare fancy, while 
his portraits have that inestimable quality in all portraits, of showing their subjects at 
their best, while losing none of their resemblance." — William J. Clarke, Jr., Great. 
American Sculptors. 

" Roberts is one of the most careful and conscientious of young American sculptors, 
and one of the best trained. All his works show very careful study and real knowledge, 
gained by patient endeavor. His « La Premiere Pose ' was one of the three works of 
American sculptors to which medals were awarded at the Centennial Exhibition of 1876." 
— Art Journal, April, 1^77. 

Robie, Jean-Baptiste. (Belgian.") Born at Brussels, 1821. He 
has received medals at Paris and The Hague, and is Chevalier of the. 
Order of Leopold. His fine pictures of flowers and fruits are well 
known in Europe and America. At the Johnston sale, New York, 
1876, "The Massacre of the Innocents'' (18 by 24) sold for $550. 
His " Flowers and Objects of Art " is in the collection of Mr. T. R. 
Butler of Xew York. 

Robinson, John Henry, R. A. (Brit.) (1796 - 1871.) Went to 

VOL. II. 10 



218 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

London in his youth, and was articled to James Heath. One of the 
first of his engravings which attracted attention was " The Wolf and 
the Lamb," after Mulready. Among other plates are, " Napoleon and 
Pius VII." (after Wilkie), " Little Red Riding-Hood " (after Land- 
seer), portrait of Sir Walter Scott (after Lawrence), Vandyck's por- 
trait of Rubens, Murillo's " Spanish Flower- Girl," Leslie's " Mother 
and Child," and many more. He was elected Associate Engraver of 
the Royal Academy in 1856, and Academician in 1867. 

Robinson, Thomas. (Am.) Born in Nova Scotia, 1835. He 
studied in Paris under Courbet, and received also instructions from 
August Bonheur, although he was not a regular pupil of the latter 
artist. He has lived and painted in Providence, R. I., in Boston, and 
in France. A number of his works were sold in Boston in the spring 
of 1878. He sent to the Centennial Exhibition of 1876, "A Bull's 
Head " (belonging to Dr. Angell of Boston), " Dog's Head," " Sheep in 
Pasture," and " A New England Farmer " (belonging to John Foster 
of Boston). He painted a portrait group of five dogs (belonging to 
William Sprague), and his pictures are owned by Amasa Sprague, 
Mrs. Charles Ames, and others. His " Sprague's String Team," painted 
for Amasa Sprague, attracted much attention. One of his earlier 
works, a fruit-piece, is in the possession of Thomas J. Flagg of New 
York. 

Rodakowski, Henri. (Ger.) Born at Leopol, 1823. Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Cogniet. Among his works are 
many portraits, and some historical subjects, such as " Sigismond I. 
of Poland, conquered by the Seditions of the Nobles and the Intrigues 
of Queen Bona Sforza, making Proclamation, etc.," " The Battle of 
Choczim," " Peasants of Gallicia at Church," etc. 

Rogers, Randolph. (Am.) Born in the State of New York, about 
1825. Brought up to mercantile pursuits, but turned his attention to 
sculpture at an early age, going to Italy for the purpose of study, and 
remaining for some time in Rome. Returning to America, he opened 
a studio in New York. Among his earlier works are, " Nydia," " Boy 
and Dog," and statue of John Adams at Mount Auburn, Mass. In 
1858 he designed the doors of the Capitol at Washington, representing 
the chief events in the career of Columbus, which were cast in bronze 
at Munich. He finished the Washington Monument at Richmond, 
Va., which was left uncompleted by Crawford at his death, adding the 
statues of Mason, Marshall, and Nelson, and many of the allegorical 
figures for which Crawford made no designs. Since the Civil War 
he has executed the Memorial Monument erected at Providence, R. I., 
in 1871, and that in Detroit, Mich., unveiled in 1873. His statue of 
Lincoln, in Philadelphia, was completed in 1871 ; that of Seward, in 
New York, in 1876. His "Angel of the Resurrection," on the monu- 
ment of Colonel Colt in Hartford, Cfr., is one of the most satisfactory 
of Lis works. Among his ideal heads those of " Isaac " and " Ruth " 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 219 



have been greatly admired. To the Centennial Exhibition of 1876 
he sent M Atala," u Ruth," and " Nydia, the Blind Girl of Pompeii " 
(the last two belonging to James Douglas). His colossal figure of the 
"Onius of Connecticut " was placed on the new Capitol at Hartford 
in 1S77. His studio is still in Rome ; his professional commissions 
bring him occasionally to his native country. 

" Rogers was commissioned to create doors for the Capitol at Washington. In the 
light of symbolic portals to a Temple of Freedom, the idea partakes of the sublime ; 
but the American is too impatient for original inspiration, and has no adequate concep- 
tion of his opportunity for noble work. Borrowing his general ideas from Ghiberti, he 
hurriedly elaborates a prosaic historical composition of the ' Discovery of America by 
Columbus,' clever and interesting as illustration, but far beneath the requirements of 
creative art or the dignity of the occasion." —Jarvks, Art Idea. 

" The statue representing ' Michigan ' is a warlike figure, moving forward, with shield 
aloft, and sword drawn back for the thrust- In the girdle which binds the coat of mail 
apj>ears the Indian tomahawk, and in the hair the Indian ornaments of shells and 
feathers, indicating the youth of the State, whose lands within the memory of living 
men were the home of the savage. There is nothing else, however, savage in the repre- 
sentation, which is full of grace and life." — Tixkermax's Book of tlie Artists. 

"The Seward statue [Madison Scpiare, New York], although open to criticism in a 
few details, is, as a whole, an excellent piece of work, worthy of its conspicuous position 
in one of the great centers of the metropolis." — Art Journal, September, 1S77- 

Rogers, John, N. A. (Am.) Born at Salem, Mass. As a young 
man he studied civil engineering, but was compelled to abandon that 
profession on account of the weakness of his eyes. He entered a 
machine-shop in Manchester, N. H., where he remained for eight 
years, modeling in clay during his leisure moments. He visited 
Europe in 1858, but soon returned to America, and in 1859 executed 
the first of his small plaster groups, called "The Slave Auction." 
Quickly following this were "The Picket-Guard," "Taking the 
Oath,"' "The Wounded Scout," "One More Shot," and other war 
subjects, which met with a degree of popular success never equaled 
in its way in America, He was elected a full member of the National 
Academy in 1863. In 1869 he sent to the National Academy, " The 
Fugitive's Story"; in 1870, "The Foundling"; in 1874, "Hide and 
Seek"; in 1877, "The Mock Trial " and "School Days." To the 
Paris Exposition of 1867 he sent, in bronze, " One More Shot," 
" Taking the Oath," and " The Wounded Scout," and twenty-nine 
groups to the American Centennial Exhibition of 1876, for which 
he was commended by the judges "for excellence in the fine art of 
sculpture." 

" We now come to a high order of ability ; indeed, we may call it genius, in its pe- 
culiar province, as original jus it is varied and graphic, pure in sentiment, clever in exe- 
cution, and thoroughly American, in the best sense of the word, in everything 

We know of no sculptor like John Rogers of New York in the Old World, and lie 
stands alone in his chosen field, heretofore in all ages appropriated by painting ; a genu- 
ine production of onr soil, enlivening the fancy, enkindling patriotism, and wanning 
the affections by his lovely, well-balanced groups in plaster and bronze Although dis- 
criminative, they jMjssess real elements of greatness. In their execution there is no 



220 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

littleness, artifice, or affectation. The handling is masterly, betraying a knowledge of 
design and anatomy not common, and a thoroughness of work refreshing to note. " — 
Jarves, Art Idea. 

Rogers, Frank "Whiting. (Am.) Born at Cambridge, Mass., 1854. 
He became a pupil of J. Foxcroft Cole in 1873, and, later, was in the 
studio of Thomas Robinson of Boston. His specialty is animal-paint- 
ing. Among the better known of his pictures are, " The Two Friends " 
(belonging to William F. Morgan of New York), " Resignation " and 
" Steady ! " (belonging to Thomas Wigglesworth of Boston), " Mis- 
chief" (belonging to S. L. Brackett, Boston), and "Loo," a portrait 
of a dog, in possession of Charles Turner of St. Louis. He exhibits 
in Boston and New York. 

" Mr. Rogers has had from the first a good measure of success with his paintings of 
dogs. He seems to have talent in plenty for this work, and to make the best use of it. 
His painting of a setter which was hung at the last Art Club Exhibition was much ad- 
mired and judiciously praised, for it appeared to be somewhat of a surprise to the 

public from so young an artist There are not many dog-painters in this country, 

and there are none known to us in Boston, who devote themselves as Mr. Rogers does 
to this subject. He attempts a great deal, and succeeds better than any one would 
reasonably expect of him. " — Boston Advertiser. 

Rolfe, H. L. (Brit.) A well-known fish-painter, of the English 
school, exhibiting frequently for many years, in London and the Prov- 
inces, works in his peculiar line, which are very popular. He sent to 
the gallery of the Society of British Artists in 1877, " On a Visit to 
the Upper Proprietors"; in 1878, "The Last Struggle." 

" 'Perch, Roach, and Dace ' [by H. L. Rolfe, R. A., 1S73J exhibits really the perfec- 
tion of fish-painting. Indeed, this artist paints river fish as they never before appeared 
on canvas, — an enviable immortality, which must certainly reconcile them to the 
hook !" — Art Journal, June, 1S73. 

Roll, Alfred-Philippe. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Medals in 1875 and 
'77. Pupil of Gerome and Bonnat. At the Salon of 1877 he ex- 
hibited " The Inundation in the Suburbs of Toulouse in June, 1875 "; 
in 1876, "The Huntress" and a portrait ; in 1875, " Halte-la ! " ; in 
1873, "A Bacchante"; in 1872, " A Wounded Fugitive"; in 1870, 
" The Environs of Baccarat " and " Evening." 

" His inundated ones are not models. They do not pose themselves, nor regard they 
the public. They live, each one his own life, all brought into the powerful unity of 
action. The groups are well arranged, the faces varied ; all are understood. The action 
is just ; the nude is well treated, well modeled ; and the anatomy observed. That of the 
boy who holds his mother, half fallen over, by the middle of the body, is a bit of master- 
work. The water is muddy, — it surges. The values are exact, the color vigorous, 
the perspective vast. Roll, in fine, copies not nature photographically, in the fashion 
of the skillful ones of to-day, corrupting the public, and corrupted by it. He interprets 
nature, and grandly, because his art is grand. The place we gave him a year ago among 
the debutants he has kept. It is the first. " — Mario Pkoth, Voyage au Pays des Peintres, 
1877. 

Romanelli, P. (Ital.) Professor at Florence. Pupil of Bartolini. 
Among his principal works are, " Monumental Statue of Count Fos- 
sombroni," " A Boy Bacchus treading the Grapes," " The Betrayed," 
" William Tell's Son " (executed in marble for Mr. Vanderbilt of New 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 221 

York), a fine portrait bust of Bartolini, "The Genius of Italy," "The 
Nymph of the Amo," etc. To the Paris Exposition of 1878 he con- 
tributed a statue in marble, " The Rose of Sharon." 

Romberg, Arthur Georg. (Ger.) Born at Vienna (1819- 1875). 
Professor of Painting at Munich. Member of the Academy of Berlin. 
Studied at the Academy of Dresden and under Hiibner. Went to 
Munich in 1860, where he soon became distinguished as a genre 
painter. His drawing is correct, and his personages all have marked 
characteristics. Pie usually combines some mirth with his represen- 
tations. Among his pictures are, " Peasant-Women of Dachau on 
Sunday," "The Bouquet," "The Walk with the Hofmeister," 
" Hiding," and "After the Masked Ball." In 1860 he went to Wei- 
mar, and there executed his " History of Civilization " for the Maxi- 
milaneum at Munich. His designs for the Schiller and Goethe Galleries 
added to his fame. In connection with Pauwels he executed frescos 
at the Wartburg in the part where Luther had lived. In 1865 he 
removed to Munich, where, in 1870, he exhibited " Frederick II. hold- 
ing Court in Palermo." 

Ronner, Mme. Henriette. (Dutch.) Born at Amsterdam. 
Member of the Academy of Rotterdam. She has resided more than 
twenty years in Brussels, and has gained many medals in her own 
country and in others. She paints principally subjects in which 
domestic animals are introduced. At the Glasgow Fine Art Loan 
Exhibition in 1878 was her " Boy and Dog," loaned by J. Stevenson. 
" Exterior of a house. The door is open, but guarded by a big, surly 
red and white dog. A boy in a blue overall, and with a basket on 
his arm, hesitates to enter from fear of the dog." 

Ronot, Charles. (Fr.) Born at Belan-sur-Ource. Pupil of A. 
Glaize. Medals in 1876 and '78, when he exhibited "The Charities 
of St. Elizabeth of Hungary " ; in 1877, " The Anger of the Pharisees "; 
in 1876, "The Workmen of the Last Hour." 

Roqueplan, Joseph-Etienne-Camille. (Fr) Born at Malemort 
(l^n2- 1855). Officer of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Gros and 
of Abel de Pujol. This artist belonged to the romantic school. His 
pictures are landscapes and genre subjects. He also painted battle-' 
pieces for the Gallery at Versailles, and decorated several ceilings for 
the palace of the Luxembourg. 

Rosales, Edouard. (Span.) Died at Rome, 1873. Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. Corresponding Member of the Institute. Di- 
rector of the Spanish Academic des Beaux-Arts. The picture of 
" Isabella the Catholic dictating her Will " was the most important 
Spanish picture at the Paris Exposition of 1867. After the death of 
Rosales, " The Death of Lucretia," another grand work, was exhibited 
in Paris. Larousse says of this : — 

" In a subject so often repeated, ami which may 1* well made emphatic and melodra- 
matic, the BfMBiali artist has understood how to be original and simple, to unit* the 



222 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

nobility and pathos of tragedy with the gravity of history ; his figures have an antique 
character inspired by study of celebrated masters, and the costumes are arranged with 
science and taste. A rich and vigorous color adds to the merits of this work ; the light, 
largely concentrated on one arm of Lucretia, and on the face of the old Lucretius, has 
great brilliancy, and makes a somewhat violent contrast with the shadows in the 
work." 

Rosen, George, Count von. (Swede.) Professor of the Royal 
Academy of Stockholm. At Philadelphia he exhibited " A Portrait " 
and received a medal. To the Paris Exposition of 1878 he contrib- 
uted " The Flower- Market " and a portrait of a painter. 

Rosenthal, Toby E. (Am.) Born in Hessen, Germany, and 
taken to America as an infant. He began the study of art in the 
public schools of San Francisco, taking lessons there also from a Span- 
ish painter, under whom he made rapid progress. At the age of seven- 
teen he went to Munich, and entered the Royal Academy, remaining 
two years in that institution, and spending three years longer in Mu- 
nich as a private pupil of Professor Raupp. Again entering the Acad- 
emy, he remained about seven years under Piloty, painting, during that 
time, " Morning Prayers in the Family of Bach " (purchased by the city 
of Leipsic, and now in the museum there). Among his works may be 
mentioned, " Elaine " (at the Philadelphia Exhibition in 1876), " Love's 
Last Offering," and a study of the head of Mrs. Greatorex, painted 
in Munich in 1871, and exhibited at the National Academy in New 
York in 1875. Very few of his works have been exhibited in America. 

"Toby Rosenthal's ' Elaine ' in illustration of Tennyson's lines, ' And the dead, steered 
by the dumb, went upward with the flood,' attracted great attention in Boston when it 
was recently exhibited there. The critics all concede that the picture is well painted, 
and embodies great dramatic force, but the wisdom of choosing so sad a subject is 
doubtful." — Art Journal, April, 1875. 

" Mr. Rosenthal's picture of the ' Young Monk ' in the refectory of a convent was one 
of the most poetic in sentiment to be found in the whole Exhibition. It is pure and deli- 
cate in feeling, and skillfully painted. " — Prof. Weir's Official Report of the American 
Centennial Exhibition o/1876. 

Rosier, Amede'e. (Fr.) Born at Meaux. Medal at Paris in 

1876, and at Philadelphia the same year. Pupil of Cogniet and Du- 
rand-Brager. At Philadelphia he exhibited " Evening in the Harbor 
of Venice " and " Morning on the Lagoons of Venice " ; at Paris, in 

1877, " On the Lagoons of Venice, — Setting Sun " and " The Canal 
of St. Mark's, Venice." " A Landscape " by this artist is in the collec- 
tion of Mrs. H. E. Maynard of Boston. To the Salon of 1878 he sent 
two Venetian views. 

Ross, Sir William, R. A. (Brit.) (1794-1860.) Displayed re- 
markable talents as a child, painting portraits before he reached his 
teens, and winning many valuable medals and prizes for his work in 
London and the Provinces, while still a lad. He entered the Royal 
Academy in 1805, when only ten years of age, exhibiting regularly at its 
gallery after that period for many years. He was elected an Associate 
of the Royal Academy in 1838, and Academician in 1839. He executed 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 223 

several important figure-pieces of a scriptural and historical charac- 
ter, but his specialty was portraiture in miniature, in which branch of 
art he was wonderfully successful, no artist of the English school of 
any century ranking higher. He numbered among his sitters the 
Queen and Prince Consort of England, with many members of Eng- 
lish royal and aristocratic families, Louis Philippe, Louis Napoleon, 
Leopold of Belgium and his family, etc. He was knighted by Queen 
Victoria in 1839. 

Ross, Robert Thorburn. (Brit.) Born in Edinburgh, 1816. 
Student of the Trustees Academy for three years, when he opened a 
studio in Glasgow, painting portraits for some time. In 1842 he went 
to Bewick, remaining for ten years, and for the first time turning his 
attention to ideal subjects, contributing to the Royal Scottish Acad- 
emy, in 1845, " The Spinning-Wheel." In 1852, when he was elected 
an Associate of that Academy, he removed to Edinburgh. He was 
made an Academician in 1869. Among his works, many of which 
have been engraved, are, " The Dead Robin," " The Mote in the Eye," 
" Hide and Seek," " The Thorn in the Foot," " The Dancing-Lesson," 
■ The Broken Pitcher," " Leaving Home," " Highland Pets," " Asleep," 
and " The Highland Shepherd's Fireside." 

" This artist [Ross] has evidently studied Scottish life in the cottage, on the sea-coast, 
and by the river-side. His pictures are all of this class of subject, which he renders 
with fidelity, and under most attractive aspects. He is an excellent colorist, and shows 
true feeling for the picturesque, both in his figures and their surroundings, whether in 
or out of doors." — Art Journal, 1871. 

Ross, Alfred. (Fr.) Born at Tillieres-sur-Arve. Pupil of Jouf- 
froy. Exhibited at Philadelphia a statue (in bronze) of " A Bohemian 
at the Spring," and received a medal. 

Rosseels, Jacques. (Belgian.) Of Antwerp. Medal at Philadel- 
phia, where he exhibited " A Mill on the Scheldt." 

Rossetti, Dante Gabriel. (Brit.) Born in 1828. Educated at 
King's College, London, contributing illustrations as a young man for 
a fine edition of Tennyson's poems. His " Girlhood of the Virgin," 
exhibited in London in 1849, first attracted attention to him as an 
artist in colors ; it appeared simultaneously with Millais' "Isabella" 
and Holman Hunt's " Rienzi," and introduced with them what is 
known a<? the pre-Raphaelite school to England. To the Liverpool 
Academy, in 1856, he sent three pictures in water-color, " The Wed- 
ding of St. George," " Dante's Dream on the Death of Beatrice," and 
• A Christmas Carol." To the Royal Scottish Academy, in 1860, he 
contributed " Fair Rosamond." Of late years his pictures have not 
been shown to the public. He is better known as a writer than as an 
artist. Hia '• Early Italian Poets," translations from Dante and others, 
was published in London in 1861 ; a revised edition, called " Dante 
and his Circle," appearing in 1874. He also gave to the world a vol- 
ume of original u Poems" in 1870. 



224 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

"As a figure-painter his drawings, such as I have seen, are far above the strictly real- 
istic work produced by acolytes of his order .... Rossetti, a man of genius, has lighted 
his canvas and his pages with a quality that is ennobling." — Stedman s Victorian 
Poets. 

" D. G. Rossetti was the founder and for some years the vital force of the pre-Raphael- 
ite school. He was the first assertor in painting, as I believe I was myself in art liter- 
ature (Goldsmith and Moliere having given the first general statements of it), of the great 
distinctive principle of that school that things should be painted as they probably did 
look and happen, and not as by rules of art developed under Raphael, Correggio, and Mi- 
chael Angelo they might be supposed gracefully, deliciously, or sublimely to have hap- 
pened."— Ruskin's Notes of the Academy, 1875. 

" There are few more intense and perfect poems in the English tongue than the ' Blessed 
Damozel,' by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and there must be thousands of persons who feel 
something more than mere curiosity to see the picture, founded on the poem and bear- 
ing its name, painted by the poet himself for Mr. William Graham. An opportunity to 
do so is not, however, likely to occur, at least for some years ; and all but a favored few 
must be content to know it by inadequate verbal description. The damozel is leaning 
' from the gold bar of heaven,' surrounded by groups of happy reunited lovers. Below is a 
predella just added by the artist ; the bereaved lover stands amid the fall of leaves with 
his eyes fixed on heaven. The cerulean, rose, and delicate green tints of the upper can- 
vas are brought out into beautiful contrast by the autumnal tints and the black grays 
of the predella. Mr. Rossetti has more than one new work in hand." — Magazine of Art, 
June, 1878. 

Rossiter, Thomas P., N. A. (Am.) Born at New Haven, Ct. 
(1818 - 1871). He studied in his native city, and in 1838 began the 
practice of his profession there as a portrait-painter. In 1840 he vis- 
ited Europe, studying in London for six months, and in Paris for a 
year. In 1841 he settled in Home, remaining five years, spending his 
summers in sketching-tours in Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. In 
1846 he opened a studio in New York, painting an occasional portrait, 
but devoting himself chiefly to the illustration of scriptural and his- 
torical subjects. In 1853 he returned to Europe, remaining in Paris 
until 1856. Spending a few years in New York, he removed in 1860 
to Cold Spring, on the Hudson. He was elected an Associate of the 
National Academy in 1840, and Academician in 1849. Among his 
works, some of which have been engraved, are, " The Last Hours of 
Tasso," " Puritans reading the Bible," " Miriam," " The Ascension," 
" Return of the Dove to the Ark," " The Wise and Foolish Virgins," 
"Noah," "Italy in the Olden Times," "Home of Washington," 
" Washington in his Library," " Washington's First Cabinet," " Prince 
of Wales at the Tomb of Washington," " Palmy Days at Mount Ver- 
non," " Representative Merchants," etc. 

Rossiter, Charles. (Brit.) Born in 1827. A pupil of Mr. Leigh's 
school, in Newman street, London, he did not turn his attention to 
art as a profession until about 1850, making his specialty small genre 
pictures. For a quarter of a century he has exhibited at the Royal 
Academy and the Gallery of the Society of British Artists. Among 
his earlier works, which were very popular with all classes of people, 
were, " The Song of the Shirt," " The Protector," " Puritan Purifiers," 
" The Return of Olivia," etc. He sent to the RoyaT Academy, in 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 225 

1866, " The First Lesson" ; in 1867, "The Little Singer " ; in 1868, 
" II Penseroso " ; in 1870, "A Gleam of Hope " ; in 1871, " Memories 
of the Past " ; in 1872, " The Necklace " ; in 1875, " Rival Anglers" ; 
and in 1877, " Rough Weather." 

Rossiter, Mrs. Charles, wife of the foregoing, exhibited for some 
years attractive pictures of birds at the Royal Academy, but her name 
has not been seen in its catalogues since 1873. 

Roth, Christian. (Ger.) Professor at Munich. This sculptor has 
studied anatomy with great thoroughness, and he has done much to 
enable the students of sculpture about him to pursue this necessary 
branch. Among his works are a fountain at Munich representing a 
M Faun with the Mask of Jupiter." His " Kampf um.das Friihstuck" 
(now belonging to Duke Charles Theodore of Bavaria) gained a prize. 
It represents a boy and goose struggling over a piece of bread. Roth's 
best works are those above the genre subjects. His perfect knowledge 
of the human form should be employed in monumental sculpture. 
His " Waclit am Rhein " is a work of strength, but not of high art. 
His colossal bust of the late Prince Charles of Bavaria, for the park 
of the castle of Tergernsee, is without doubt his master- work in por- 
traiture, and perhaps the verdict of years will make his portrait busts 
his chefs-d'oeuvre. 

Rothermel, Peter F. (Am.) Born in the State of Pennsylvania 
in 1817. He was brought up as a surveyor, and did not devote him- 
self to the study of art until he was twenty-one years of age. In 1840 
he began the active practice of his profession by the painting of por- 
traits. In 1856 he went to Europe, spending some time in the art 
centers of the Continent, painting his first historical picture, and 
later making that class of subjects a specialty. Among the better 
known of his works are " St. Agnes " (painted in 1858, and now in 
Russia), " The Foscari," " Patrick Henry before the Virginia House 
of Burgesses," "Cromwell breaking up the Service in an English 
Church," " Columbus before Isabella," " De Soto discovering the 
Mississippi," « St. Paul on Mars Hill," " The Battle of Gettysburg " 
(in the Capitol at Harrisburg, Pa.), " Christian Martyrs in the Coliseum," 
and others, many of which have been engraved. To the Centennial 
Exhibition at Philadelphia, in 1876, he sent "The Battle of Gettys- 
burg," "Amy Robsart interceding for Leicester," "The Trial of Sir 
Henry Vane " (belonging to J. L. Claghorn), " Macbeth meditating the 
Murder of Duncan " (belonging to Thomas Dolan), " Hypatia stripped 
and torn to Pieces by the Christian Mob of Alexandria," "The 
Landsknecht " (belonging to Matthew Baird), and "The Christian 
Martyrs." He was " commended for excellence in historical painting." 

" With unequal power, but frequent fidelity to the conventional requirements of his 
historical painting, Rothermel's career, in view of the department he illustrates, has 
been remarkably prosperous. The pictures he has exhibited abroad have gained him 
honorable mention, though confessedly unfinished." — Tuckerman's Book of the ArttiU. 

io* o 



226 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Rousseau, Philippe. (Fr.) Born at Paris about 1808. Officer 
of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Gros and Victor Bertin. At first 
KoLisseau painted landscapes, and made his debut in 1831. Since his 
earlier works he has painted numerous subjects which may be termed 
animal genre. They are very much admired. "The Importunate" 
(1850), "Storks taking a Siesta," and "A Kid feeding on Flowers" 
(1855) are in the Luxembourg. In 1866, "The Monkey Photograph " 
and " Flowers," remarkable works, were purchased by the Princess 
Mathilde. In 1877 he exhibited " The Breakfast " and " O ma tendre 
musette!"; in 1876, "Oysters" and "Poppies"; in 1875, "The 
Wolf and the Lamb" and "Cheeses "; in 1874, "La Fete-Dieu" and 
"The Salad"; in 1872, "The Sweetmeats" and "Springtime"; in 
1870, " The Flowery Fountain" and " The First Plums and the Last 
Cherries," etc. 

"M. Philippe Rousseau is not only a man of genius, he is also, unfortunately, a 
seeker of genius. Curiosity and surprise make a portion of the interest which his 
works inspire. One sometimes studies them as the subscribers to ' L 'Illustration * 
meditate upon the rebus. Animals are wise little personages to Rousseau ; each of his 

frames resembles an outlandish theater in which the beasts play a comedy I 

recognize with the public the originality and the attraction of his works, but I am not 
able to approve of all the talent which he expends in order to lower painting to the level 
of the vignette. " — Edmond About, Nos Artistes au Salon de 1857. 

Rousseau, Theodore. (Fr.) Born at Paris (1812 - 1867). 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Guillon-Lethiere. A 
landscape-painter. Made his debut in 1834. In 1867 he exhibited 
" A View of Mont Blanc " and " The Interior of a Forest " ; in 1866, 
" Sunset, Forest of Fontainebleau," and " Boundaries of the Forest of 
Fontainebleau at Barbison"; in 1864, "A Village, — Cottages under 
the Trees" ; in 1863, "A Pool beneath some Oaks" ; etc. At the 
Hotel Pereire in Paris there is an exquisite landscape by Theodore 
Kousseau which was purchased at the Demidoff sale for 3,250 francs. 
At the Strousberg sale, Paris, 1874, " A Fisherman " sold for £ 832. 
At the Laurent- Richard sale, Paris, 1873, " Watercourse at Sologne " 
sold for £ 1,600 ; " Hoar-Frost," £ 2,404. 

" This artist, in truth, has varied prodigiously, and his work sometimes shows us 
vivid impressions expressed with rare happiness, but the execution will not bear the at- 
tentive examination of amateurs who seek to analyze it and judge it in detail ; at other 
times he executes pictures treated with scrupulous care, but which have not as a whole 
the charm and the unaffected simplicity which artists admire in the first." — Rene Me- 
nard, Gazette des Beaux- Arts, March, 1873. 

" Theodore Rousseau has been for twenty-five years the first apostle of truth in land- 
scape. He made a breach in the wall of the historic school, which had lost the habit of 
regarding nature, and servilely copied the bad copyists of Poussin. This audacious inno- 
vator opened an enormous door by which many others have followed him. He emanci- 
pated the landscape-painters as Moses formerly liberated the Hebrews, ' in exitu Israel 
de iEgypto. ' He led them into a land of promise, where the trees had leaves, where 
the rivers were liquid, where the men and the animals were not of wood. On the return 
of this truant school the young landscapists forced the entrance of the Salon, and it was 
still Th6odore Rousseau who broke down the door. In that time Rousseau occupied 
the first rank in landscape, above all as a colorist ; but neither the Institute nor the 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 227 

public wished to confess it. His incontestable talent was contested by all the world. 
It is only to-day that his reputation is made. He can become remiss with impunity 
without its being seen, etc." — BDMOND About, Nos Artistes au Salon de 1S57. 

Rowbotham, Thomas L. (Brit) (1823-1875.) Active mem- 
ber of the Institute of Painters in Water-Colors, painting landscapes 
-with skill and taste. His works were pleasing and popular ; among 
them may be mentioned, " The Sacred City of Benares on the Gan- 
ges," "Mill in Surrey," i4 On the Thames, — Evening," "A Winter 
Sunset," "The Imperieuse, — Breaking up at Woolwich in 1867," 
" Castellamare, Bay (if Naples," and " Sisteron, South of France." 

Rowse, Samuel W. (Am.) A native of the State of Maine. 
Recently this artist has spent some time in New York, but the 
greater part of his professional life has been passed in Boston. He 
devotes himself particularly to drawing in black and white. His 
work is seldom publicly exhibited, although he has been for some 
yean one of the most successful of American artists. Photographs 
of his lighter works, chiefly ideal pictures of children in crayon, 
have been very common throughout the United States. While 
in the sun copies justice has not been done to the originals, each 
one, no matter how slight and sketchy, has something of the peculiar 
charm of manner which in his drawing of children is irresistible. One 
well-known connoisseur writes : — 

"The apparent simplicity and real subtlety of Rowse's portraits of children is beyond 
analysis. They constantly remind one of Sir Joshua ; but Sir Joshua in only a few in- 
stances attained such completeness, such unity in purpose and in execution, as is shown 
by Rnwse. Herein his work possesses a quality seldom reached in modern art, — that 
of harmony. Whatever he undertakes, the result is a picture. It is not an effort, a frag- 
ment, not the exhibition of some school or method ; it is a whole, and it is beautiful." 

While Mr. Rowse has had few pupils, in the ordinary sense of the 
term, he has had many followers, disciples, and imitators, and has 
had a decided and beneficial influence upon his peculiar branch of 
art. Among the many illustrious men whose portraits he has drawn 
in crayon, have been James Russell Lowell, R. W. Emerson (belong- 
ing to Charles E. Norton), and Hawthorne (the property of James 
T. Fields). Recently he has given more attention to painting in oil, 
and devoted the year 1877 (in New York) to the producing of por- 
traits in that medium. His " Head of a Child " (belonging to Morris 
K. Jessup) was at the Loan Exhibition of the Society of Decorative 
Art at the National Academy in 1877. 

" Rowse is one of the most delicate and true crayon limners in this country ; some of 
his heads are unsurpassed for line feeling and exquisite drawing." — Tuckerman's Book 
of the Artists. 

" ' Even in England,' writes Mrs. Elizabeth Murray to a London art journal, 'there are 
none to compare with Rowse in crayon portraits, for refinement and beauty in idealiz- 
ing a portrait, while the likeness is wonderful in its identity.' " — Boston Advertiser, May 

Rubio, Louis. (Ital.) Born at Rome in 1797. After studying 
in Italy he passed some time at Palis under Cogniet. He finally set- 



228 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

tied in Geneva. He gained several medals at Paris and Rome, and 
was made member of the Academy of St. Luke. His works are seen 
occasionally in public galleries. 

Rudder, Louis-Henri de. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1807. Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Gros and Charlet. Many of his 
pictures are of historical and religious subjects. At the Luxembourg 
is " Nicolas Flamel, an Alchemist of the Fifteenth Century." Rud- 
der painted considerably in water-colors. At the Salon of 1878 he 
exhibited "Ecce Homo" and a "View on the Banks of the Douet at 
Benzeval (Calvados)." 

Rus kin, John. (Brit.) Born in London, 1819. He graduated at 
the University of Oxford, and gained the Newdigate Prize for Poetry 
in 1839. Later, he studied art under Fielding and J. D. Harding, 
attaining no ordinary proficiency as a draughtsman, but never becoming 
a professional artist. Ruskin is known, however, throughout the 
English-speaking world as an art critic, and a brilliant and prolific, as 
well as original, writer upon art subjects. Not always temperate in 
his strictures upon existing art and contemporary artists, he has fre- 
quently been the subject of severe criticism from rival critics ; but, 
unquestionably, no work of its kind has been more widely read than 
Ruskin's " Modern Painters," and to no single work and to no single 
author does the world of art owe so much. An ardent and enthu- 
siastic admirer of Turner, Ruskin's first literary effort was a small 
pamphlet, the avowed object of which was the defence of that artist. 
It was subsequently enlarged, and was published in 1843 as the first 
volume of " Modern Painters: by a Graduate of Oxford." It attracted 
much attention in England. The second volume, to which the au- 
thor's name was not attached, appeared in 1846; the third volume 
was not published until some ten years later; the fourth, and perhaps 
the ablest, followed more quickly; and the fifth and last was given to 
the public in 1860. During the irregular and desultory appearance 
of this work Mr. Ruskin's pen was by no means idle. He published 
" The Seven Lamps of Architecture," in 1849 ; the first volume of 
"The Stones of Venice," in 1851; "Lectures on Architecture and 
Painting," in 1854; " Giotto and his Works in Padua," in 1855; " Notes 
on the Turner Collection," in 1859; etc. Besides these, he is the au- 
thor of many other volumes, and has written interesting and valuable 
" Notes on the Pictures of the Royal Academy," for several seasons 
(the last in 1875), and has contributed articles to the London 
Times, Art Journal, Quarterly Review, Cornhill Magazine, and 
other periodicals. In 1867 Mr. Ruskin was appointed Rede Lec- 
turer at Cambridge, and in 1869, Slade Professor of Fine Arts at 
Oxford. In 1871 he endowed the Taylor Gallery at Oxford with 
£ 5,000 for the maintenance of a Master of Drawing, and he has 
generally spent the greater part of his private fortune in other 
schemes for art education and the public good. Mr. Ruskin has fur- 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 220 

nished illustrations for " The Stones of Venice," and for the later vol- 
umes of " Modern Painters." His original drawings are rarely seen 
by the public. In 1878, however, was exhibited in London one hun- 
dred and twenty-six drawings by Turner, together with nearly eighty 
sketches, drawing*, and photographs executed or collected by Raskin. 
Of these F. R. Condei wrote, in the October number of the Art 
Journal of that year, as follows : — 

"The collection under review gives a rare proof of the possession by Ruskin of an 
Indispensable qualification for the thorough judge of art, namely, the hand to create, as 
well as the eye to see. It may not be true that none but a painter can truly be a judge 
of painting. It may even be urged that a painter is not the most reliable judge or critic 
of the works of his brothers of the pencil. But we think that it must be admitted that 
none but an artist, in some field or branch of art can be a thorough judge of art in 
any of its branches. The education of the hand is needed in order to give a reflected 
power and accuracy to the education of the eye. There is an unfinished pencil sketch 
of an ' Outline from the Fresco of the Sacrifice of Job in the Campo Santo of Pisa,' 
from the hand of Mr. Ruskin, which might have been placed without discredit in the 
exquisite collection of drawings by old masters exhibited last autumn in the Grosvenor 
Gallery. In refined delicacy and graceful truth of touch, combined with depth and 
tender sense of feeling, it almost leads us to echo the half-suppressed sigh of the 
draughtsman, ' Had I been able to keep myself clear of literature ! ' Some of the archi- 
tectural sketches give a feeling of Gothic tracery akin to that which must have been 
possessed by the great artists of our cathedrals." 

If the world is not familiar with the work of Mr. Ruskin's pencil, 
the work of his pen has made him a power wherever art is known. 
Of his " Stones of Venice," Charlotte Bronte wrote to Mrs. Gaskell 
in 1851 : — 

" « The Stones of Venice ' seem nobly laid and chiseled. How grandly the quarry of 
vast marbles is disclosed ! Mr. Ruskin seems to me one of the few genuine writers, 
as distinguished from book-makers, of this age. His earnestness even amuses me in 
some passages, for I cannot help laughing to think how utilitarians will fume and fret 
over his deep, serious (and as they will think), fanatical reverence for art. That pure 
and severe mind you ascribe to him speaks in every line. He writes like a consecrated 
priest of the Abstract and Ideal." 

" This book [ ' Modern Painters'] contains more true philosophy, more information 
of a strictly scientific kind, more original thought and exact observation of nature, 
more enlightened and serious enthusiasm, and more eloquent writing than it would be 
easy to match, not merely in works of its own class, but in those of any class whatever. 
It gives us a new, and, we think, the only true theory of beauty and sublimity ; it as- 
serts and proves the existence of a new element in landscape-painting, placing its 
prince upon his rightful throne ; it unfolds and illustrates, with singular force, variety, 
and beauty, the laws of art ; it explains and enforces the true nature and specific func- 
tions of the imagination with the precision and fullness of one having authority, — and 
all this is delivered in language which, for purity and strength and native richness, would 
not have dishonored the early manhood of Jeremy Taylor, of Edmund Burke, or of the 
author's own favorite Richard Hooker." — Dr. John Brown, in Xorth British Review. 

" There is one man amon^ us who has done more to breathe the breath of life into the 
literature and the philosophy of art, who has encouraged it ten thousand times more 
effectually than all our industrious Coles and anxious Art Unions, and that is the 
author of ' Modern Painters.* I do not know that there is anything in our literature, or 
in any literature, to compare with the effect of this one man's writings. He has, by his 
sheer force of mind and fervor of nature, the depth and exactness of his knowledge, and 



230 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

the amazing beauty and power of language, raised the subject of art from being subordi- 
nate and technical, to the same level with poetry and philosophy. He has lived to see 
an entire change in the public mind and eye, and, what is better, in the public heart, 
on all that pertains to the literature and philosophy of representative genius. He com- 
bines its body and its souL Many before him wrote about its body, and some well ; a 
few, as Charles Lamb and our own ' Titmarsh,' touched its soul ; it was left to John 
Ruskin to do both." — Notes on Art in Horce Subsecivoz. 

"Unquestionably one of the most remarkable men of this or any age is Mr. 
Ruskin. He is, if you like, not seldom dogmatic, self-contradictory, conceited, arro- 
gant, absurd, but he is a great and wonderful writer, he has created a new literature, 
the literature of art." — Fraser's Magazine. 

" Yet in his book [ ' Modern Painters ' ] there was a bold originality, an uncom- 
promising independence, quite startling to the lovers of the old beaten track, the 
devotees to precedent. The daring champion of Turner, not content with asserting the 
painter's claims to universal admiration, announced, somewhat authoritatively, certain 
principles of art neither derived from Alison or the Royal Academy Indefati- 
gable in the pursuit of that branch of art, which in all his loving is the love, Mr. 
Ruskin has lately written a book for young persons, entitled ' The Elements of Drawing, 
in Three Letters to Beginners.' He always writes con amove, but never more so than 
in this valuable little treatise. Mr. Ruskin is not only a practical artist, but he lias also 
had much experience in teaching, being employed at present as head-teacher of a class 
in drawing in the Working-Men's College, 45 Great Ormond street, London." — Intro- 
duction to Mrs. Tuthill's Beauties of Ruskin, 1865. 

" A man has arisen among them [British artists] to justify and elevate their practice 
into theory, namely, John Ruskin, an admirer and friend of Turner ; an earnest, im- 
passioned, and original writer, perfectly competent, very studious, very popular, and 
possessing a thoroughly English intellect. Nothing is more precious than personal, in- 
dependent, and well-ordered impressions. Especially when, like his, they are boldly 
expressed, they lead us to reconsider our own. There is no one to whom Ruskin's 
works, such as ' Modern Painters ' and ' The Stones of Venice,' fail to suggest subjects 
for thought. His first principle is that the literal truth and the characteristic detail 
must be loved with enthusiasm." — Taine's Notes on England. 

Sain, Edouard- Alexandre. (Fr.) Born at Cluny. Medals at 
Paris in 1866 and '75, and at Philadelphia in 1876. Pupil of Picot. 
At Philadelphia was exhibited an " Italian Girl " by this painter 
(owned by Theodore Lyman of Boston), " A Family Scene in the 
Pyrenees " (medal), and " The Convalescent." At the Salon of 1877 
he exhibited " Andromeda" and a portrait of T. Lambrecht. At the 
Luxembourg is his " Excavations at Pompeii " (1866). 

Saint-Gaudens, Augustus. (Am.) Born in New York. He began 
his professional career as a cameo-cutter in his native city, and upon the 
proceeds of the sales of his work in that branch of art he went to Paris, 
where he spent some years modeling and drawing in the Academy, 
and the School of Medicine, gaining a medal in the latter institution. 
He also studied sculpture in Rome. Among his works are a statue 
of " Hiawatha " (belonging to E. D. Morgan of New York), a statue of 
Farragut for the city of New York (now in course of execution), and 
busts of President Woolsey of Yale, William M. Evarts, etc. He 
executed the bas-reliefs in St. Thomas Church, New York, and as- 
sisted La Farge in the decoration of Trinity Church, Boston. He is 
the Vice-President of the Society of American Artists. 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 231 

Saintin, Jules Emile. (Fr.) Born at Leme. Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor. Medals in 1866 and '70. Pupil of Drolling, Picot, 
and Leboucher. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited M The First En- 
gagement " and "Self-Satisfied"; in 1876, "The Last Ornament" 
and u The Thoughtless Soubrette." One of his pictures, called " The 
Tomb without Flowers," represents a young woman standing on the 
shore and gazing out at the sea. To the Salon of 1878 he sent 
" Jeanne " and " Will he return I " 

Saint-Jean, Simon. (Fr.) Born at Lyons (1812 - 1860). Cheva- 
lier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Francois Lepage. This painter 
was made famous by his pictures of flowers, fruits, birds, etc. He 
has sometimes painted in water-colors. At the Johnston sale, New 
York, 1876, " A Fruit-Piece " (19 by 26) sold for $ 1,350 ; and at the 
Latham sale, New York, 1878, " Fruit and Flowers " (32 by 24) sold 
for $1,4(X). At the Corcoran Gallery, Washington, is a picture of 
" Fruit " (1855). 

Salentin, Hubert. (Ger.) Born at Ziilpich, 1822. Medals at 
Vienna and Besancon. Commenced his studies late in life at the 
Academy of Diisseldorf. Genre painter. His scenery is well done 
and he has a pleasing manner. At the National Gallery at Berlin is 
his " Pilgrim at the Chapel." In Berlin, in 1876, he exhibited " The 
Praying Maiden," " Hol'iiber," and "The Return from the Wood." 
His " Foundling " belongs to Mr. S. D. Warren of Boston. 

Salmson, Hugo. (Swede.) Born at Stockholm. Pupil of the 
Academy of his native city, and of Comte of Paris, where, at the 
Salon of 1878, he received honorable mention. This artist paints 
genre subjects. At the Paris Salon of 1875 he exhibited " The Little 
Swedish Girl." The child, dressed in the peculiar costume and cap 
of her country, holds a pigeon in her arms, while the flock are on the 
ground beside her ; the background is good, and well expresses the 
character of Swedish scenery. In the Corcoran Gallery at Washing- 
ton is the "Fete of St. John in Dalecarlia." This picture was in 
the Salon of 1874, and selected by the Ministry of Beaux- Arts for 
purchase ; but as their appropriation was insufficient, it was secured 
for the Corcoran Gallery. 

Salter, William. (Brit.) Born in Devonshire (1804-1875). 
Went to London in 1822, studying under Northcote for five years. In 
1827 he went to Florence, where he painted his "Socrates before the 
Court of Areopagos," a picture that at once established his reputation 
as an artist, and led to his being elected a member of the Academy of 
Fine Arts, and Professor of the First Class of History in Florence. 
He went to Rome in 1832, studying there and in Parma, returning to 
London the next year. For over a quarter of a century he was a 
prominent member, and for some time Vice-President, of the Society 
of British Artists. Among his works (many of which have been en- 
graved) are, " The Annual Banquet given by the Duke of Welling- 



232 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

ton atApsley House to the Veterans of Waterloo"; " Jephthah'sRash 
Vow " ; " Interview of Charles I. with his Children in the Presence 
of Cromwell" (1863) ; "Queen Elizabeth reproving Dean Noel in 
the Vestry of St. Paul's " (1865) ; " Desdeniona and Othello before the 
Senate " (1869) ; " The Last Sacrament " (1874) ; " The Merchant of 
Venice " ; etc. 

"Salter's best works are his portraits, both male and female. These are numerous, 
and as a rule show brilliant and harmonious coloring. '' — Art Journal, March, 1876. 

Sand, Maurice, real name, Dudevant (Fr.) Born at Paris, about 
1825. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Son of Mine. Dudevant, 
(George Sand). This artist has also a name as a man of letters. His 
pictures are of such subjects as, " Muleteers," "A Market at Pompeii," 
*' Leander and Isabella," etc. 

Sanderson, Charles Wesley. (Am.) Born at Brandon, Vt., 1838. 
A music-teacher by profession, Mr. Sanderson has from boyhood prac- 
ticed and studied drawing and painting. His first teacher was James 
Hope, a Scotchman who settled in Vermont. Later, he studied oil- 
painting under S. L. Gerry. In Paris he practiced drawing from life 
in the atelier of Julien, where he took two prizes and was admitted 
to FEcole des Beaux- Arts for excellence in drawing from the nude. 
He afterwards gave some attention to water-color painting in England, 
and has continued the practice of this art. Of late his pictures have 
attracted attention, and several of them have been sold for good prices. 
Among them are, " Lana Cascade, near Lake Dunmore, Vermont " 
(purchased by Mr. Turner of Brooklyn), " The Afterglow, Wetter- 
horn " (Mrs. S. D. Warren of Boston), " Otter Creek Meadows, Ver- 
mont " (Mr. Wright of Boston), etc. 

" In the same gallery there is a water-color by Mr. C. W. Sanderson, whose paintings 
should be more frequently exhibited. The painting is a study of the ' Lana Cascade,' 
near Lake Dunmore, Vt., and is in most respects an excellent picture. There is noth- 
ing at all conventional about it, and one can easily see that the artist has attempted 
to make an accurate, careful, and truthful interpretation of the scene before him. The 
handling of the colors is a clear indication that the artist has skill in manipulating the 
brush, and it is this disclosure of reserved strength that arouses the desire to know the 
artist better through his paintings. The scene in itself is a charming one, very familiar 
to be sure, but of that sort which one is never tired of seeing."— Boston Daily Adver- 
tiser. 

Sandys, Frederick K. (Brit.) Born in 1832. First exhibited 
at the Royal Academy in 1854. A painter of portraits, in which he 
has been very successful, and occasionally an exhibitor of ideal sub- 
jects. Among the latter may be mentioned, " Oriana " (R. A., 1861), 
"La Belle Ysonde " (1863), " Morgan-le-fay " (1864), " Cassandra" 
(1865), and " Medea " (1869). This artist also furnishes wood-cuts for 
the publishers of illustrated books from time to time. His " Medea" 
was at the Paris Exposition of 1878. 

"Mr Sandys, though we believe known as the author of some noteworthy drawings, 
must be also reckoned as a painter among the men of promise in Which this Exhibition 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 233 

[R. A., 1SG3] has been unusually fertile. His head of Mrs. Rose has struck every our 
as a remarkable example of execution, in which c;ircful drawing and characteristic, ex- 
pression are set off to the best advantage by significance in the accessories and care in 
the finish." — Palurave's Essays on A rt. 

"Neither in his portraits nor In his pictures does Frederick K. Sandys always attain 
ideal grace and harmony, but he is always closely in contact with his subject. There is 
never any want of reality in the impression given by his paintings, rather perhaps 
there is sometimes a want of reserve in the emphasis and vivid power displayed. But 
when these powers do find a complete embodiment in the treatment of some worthy 
theme, the effect is as strong as anything to be found in the art of our time. The picture 
of ' Medea,' exhibited some time ago, is a remarkable example in this direction. There 
the ideal was kept supreme, and yet the influence of the picture was intense in its 
reality. " — A rt Journal, August, 1S73. 

Sangster, SamueL (Brit.) (1804-1872.) A line-engraver of 
considerable reputation. Among the better known of his works are, 
" The Gentle Student " and " Forsaken," after G. S. Newton ; " The 
Syrian Maid," after Pickersgill ; " The Victim," after A. L. Egg ; 
"Juliet and the Nurse," after Briggs ; " The Sepulcher," after Etty ; 
and " A Scene from Midas," after Maclise. Sangster retired from the 
active practice of his profession some time before his death. 

Sangninetti, Francesco. (Ital.) Born at Carrara. Died 1870. 
Pupil of his father and of Rauch of Berlin. After visiting Italy he 
returned to the studio of Rauch in 1831. He executed several busts 
and a statue of Hylas in marble. He then settled in Munich, where 
he died. He there executed many portrait busts of distinguished in- 
dividuals, and at the time of his death w T as engaged upon a statue of 
Maximilian II., intended for the National Museum. He carried out 
the models of Schwanthaler for the figures in the State Library and 
the Asylum for the Blind. 

" Sanguinetti's private life seems to have been particularly unfortunate. First, he 
lost, it has been stated, by mismanagement, a property he had bought with the savings 
of many years ; next, his daughter was assassinated at the age of nineteen by a jealous 
lover ; then he was swindled by a dealer out of a valuable collection of pictures ; and, 
lastly, lost what money he had latterly accumulated by the bursting of a bubble com- 
pany, and was even compelled to sell the little house in which he resided." — Art Jour- 
nal, May, 1870. 

Sanson, Justin-Chrysostome. (Fr.) Born at Nemours. Chev- 
alier of tlie Legion of Honor. Pupil of Jouffroy. His " Pieta " (group, 
marble, 1876) was bought by the Ministry of Fine Arts. This sculp- 
tor has been much employed upon public monuments and buildings 
such as the Palace of Justice at Amiens, the New Opera, etc. 

Sant, James, R. A. (Brit) Born in London, 1820. Became a 
pupil of Varley. and entered the Royal Academy in 1840, shortly 
after beginning his career as a painter of portraits, in which art he 
has been very successful. Among hit sitters have been the Prince Con- 
sort, and several members of the Royal Family, the Due d'Aumale, the 
Lord Bishop of London (1865), and the Queen and the children of 
the Prince of Wales (1872), shortly after which he was appointed 
Principal Painter in Ordinary to Her Majesty. Among his figure- 



234 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

pictures may be mentioned, "Samuel" (1853); "Children of the 
Wood " (1854); " Infancy " (1857) ; " Little Red Riding-Hood " (1860); 
"The First Sense of Sorrow" (when he was elected Associate of the 
Royal Academy in 1862); in 1863, " Taking Notes "; in 1864, " Turn 
again, Whittington " ; in 1866, " Light in Dark Places"; in 1869, 
" Mentonese Children "; in 1870, "Alone"; in 1871, " The Schoolmas- 
ter's Daughter " (his diploma work, deposited on his election as Acad- 
emician); in 1874, " Peaches "; in 1875, "The Early Post"; in 1877, 
" Gleanings"; in 1878, " Little Zara." 

His "Young Whittington" was at Philadelphia in 1876; "The 
Early Post" and " Adversity," at Paris in 1878. 

" Mr. Sant has given us everything in this painting [' Early Post,' R. A., 1875] : youth, 
beauty, life, sympathy, a charming story, and a very pleasant reminiscence of an English 
country-house, without our ever having been there. As an example of careful art-work 
and purity of tone in coloring, this composition of itself is excellent, but as an incident 
of every-day life, depicted on canvas, it is one of the very best pictures of the Academy." 
— Art Journal, July, 1875. 

Santarelli, Emilio. (Ital.) Born at Florence, 1801. Professor of 
the Academy of Fine Arts at Florence. Son of an artist, he was 
early instructed in design, and went to Rome, where he was a pupil 
of Thorwaldsen. He has not attained great fame, although he has 
executed many works by which he will be honorably remembered. 
One glorious act of his merits the gratitude of coming generations. 
He has collected a marvelous number of original drawings by the old 
masters, and these he presents to the city of Florence, in order that 
they may never be dispersed or fall into mercenary hands; among 
them are some chefs-d'oeuvre. Among the works of Santarelli are a 
statue of Michael Angelo, placed under the loggia of the Uffizi, 
many portrait busts, a series of bas-reliefs of mythological subjects, 
a statue called " The Good Shepherd," a " Kneeling Magdalen," a 
"Bacchante," "The Prayer of Innocence," "Cupid in Mischief," a 
half-colossal statue of St. Francis, etc. 

Sargent, John S. (Am.) A native of Philadelphia, be has lived 
for some years in Europe, painting in Paris under Carol us Duran. 
His " Fishing for Oysters at Cancale," at the Exhibition of the So- 
ciety of American Artists in New York in 1878, was purchased by 
Samuel Colman. To the Paris Salon, in 1878, he had " En route 
pour la Peche." At the Paris Exhibition of 1878 he exhibited a por- 
trait. 

Sarrocchi, Tito. (Ital.) Born in Siena about 1825. Professor 
at the Academy of Siena. Pupil of this Academy and of Dupre in 
Florence. He has been successful as an artist, showing mu^h imagi- 
nation, great fidelity to nature, and great skill in execution. Among 
the works by which he is known we may mention the " Finding of 
the Cross by Queen Helena," an alto-relievo on the fagade of Santa 
Croce, Florence ; a very beautiful Bacchante, exhibited at the Exposi- 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 235 

tion in Paris in 1867 ; a fine group for the Campo Santo of Siena ; a 
group of a little girl teaching a young child his first prayer; a beauti- 
ful figure of Hope, and several portrait statues, all fine in conception 
and execution. The restorations of the statues of the Cathedral of 
Siena and of the Fonte Gaia in the Piazza Victor Emmanuel are by 
Sarrocchi. 

Sartain, John. (Brit.- Am.) Born in London, 1808. Academi- 
cian and member of the Philadelphia Academy of Fine Arts. Trustee 
and Member of the Committee on Instruction in the Pennsylvania 
Museum and School of Industrial Art. Controller of the Artists' Fund 
Society, Philadelphia. Vice-President of the School of Design for 
Women, Philadelphia. Chief Administrator of Fine Arts at the Phil- 
adelphia Centennial Exhibition of 1876. Honorary Member of the 
Art and Amicital Society of Amsterdam. In 1878 he received the 
Cross of Officer of the Equestrian grade of the Order of the Crown 
of Italy from King Umberto. He removed to America in 1830, hav- 
ing already made a reputation as an engraver. In 1842-43 he was 
proprietor of Campbell's Magazine and editor of Sartain's Union 
Magazine. He was the first engraver in mezzo-tinto of any account. 
He has, it is said, produced more works than any other living en- 
graver. His " Christ Rejected," after Benjamin West, and " The Iron- 
Worker and King Solomon," after C. Schussele, are the largest and 
most important as well as the finest mezzo-tinto plates ever made in 
America. His portraits of Sir Thomas Lawrence and others are 
fine ; that of Professor Mapes was made from his own drawing. 
His " Battle of Gettysburg," after the picture by Peter F. Rothermel, 
is a very interesting work. Among his plates are, William Penn (full 
length), after H. Inman ; Henry Clay (full length, in the act of speak- 
ing), after John Nagle ; Martin Van Buren (full length), after Inman, 
and other portraits, which we have not space to name. Also, "Adam 
and Eve," after Marc Antonio's celebrated print ; " Zeisberger preaching 
to the Indians," after Schussele ; " County Election in Missouri," after 
C. C. Bingham ; " Eugenie, Empress of France, and the Ladies of her 
Court," after Winterhalter ; " The Return from Market," after J. L. 
Krimmel ; " The Valley of the Battenkill," after Boutelle ; etc. He 
has been for many years a resident of Philadelphia. 

Sartain, William. (Am.) Born in Philadelphia, 1843. Son 
of the preceding. He spent six months in the Pennsylvania Academy 
of Fine Arts and seven years under Leon Bonnat at Paris, study- 
ing also at the Academie Nationale des Beaux-Arts, and making 
excursions to Algiers and else where. He passed one winter in 
Rome, one in Seville, and the winter of 1877 and '78 in New York, 
joining the Society of American Painters on its organization in 1877, 
and contributing to its first exhibition, " A Court- Yard, Paris," " Ital- 
ian Girl," and other pictures. His " View in the Street of Algiers " 
was in the Paris Exposition of 1878. His " Italian Head," at the Xa- 



236 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

tional Academy of 1876, was purchased on the opening day of the 
Exhibition by Samuel Colman, N. A. To the National Academy, in 
1878, he contributed "Young Italy" and "A Street in Algiers." 

" For a female figure in life-scale, however, if we wish to go to one which easily over- 
comes everything else in the Exhibition, whether portraits or invented characters, we 
must approach William Sartain's simple head of a Contadina [N. A., 1876]. No other 
study of life compares with it in the most distant way, and from the standpoint of its 
intentions and problems it may be called a perfect work. It is a beautiful, plaintive 
Italian face, looking upward in prayer. The lifting of the brows over the forehead ; the 
sockets of the biack, hollow eyes ; the dark, yet transparent, olive of the cheek ; and the 
flesh shadows, so deep, yet not opaque, show the great promise and present success 
of this pupil of Bonnat." — New York Nation, April 6, 1876. 

" The colors are so grave and the modeling so delicate that it reminds one of the Span- 
ish pictures in the Louvre or the Pitti. This is W. Sartain's 'Italian Head,' something 
wholly quaint and unusual for an American painter. Artists admire it for its exquisite 
relations of light, and the excellent manipulation of the paint. " — Art Journal, April, 
1876. 

Sartain, Emily. (Am.) Born in Philadelphia, 1841. Daughter 
of John Sartain, the well-known American engraver, from whom she 
acquired the art of engraving on steel. She was a pupil of the 
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia, and, going to 
Europe, she studied in Paris four years with Evariste Luminais. Her 
work has been portraits and genre pictures. She has exhibited in the 
Salon in Paris, and at different local academies throughout the United 
States. The greater part of her professional life has been spent in 
Philadelphia, where she has practiced both painting and engraving. 
She worked for some time in Paris, and in Parma, Italy. To the 
Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, in 1876, she contributed " The 
Reproof," for which in the official report she was " commended for 
merit in genre painting." 

Satterlee, Walter. (Am ) Born in Brooklyn, N. Y., 1844. A 
graduate of Columbia College. He studied art in the schools of the 
Academy of Design, spent some time in the studio of Edwin White 
in New York, and, going abroad, was a pupil of Leon Bonnat in 
Paris. He began to exhibit at the National Academy about 1868, 
sending to the gallery in that year, " Autumn turning the Leaves " 
and " Count Fosco." In 1870 he contributed " Morning among the 
Flowers" ; in 1871, "Feeding the Pets" ; in 1873, "A Coquette of 
the Olden Time " ; in 1874, when he was in Rome, he sent " Out for 
a Ride " (belonging to H. C. Howell) ; in 1876, " The Arrow and 
Song " ; in 1877, " His Eminence the Cardinal " ; in 1878, " Contem- 
plation " and " The Captive." He was elected a member of the Amer- 
ican Society of Painters in Water-Colors in 1873 or '74, exhibiting, 
in 1875, "The Young Bohemians" and "Cinderella" ; in 1876, "The 
Evening Prayer on the Lake" ; in 1877, "The Fortune-Teller " ; in 
1878, " Old Ballads," " The Belle of the Village," etc. Among his 
most important works are, " Contemplation," " Come, ye Disconso- 
late," " The Peacemaker," " Marguerite," " Love in Sunshine," " Love 






ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 237 

in Shade," and u Lore-Making in Capri" (the last belonging to Sam- 
iK-1 V. Wright of New York). To the Centennial Exhibition at 
Philadelphia, in 1876, he sent " Marguerite " (in oil), and " Far- 
Away Thoughts " and M One Hundred Years Ago " (in water-colors). 

Scaramuzza, Francesco. (Ital.) This artist's illustrations of the 
" Divine Comedy" are much praised. His subjects have been varied; 
historical, poetical, and mythological themes have all come under his 
brush. He has boldness and energy, and his effects of light are as- 
tonishing. His representations of " The Assumption of the Virgin," 
"Eve," " Sarah," and " Rachel" are admirable. 

Schadow, Friedrich Wilhelm. (Ger.) Born at Berlin (1789- 
L c 62). Doctor of the University of Bonn. Knight of the Red 
Eagle and other orders. Member of the Academy of Berlin and the 
Institute of France. Professor at Berlin and at Dusseldorf. Went in 
1810 to Rome with his brother Rudolph, and joined the German 
artists there, who were called " Nazarites." Two years later both 
brothers entered the Roman Catholic Church. The " Wise and Fool- 
i>h Virgins " of the Stiidel Institute, Frankfort, is a fair work from 
which to judge this painter. He was not a great master, and he holds 
higher rank as a professor than as an artist. Scholars crowded to him 
from Berlin, and at Dusseldorf he numbered Hildebrandt, Sohn, and 
Lessing among his pupils. He lived, however, to see even this glory 
shadowed. He was accused of sectarianism or over-zeal for religious 
art ; he was called weak and superficial, and he resigned his position as 
a leader. He received many honors, but he paid the necessary penalty 
in this age, for desiring every picture to be sanctified by crucifixes, 
Virgins, and other symbols, forgetting that truth and beauty simply 
rendered must lead the mind to the source of truth, and need not the 
aids of artificial or formal signs. At the National Gallery, Berlin, 
are his u Christ at Emmaus " and a portrait of a woman. 

Schampheleer, Edmond de. (Belgian.) Born at Brussels. 
Medal at Philadelphia, where he exhibited "Nimuegen on the River 
Wahal." At Paris, 1877, were his " Dordrecht and the Meuse " and 
" The Road of Loosdricht at Hilversum." He has also exhibited some 
of the above pictures at the Royal Academy, London, and at the Paris 
Exposition, 1878, to which he sent "Near Gonda" and "Between 
Witteren and Ze-le." 

Schaus, Prof. Ferdinand. (Ger.) Of Weimar. Medal at Phila- 
delphia, where he exhibited "Saint John " and " A Dryad," which 
were commended, To Paris, in 1878, he sent "Calisto." 

Scheffer, Ary. Born at Dordrecht (1795-1858). Officer of the 
Legion of Honor. This artist was French before the civil law, because, 
under the name of the Bavarian Republic, his birthplace was within 
the limits of the new French Departments. His father, an artist, died 
young, and his mother superintended his education. As early as 
1807 a picture of Scheffer's attracted attention. His mother took 



238 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

him to Paris, and placed him under the instruction of Guerin. For 
several years after his debut he painted small genre subjects, includ- 
ing " The Soldier's Widow," " A Sister of Charity," etc. At length 
he occupied himself with scenes from works of great poets, such as 
Goethe, Burger, Schiller, Dante, and Byron. " Beatrice " and " Fran- 
cesca di Rimini," which appeared at the Salon of 1835, were his 
crowning works in this department. Later, he devoted himself to re- 
ligious subjects, as "Christ bearing his Cross," "Temptation of 
Christ," " Christ the Consolator," " Ruth and Naomi," etc. Many of 
his works are well known from the engravings of Bernardi, Blanchard, 
Calamatta, Dupont, Louis, Thevenin, etc. Scheffer may be called a 
romanticist. He was extravagantly fond of music, and, in truth, 
had the soul of a poet. After the death of his mother he wished to 
execute a funeral monument for her, not being willing that any hand 
but his own should do this work. He essayed sculpture for the first 
time, and, for a novice, the work was creditable. The sentiment 
which prompted this act is most touching to the hearts of all mothers. 
At the Johnston sale, New York, 1876, " Love Celestial and Terres- 
trial " (13 by 8, sepia) sold for $200. At the Corcoran Gallery, 
Washington, is his picture of " Count Eberhard." 

"All the circumstances of Scheffer's life were favorable to his artistic development. 
His father had been a respectable artist, with a competent private fortune ; . . . . 
Madame Scheffer herself was an amateur painter of some ability, and both respected 

artists and understood the aims of their existence Scheffer, like David, led an 

ardent political life by the side of his artistic one ; but whereas David's political career 
lowers him in the opinion even of his own party, that of Scheffer is always honor- 
able, and its greatest fault is nothing worse than that want of prudence inseparable 

from all private political action Scheffer will be remembered as a friend of the 

Orleans family. He was introduced to them by Gerard in 1826, and became their 

drawing-master, and soon afterwards their friend It is very curious that Scheffer 

was one of the two persons [Thiers being the other] who, in 1830, rode to Neuilly to tell 
Louis Philippe that he was to be king, and that Scheffer should have been also one 
of the sad group that quitted the Tuileries in 1848, when he assisted Louis Philippe 

into his cab The affectionate relation which existed between Scheffer and tlie 

Princess Marie reminds us of Roger Ascham and Lady Jane Grey Scheffer, as an 

artist, owes his rank almost entirely to the elevation of his feeling. His drawing is 
usually correct and his taste refined ; but his color is bad, and though his handling is 
neat, from much practice, it has no artistic subtlety. The excellence of his personal 

character had some concern in his success I have a great difficulty in admitting 

that any artist is a great painter who is not also a colorist, and Scheffer, by uniting bad 
color with considerable artistic merits of other kinds, has done positive harm to the art 

of painting Of landscape he was wholly ignorant, and, like most figure-painters, 

could not understand that there were fields of study in that department of art lying 
outside the limits of his knowledge. He was a cultivated gentleman and man of the 
world, and had the habits of one, so far as they were compatible with the industrious 
pursuit of art. His great interest in politics gave him a common ground on which he 
habitually met men of distinction who were more or less indifferent to painting. In this 
respect Scheffer enjoyed an advantage somewhat rare among artists, whose own pursuit 
is so engrossing that they are liable to be entirely absorbed by it He will be re- 
membered as an artist of high aim and pure sentiment; and a man of more than com- 
mon political conviction and fidelity, but his influence upon art has been slight, and 
will not be durable." — Hamerton's Contemporary French Painters. 



ARTISTS OF TI7E NINETEENTH CENTURY. 239 

" However, Ary Scheffer was not alone an artist., he was a mind, a heart, a character : 
a mind open to all culture, all graces, all enthusiasms ; a heart tender, generous, de- 
voted, under an envelope somewhat rude and harsh ; a character imbued with stoicism, 
with inflexible uprightness, austere probity, which has lived in our time" (it is to say all) 
without pollution, without weakness or faltering. Have I told how sweet and true 
were his friendships, how solid and charming his conversations, how sincere, indulgent, 
and faithful his Affection? To enjoy them was the privilege of his friends and asso- 
ciates. Did I tell of his unbounded generosity, his prodigal benevolence, so inex- 
pressible that after a fruitful, laborious life and many well-paid labors, Scheffer had 
only wherewith to live from day to day, and left not the least saving? He would tell 
me that tlie left band should not know that which the right gives. Shall I tell, in fine, 
the immovable constancy of his opinions and of the attachments which he formed? .... 
I wish only among a hundred equally honorable acts to cite one, not well known, and 
which a late confidence revealed to me. Ary Scheffer was for a long time an Officer of 
the Legion of Honor. After the terrible and fatal days of June, 1848, when he bravely 
led the battalion of the National Guard, of which he was chief, the cross of a com- 
mander was offered him. ' If this distinction,' replied he, ' were accorded to me in my 
career as an artist, and as a prize for my works, I should receive it with deference and 
satisfaction ; but to adorn myself with a collar which would recall to me the horrible 
combats of civil war, — never ! ' He was inflexible. This instance suffices to paint the 
man, and we can terminate this sketch of his life with the last words of the preface 
to the Book of Job, in which the eminent interpreter of this old Hebrew poet 
deplores that Ary Scheffer was not able to finish his compositions on this subject 
' Alas ! what lessons of moral elevation, what a source of profound emotions and high 
thoughts, have disappeared from our age, so poor in great souls, with the last sigh of 
this man of heart and genius.' " — Louis Viardot, Gazette des Beaux-Arts, February, 
1859. 

Schelfhout, Andrew. (Dutch.) Born at The Hague (1787- 
1870). Member of all the academies of* Holland. Medals at Ant- 
werp, Brussels, Ghent, and The Hague. This landscape-painter was 
especially successful in representing winter scenes. His pictures are 
in the Munich and other galleries. They are usually small, although 
he has sometimes painted large works. They show skillful drawing, 
with fine knowledge of perspective, and are good in color and care- 
ful in execution. At the Johnston sale, " A Winter Landscape" (21 
by 27) sold for $ 610. It was from the Wolfe sale in 1863. At a 
sale in Utrecht, 1873, "The Mountain Landscape" brought £758. 
Mr. Probasco of Cincinnati has in his collection " A Skating Scene " 
by Schelfhout, painted in 1849, which is a fine example of this mas- 
ter's style. 

Schenck, August-Frederic-Albrecht. (Ger.) Born at Gluck- 
stadt, 1828. Chevalier of the Orders of Christ of Portugal and of 
Isabella the Catholic. Medal at Philadelphia. He passed some time 
in business in England and Portugal before he became a pupil of 
Cogniet He made his debut at the Salon of 1855. His " Repose 
on the Seashore " (1804) and " The Awakening " (1865) were bought 
by the State. Hif pictures are much admired, and his reputation is, 
perhaps, greater in England, Portugal, and America than in France. 
His exhibit of 1877, "The Return to the Park" and "A Bit of Au- 
ver<me," was much praised. Soon after his debut he lost his fortune. 



240 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

At Philadelphia he exhibited " Sheep in a Storm." Mr. D. Waldo 
Lincoln has a very fine work by Schenck with the same title. Among 
his more famous pictures are " Autour de l'auge," belonging to Count 
Castellani ; " Perdus," to Miss Wolfe of New York ; " The last Hour," 
to Mr. Gibson of Philadelphia. Mrs. Eliza Sutton of Peabody, Mass., 
has a fine example of his brighter manner, where the flock are be- 
neath a bright sky, in the midst of gay flowers and fresh pasturage. 
The " Awakening " is at the Museum of Bordeaux ; and " In the 
Dale," at the Museum of Lille, — in short, Schenck's pictures are in 
many galleries in Europe and America. At the Salon of 1878 he 
exhibited " Anguish " and " The Neighboring Mill." 

" Albert Schenck is certainly one of the most original figures of the contemporaneous 
artistic gallery ; I should like to have the time to paint in full this robust companion, 
born in Holstein, annexed by Prussia without asking, and adopted by France because he 
wished it. All the world to-day regards Schenck as one of our first animal-painters. 
He is one of those originals, of a species not yet extinct, who prefer dogs to men, and 
find more sweetness in sheep than in women. With such fancies one leaves the city for 
the fields, and has only to do with animals. Our artist has taken this part after having 
profoundly studied his fellow-creatures. Retired to Ecouen, to a farm, he lives in the 
midst of oxen, dogs, goats, asses, horses, and sheep of all types, races, and species ; 
cares for them, cultivates them, loves them, and above all studies them, as never artist 
studied his models. He knows better than any one their habitual behavior, their favor- 
ite poses, their preferred attitudes, and the mobile play of their physiognomies. By 
means of studying closely the joys and griefs of these modest companions and humble 
servants of man, he has penetrated the inmost recesses of their souls, which he knows 
how to show us in pictures of striking truth. His animals' heads are portraits particu- 
larized with all the care which Cabanel, Dubufe, and Bonnat gave to the human mask. 
The picture which he exhibits to-day under the title of ' Angoisses ' is pathetic to the 
last degree. A lamb is wounded, lying on the ground, losing its blood, which pours out 
of a horrible wound. The ravens, with their infallible instinct, scent the approaching 
death, and await their prey ; their sinister circle is closed in, — the unfortunate little 
beast cannot escape them. The mother is there ; she comprehends it, the poor crea- 
ture ! the fate which awaits her dear nursling, and broken-hearted, full of anguish [it is 
the title of the picture, and it is just], she bleats for the shepherd who comes not. It is 
a little drama, this picture, and as poignant as if it had men for actors and victims." — 
Supplement of the Figaro, June 5, 1S78. 

" There are few artists more popular than Schenck, and the crowd which goes from 
year to year to the Palace of Industry has quickly discovered, among the innumerable 
pictures, his works with a touch so spirituelle and a dramatism so powerful in their 
simplicity. The reflected judgment of the connoisseurs confirms the instantaneous im- 
pression of the multitude, and this artist is able to please equally the difficult and the 
naifs." — Edouard Drumont, Galerie Contemporaine, Litteraire, Artistique, 1871. 

Schendel, Petrus van. (Dutch.) Born at Ter Heyden (1806 - 
1870). Medals at Paris, in Holland and Brussels. Studied in Am- 
sterdam, Rotterdam, and Antwerp. His earlier works included a 
variety of subjects. After a time he devoted himself to scenes by 
lamplight and firelight, which were very popular. At the National 
Gallery at Berlin are two of his market-scenes, " A Woman selling 
Fish" and another with vegetables. At the Leipsic Museum are 
" The Return from the Hunt" and "A Scene in a Fish-Market." 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 241 

Schetky, John Christian. (Brit.) Born in Scotland (1778- 
1^74). Educated at the High School of Edinburgh, with Brougham, 
Scott, and Horner. In 1S25 and previously he exhibited niari tie- 
pictures of an historical character, and was marine-painter succes- 
sively to George IV., William IV., and Victoria. He exhibited at 
the Royal Academy, London, as late as 1871, "A Gallant Rescue" 
and '* Coming to Anchor in Portland Roads " ; in 1872, he sent 
"Wreck of the Frigate Anson," "Shipping in the Olden Time," and 
■ A Trial of Speed off the Dodman." 

" As a marine-painter Mr. Schetky's pictures were always held in estimation for their 
truthfulness ; this quality appears to have been his great aim. A gallery of his works 
would contain among them some of the most stirring naval actions that occurred dur- 
ing the long wars of the early part of this century, besides others of a later time." — 
Art Journal, February, 1S74. 

Schievelbein, Friedrich Anton Hermann. (Ger.) Born in 
Berlin (1817 - 1867). Pupil of the Berlin Academy and of Professsor 
Ludwig Wiehrnann. He early received a commission at St. Peters- 
burg, where he was employed in the rebuilding of the Winter Palace 
and on the St. Isaac's Church. At that time he had taken the grand 
prize at Berlin. Before he left for Rome he sent in his drawing for 
the group for the Castle Bridge. The choice fell on his design, and 
he soon returned from Rome in order to execute it. At Berlin he 
was very active and much employed in public works. The Stein 
memorial was completed from his designs, by his pupils, after his 
death (it was not erected until 1875). He also made the statues of 
Luther and Melancthon for the University of Konigsberg. At the 
National Gallery, Berlin, is the model of a frieze in relief, subject, 
the " Destruction of Pompeii." Among his other works are, " The 
Muses," "Raphael," "The Months" (at Sans-souci), "Colossal Statue 
of Hermann von Salza," " A Despised Christ," " A Winter Evening," 
" A Protecting Angel," etc. 

Schilling, Johannes. (Ger.) Born at Mittweida, 1828. At the 
Leipsic Museum are his reliefs of "Jupiter and Ganymede" and 
" Aphrodite and Eros." At the Briihl Terrace in Dresden are his 
groups of " Evening " and " Night." Among his latest productions 
is the National Monument in the Niederwald, — a great work, com- 
bining a representation of "Father Rhine," nymphs, and other de- 
signs. 

Schinkel, Karl Friedrich. (Ger.) Born at Neu-Ruppin (1781 - 
1841). Studied at the Academy of Berlin under David and Fried- 
rich Gill v. Traveled in Italy and visited Paris. He was for a while 
obliged to rapport himself by painting, at which time he l>ecame as- 
sociated with Karl Gropius, for whom he later composed his famous 
panoramas. In 1824 and '26 he again visited Italy and France, and 
slso England. In 1839 he received a high official position as an 
architect in Prussia. His decorative works were remarkable for their 

VOL. II. 11 P 



242 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

grandeur of conception and grace of composition. He was somewhat 
wanting in technique ; but his sentiment and rich imagination gave 
a spirit to his works which more than compensated for this. At 
the National Gallery of Berlin are, " An Ideal Landscape at Sunset," 
"An Italian Landscape," and several others. 

Schirmer, Guillaume. (Ger.) Born at Berlin (1804-1866). 
Professor and Member of the Academy of Berlin. He executed deco- 
rative works in the Castle of Prince Albert of Prussia, and in the 
New Museum of Berlin. In the National Gallery, Berlin, are his 
pictures of " Tasso's House at Sorrento " and a " Scene at Sans- 
Souci." 

Schleich, Eduard. (Ger.) Born in Castle Haarbach near Land- 
shut (1812- 1874). Royal Professor of Bavaria. Pupil of the Mu- 
nich Academy, but essentially taught by the old masters and nature, 
which he studied lovingly. His pictures are landscapes. He trav- 
eled considerably in Europe. His " Evening Landscape " is in the 
National Gallery, Berlin. His " Beach at Scheveningen " (belonging 
to the Royal Museum at Munich) was at the Paris Exposition of 
1878. 

Schlesinger, Henri Guillaume. (Fr.) Born at Frankfort. 
(Naturalized Frenchman.) Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil 
of the Academy of Vienna. He made his debut at the Salon of 1840. 
At the Salon of 1875 he exhibited " The Dove-Cot " and " Jehanne" ; 
in 1874, " Brother and Sister"; in 1872, "Lost Labor"; in 1869, 
" The Good Friends," etc. He has exhibited many portraits. At the 
Royal Academy, in 1873, he had " Ce n'est pas moi ! " To the Salon 
of 1878 he sent "A Good Kiss" and " Correggio drawing some 
Pictures of Children." 

Schloesser, Karl. (Ger.) Born at Darmstadt. Painter of the 
Diisseldorf school. Resides in London. Knight of the Order of Merit. 
Medal at Vienna. At the Exhibition of 1876, at the Royal Academy, 
he exhibited " The Village Lawyer " ; at the first exhibition of the 
Grosvenor Gallery (1877), " The Refectory." His " Forbidden Fruit" 
was bought by Napoleon III. Among his other works are, " The 
Reprimand " and " Reading the News," — the last is a small picture 
(only 12 by 9) and was sold at the Johnston sale in 1876 for $310. 
" The Political Opponents " was much remarked at the Berlin Expo- 
sition of 1871. In 1875 he exhibited " Obligatory Instruction " (two 
children sent off to school, one going very unwillingly). At the 
London Academy in 1878 he exhibited " Reprimand," and at Paris, 
same year, " Seeking Advice." 

Schmid, Mattias. Pupil of Piloty. Paints the same sort of sub- 
jects as Defregger, and has nearly always a political or religious 
motive behind his representations. One of his most powerful works 
represents priests playing cards before a Tyrolese inn ; x an old man 
comes forward and beseeches the holy fathers to buy his crucifixes 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 243 

which he carries in his arms ; his wife with her infant remains a little 
behind. The priests roughly repulse him, but a young girl who is 
serving them with beer regards the old man with pity. 

Schmidt, Max. (Gcr.) Born in Berlin, 1818. Professor at 
Konigsberg. Member of the Academy of Berlin. Medals at Berlin 
and Vienna. Studied at the Berlin Academy. Traveled extensively 
in Europe and in the East. Landscape-painter. Some of his decora- 
tive works are in the New Museum at Berlin. In the National Gal- 
lery, Berlin, is his u Wood and Mountain." His " Banks of the Spree, 
— Dull Weather" was at the Paris Exposition of 1878. 

Schnorr von Carolsfeld, Julius Veit Hans. {Gcr.') Born at 
Leipsic (1794 - 1872). Member of the Institute of France. Professor 
at the Academy of Munich, and later at the Academy of Dresden, 
where he was also Director of the Royal Museum. Pupil of his father 
and of the Academy of Vienna. In 1817 he went to Rome and re- 
mained ten years. After his return to Germany he was commissioned 
by King Louis to execute decorative works at the new Residence. 
They consisted of five pictures from the story of the Nibelungenlied. 
He also executed other important works of the same sort, such as 
scenes from the lives of Charlemagne, Barbarossa, and Rudolf of Haps- 
burg. The cartoons of the Nibelungen series and a picture of " St. 
Roch distributing Alms " are in the Museum of Leipsic. At the 
National Gallery, Berlin, are two other cartoons of scenes from the 
Nibelungenlied. Among his other pictures are, " The Three Christian 
Cavaliers " and " The Three Pagan Cavaliers," a " Holy Family," 
frescos of scenes from the works of Ariosto, the " Marriage of Cana," 
u Jacob and Rachel," the " Annunciation," and other religious subjects. 

Schoenewerk, Alexandre. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. Pupil of David d' Angers, Jollivet, and TriquetL 
At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited the " Mime-dompteur," a group in 
plaster ; in 1876, " Hesitation," a marble statue ; in 1875, " A Young 
Girl at the Fountain," in terra-cotta. being a reduction of the marble 
statue of 1873 ; in 1874, " Lulli," plaster statue (model of a work in- 
tended for the New Opera), " St. Thomas Aquinas," statue in stone 
(for the facade of the Sarbonne), and " The Upper Portion of a Monu- 
ment to E. Ortolan, Professor at Law," bronze ; and, in 1872, a statue 
of the " Young Tarentine," a subject suggested by the words of Che- 
nier, — 

" Elle a vecu, Myrto, la jeune Tarentine, 
8on beau corps a roule sous la vague marine ! " 

Scholtz, Julius. (Ger.) Born at Breslau, 1825. Professor in the 
Academy of Dresden, and Member of the Academy of Berlin. Studied 
at Dresden Academy and under J. Hiibner. He is an historical 
painter. In the National Gallery at Berlin is his " Volunteers of 1813 
before Frederick William III." 

Schorn, Charles. (Ger.) Born at Diisseldorf (1803- 1850). Pupil 



244 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

of Cornelius at Munich, and of Gros and Ingres at Paris. When he 
returned to Munich he assisted Cornelius in some of his great works. 
Schorn made the cartoon for a painted glass window for the Cathedral 
of Ratisbon, representing " The Conversion of Slaves by St. Benno." 
He was employed by the King of Bavaria to assist in forming the 
Munich Gallery. He visited many continental cities to collect pic- 
tures, and in London purchased Wilkie's " Reading of the Will." His 
own pictures are of the historical genre style, such as " Paul III. 
contemplating the Portrait of Luther," " Salvator Rosa among Brig- 
ands," etc. 

Schrader, Jules. (Ger.) Born at Berlin, 1815. Professor and 
Member of the Academic Senate of the Academy of Berlin. Medal 
at Paris, 1855. Pupil of his father and the Academy of Berlin, 
where he obtained several prizes, but failed of that which would take 
him to Rome. He also studied at Diisseldorf under Hildebrandt and 
Guillaume Schadow. At Berlin in 1844 he gained the grand prize, 
and went to Rome in 1845, where he remained three years. He there 
painted the " Capitulation of Calais," which was much admired, and 
gained him his election to the Academy of Berlin. His best works are, 
" Frederick the Great after the Battle of Kallin," at the Museum of 
Leipsic ; " Jephthah's Daughter," in the Museum of Konigsberg ; " The 
Consecration of the Church of St. Sophia at Constantinople by the 
Emperor Justinian" (1853), a grand mural painting at the Museum of 
Berlin ; and "Cromwell at the Death-Bed of his Daughter" (1864), 
in the Museum of Cologne. At the Exposition in the Royal Academy 
at Berlin, in 1876, he exhibited " The Flight " and two portraits ; and 
to Paris, in 1878, he sent a portrait of Dr. Becker. 

" Schrader is, moreover, one of the best painters of genre and of portraits of our time, 
and his portraits of Alexander von Humboldt and Peter de Cornelius may be mentioned, 
above all, as veritable chefs-cVcenvre. His principal qualities are a profound science of 
colors, an inimitable talent in the drawing of the nude and of draperies, and a consum- 
mate knowledge of the costumes of all times. " — Larousse, Dictionnaire Universel. 

Schreyer, Adolphe. (Ger.) Born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, 
1828. Medals at Paris, 1864, '65, and '67 ; at Vienna, in 1873 ; at 
Brussels, in 1863 ; and the Cross of the Order of Leopold in 1864. In 
1862 he was made Painter to the Court of the Grand Duke of Meck- 
lenbourg-Schvverin, and is Member of the Academies of Antwerp and 
Rotterdam, and Honorary Member of the Deutsches ISTochstift. Be- 
longing to a distinguished family, this artist received every advantage 
that travel and instruction can give. In 1855 he followed the regi- 
ment commanded by Prince Taxis to the Crimea. He has visited 
Algiers, and other Eastern countries, as well as all the principal coun- 
tries of Europe, and everywhere has diligently studied his subjects. 
Among his best works are the " Battle of Waghensel," belonging to 
the Duke of Mecklenbourg ; the " Battle of Comorn," belonging to the 
Count of Bouilly-Mensdorf ; u An Attack of Cavalry," belonging to 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 245 

M. Ravenet of Berlin ; the " Prince of Taxis wounded at Temeswar," 
belonging to the family of the Prince. His "Horses of the Irregular 
icks," snow-scene (1864), and a " Charge of the Artillery of the 
Imperial Guard in the Crimea " (1865) are in the Luxembourg. At 
the Johnston sale, New York, 1876, " Wallachian Peasants crossing a 
Ford '" (21 by 42) sold for $ 2,700 ; and " Arabs Retreating " (45 by 
69) for $ 6,700. At the Latham sale, New York, 1878, " Traveling in 
Russia " (18 by 42) sold for $ 2,150 ; " A Wet Day in Moldavia" (18 
by 42) for $ 2,050, and a " Wallachian Stable on Fire " (47 by 79) for 
$ 3,500. '• The Wate ring-Place " is in the Corcoran Gallery at Wash- 
ington. At the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston is the " Flight of the 
Standard-Bearer," belonging to John C. Phillips. At the Walter* 
Gallery, Baltimore, are the " Winter Scene in Poland " and an " Arab 
Horseman." A fine picture called " Winter " is in the collection of 
Mrs. H. E. Maynard of Boston, and " Coming to Camp " belongs to 
Mr. Frank R. Kimball of the same city. It is a very fine specimen 
of Scbreyer's work, and is a Wallachian winter scene. 

"Schreyer joins to a grand and bold conception a profoundly poetic sentiment ; this 
makes him both German and French. His manner, as well as his talent, has two na- 
tures : it recalls both Delacroix and Fromentin. His color is a happy mingling of the 
dreamy tones of the one and the powerful colors of the other. And one should above all 
admire it for the incontestable originality thus manifested in this mingling, — a quality 
one does not look for in a man whose character and manner have different aspects. All 
that I say of the color of Schreyer may be also applied to his drawing. His lines, clear 
and vague at the same time, are, in spite of these two distinct qualities, strangely per- 
sonal with this artist. From all this the great talent, of Schreyer seems like something 
much more than talent." — Courrier Artistique, February, 1864. 

In the " Moniteur Universel," February 18, 1864, Theophile Gau- 
tier praised in the most exalted terms the works of this artist, and 
compared him to Delacroix, Decamps, and Fromentin, saying at the 
same time that he was an imitator of no one. The following is a 
translation of a charming letter to Schreyer from the same critic : — 

" Mv dear Schreyer, — I came with Hert and Martinet to see you. You are gone out, 
but your genius remains at home. We have admired this marvelous picture of ' Chasse- 
Neige,' — so true, so picturesque, so dramatic. I am egotistic enough to be a good judge 
in this matter. I have been myself enveloped in a snowy whirlwind near Kowno, and 
your canvas makes me shiver ; I seem to be still in Russia. We hope that you will be 
willing to send this masterpiece to our exposition. I dare not believe in inch a happi- 
ness, and I thank you in my name and in the name of the Soeittc nationale des Beaux- 
Arts. Your admirer and President, 

" TH&OPHILE GAUTIER." 

Schroedter, Adolf. (Qtr.) Born at Schwedt (1805 - 1875). Mem- 
ber of the Academy of Berlin. Professor of the Polytechnic School 
at Carlsruhe. Pupil of the Diisseldorf Academy. His pictures were 
genre subjects, with a comic element, such as scenes from " Don 
Quixote," "FalstafF," etc., " The Wine-Taster," "The May Tree," and 
others. At the Wolfe sale, New York, 1863, <; Falstaff thrown into 
the Thames" sold for $••: 

Schulz, Moritz. (&r.) Born in Leobschiitz, 1825. Honorary 



246 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Member of the Polytechnic School at Rotterdam. Studied at the 
Academy of Berlin. Was in Rome from 1854 to '70, when he estab- 
lished himself in Berlin. One of the bas-reliefs on the column of 
Victory is by Schulz, and he has executed two groups illustrative 
of Instruction in the Arts, which are in the National Gallery at Ber- 
lin. At Berlin, in 1871, he exhibited "Cupid and Psyche," "Love's 
Dream," and " Rape of Ganymede. "; in 1876, " Night as a Charity " 
and " Bacchantes, a Faun, etc." 

Schutzenberger, Louis-Frederic. (Fr.) Born at Strasbourg. 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Gleyre. At the Salon 
of 1877 he exhibited, " The Harvest, — Souvenir of Italy " and " Diana 
at the Bath"; in 1876, a portrait and "Joan of Arc hearing her 
Voices"; in 1875, "The Seven Capital Sins," "The Flight of Nero," 
and " A Marsh in the Gombo of Pisa," etc. At the Luxembourg are 
"Terpsichore" (1861) and "Centaurs hunting a Wild Boar" (1864). 

Schwarz, Albert. (Ger.) Of Berlin. Medal at Philadelphia, 
where he exhibited " Broken Flowers." 

Schweinitz, Rudolf. (Ger.) Born at Charlottenburg, 1839. 
Studied at the Berlin Academy under Professor Schievelbein. In 1865 
he visited Paris and Italy, and has also traveled in the North of Eu- 
rope. Among his works are the Soldiers' Monument for Gera, eight 
colossal groups for the Royal Bridge at Berlin, monument to Frederick 
William III. at Cologne, nine reliefs for the balcony of the Hotel de 
Ville at Berlin, and a group, the " Fine Arts," in the National Gallery 
of that city. 

Schwind, Moritz Ludwig (Ritter von). (Ger.) Born at Vienna 
(1804- 1871). Professor at the Academy of Munich. Pupil of Schnorr 
and Cornelius. This painter executed many frescos which brought 
him reputation. At the National Gallery, Berlin, is his " Rose, a 
Wedding Scene." At the Leipsic Museum is a cartoon, " Symphony," 
which is a representation of various scenes in the love of a young 
couple; they are called "Andante," "Allegretto," etc., like parts of a 
symphony in music, — several portraits are introduced. Among his 
other works are scenes from " Cinderella," the " War of the Singers at 
Wartburg," etc. 

"That original and genial artist, Maurice von Schwind of Munich, has just exhibited 
his last completed work, — the story of the water-nymph Melusina. Like his 'Cin- 
derella ' and 'The Seven Ravens,' known to English readers by the fairy-tale of Ander- 
sen, the drawing is in water-color, about two feet high, and divided into a series of 
compartments, six or eight or more feet long. Schwind's particular taste has always 
led him to choose old German tales of fairy or of folk lore for the subject of his. 
pictures, and, so completely does he identify himself with the story, that all those 

representations of his are surrounded by an atmosphere wholly their own The 

delicacy with which Herr von Schwind manages such subjects is decidedly a marked 
feature in all his compositions. Yet everything is natural, and seemingly as if it could 
not possibly have been otherwise." — Art Journal, May 7, 1870. 

" Schwind was taken away from all other interests of life by his devotion to his art. 
Art permeated his whole being, and he ever strove for perfection. His desire to create 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 247 

never allowed him to rest His poetic conception enabled him to render the most 
ordinary and prosaic scenes attractive. Sehwind's peculiarity can only be comprehended 
by seeing his representations of the antique and of old German art. A rich vein of 
humor runs through all his work. There is and has been, perhaps, no artist to whom 
the entire beauty of the antique has been more fully revealed, but while he has been so 
utterly occupied with the beauties of the past, he seems never to have been oblivious to 
the immense gap which intervenes between the old and the new. His understanding of 
modern, in contradistinction to classic, art, was plainly shown by Schwind in his prac- 
tice of his art, and he was not the man to lessen his individuality by studying and 
copying the old masters ; he used the knowledge gained from them in Ins own manner. 
So, in 1S33, he went often to the Sistine and observed the works of Michael Angelo, and 
then, as he himself said, returned home to go on with his Ritter Kurt. His use of 
Grecian myths was not incompatible with this, for he copied not the dead academical 
forms, but he brought them down to the minds of his time by giving them the warmth 
of his own imagination." — Carl Albert Regnet, Zeitschri/t fiir bihlende Kunst, 1872. 

Scifoni, Anatolio. (Ital.) Of Rome. Medal at Philadelphia, 
where he exhibited " Offerings to the Lares " and " Preparations for a 
Feast at Pompeii," which last was especially commended in the re- 
port of Mr. Weir. 

Scott, Sir George Gilbert, R. A. (Brit) (1811-1878.) Son 
of the Bible commentator. Was placed at an early age in an archi- 
tect's office, and designed the Martyrs' Memorial in Oxford in 1842. 
Later, he furnished designs for churches in Camberwell, Croydon, 
Leeds, Liverpool, Doncaster, and elsewhere. In 1855 he obtained a 
medal of the second class for designs exhibited in the Paris Exposition 
of that year. In 1861 he was elected Academician of the Royal 
Academy in London, sending " Views illustrative of Gothic Designs 
of Government Offices." His drawings of the Memorial Window to 
the Prince Consort for the Chapel Royal, Windsor, were at the Royal 
Academy in 1862 ; view of the New Leeds Infirmary, in 1863 ; the 
Midland Railway terminus and hotel, in 1865 ; a new building for 
the University of Glasgow, in 1869. In 1873 he received the honor 
of Knighthood, contributing the same year, to the Royal Academy, 
designs for the Cathedral of St. Mary's, Edinburgh. In 1875 he ex- 
hibited Premiated Designs for the new German Parliament House, 
prepared in conjunction with his son, J. 0. Scott. 

"Scott's merit as a designer lies rather in the whole than in the details. Carefully 
and correctly drawn, the main outlines of his more important buildings are sometimes 
satisfactory. But a nearer approach reveals that the ornament is cold and unimagina- 
tive ; compared with what the higher Gothic demands, it is dead decoration." — Pa l- 
grave's Wmaft m Art. 

Scott, Julian, A. N. A. (A m.) Born in the State of Vermont. 
During the American Civil War he was attached to a Vermont 
regiment, where his rough charcoal sketches of war-scenes attracted 
the attention of art-lovers in the army. He opened a studio in New 
York at the close* of the war, and began to exhibit at the National 
Academy in 1S70, sending "Gen. O. B. Wilcox in Libby Prison" 
(belonging to William T. Blodgett) and "The Bear-Guard at White 
Oak Swamp " (the property of the Union League Club). He was 



248 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

elected an Associate of the National Academy in 1871. In 1873 he 
exhibited " Complacency " (belonging to William E. Dodge, Jr.) ; in 
1874, "Prison Life" (belonging to John Rogers), "Near the Out- 
posts " (belonging to Judge J. R. Brady), " Cavalry Charge near 
Ashby's Gap, Va., in 1862 " (to Col. JoelB. Erhardt), and " On Board 
the Hartford" (belonging to Loyall Farragut) ; in 1875, "Old Rec- 
ords" (belonging to William E. Dodge) ; in 1876, "The Duel of Burr 
and Hamilton " and " The Capture of Andre " (belonging to J. Abner 
Harper), and " A Camp Raid " (the property of Fletcher Harper, Jr.) ; 
in 1877, "Reserves awaiting Orders" (belonging to R. B. Livermore) ; 
in 1878, " Meditation " (belonging to J. W. Casilear) and " Poke o' 
Moonshine." To the Water-Color Exhibition he has sent " Changing 
Guard, 1776," " New England Turkey-Shoot " (belonging to N. T. 
Bailey), and "On Guard, 1861." 

[No response to circular.] 

Seel, Adolf. (Ger.) Born at Wiesbaden, 1829. Member of the 
Royal Society of Water-Color Artists of Belgium. Studied at Diissel- 
dorf Academy, and was a disciple of K. Sohn. Resided in Paris for 
two years, and passed two other years in Italy ; traveled also in Spain, 
Portugal, Africa, and the Orient. On these journeys he made many 
sketches. At the National Gallery, Berlin, is his "Arabian Court- 
Yard in Cairo," which was sent to the Paris Exposition of 1878. 

Sdge", Alexandre. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Chevalier of the Legion 
of Honor. Pupil of Flers and Cogniet. Painter of landscapes. His 
" Oaks of Kertregonnec " is in the Luxembourg. To the Salon of 
1878 he sent "The Green Road" (Seine et Marne), belonging to 
M. Hede. 

Seiffert, Karl Friedrich. (Ger.) Born in 1809. Pupil of the 
Berlin Academy and of Biermann. He paints landscapes and por- 
traits. He has spent some time in Italy, but lives now in Berlin. 
His picture of the "Blue Grotto of Capri" is in the Berlin National 
Gallery. 

Seisser, Martin B. (Am.) Born in Pittsburg, Pa., 1845. He 
went to Europe in 1868, studying under Carl Otto in Munich. In 
1869 he entered the Royal Academy of Bavaria, receiving corrections 
from Piloty, Schwind, and others. He remained in Munich until 
1871, when he returned to Pittsburg, where his professional life has 
since been spent. Among his works are portraits of Francis Mur- 
phy, Rev. Carl Lorch, Col. Henry Hays, and others ; and a picture 
entitled " The Crusaders," painted in 1875, which was stolen in 1878 
at an auction sale in Philadelphia. 

Sell, Christian. (Dane.) Born at Altona, 1831. Studied at Diis- 
seldorf Academy. He is a disciple of Th. Hildebrandt and W. von 
Schadow. Traveled in Germany and Belgium, and followed the 
Prussian army in the wars of 1866 and '70. Paints military genre 
subjects and scenes from the older German wars. In the National 



ARTTSTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 249 

Gallery at Berlin is his " Scene at the Battle of Koniggratz." At the 
Leipsie Museum is his " Soldiers in the Thirty- Years' War dividing 
Booty." 

Sellier, Charles Auguste. (Fr.) Born at Nancy. Prix de Rome 
in 1807. Medals in 1865 and '72. Pupil of Leborne and Cogniet. 
At the Salon of 1875 he exhibited " The Return of the Mendicant 
Friar'' and '• Christ in the Tomb"; in 1872, "A Nereid." This 
artist paints many portraits, two of which were at the Salon of 1878. 

Sellstedt, Lars Gustaf, N. A. (Am.) Born in Sweden, 1819. 
in life as a sailor, following the sea for some years. In 1842 he 
settled in Buffalo, N. Y., where the better part of his professional life 
has been spent. Here he began to study art without a master, and 
made portraiture his specialty. In 1846 he met Thomas Le Clear, and 
profited much by the association. In 1858 he began to exhibit in the 
National Academy, New York. In 1859 he sent the head of a Jewish 
Rabbi, which attracted some attention. In 1871, when he was elected 
an Associate of the National Academy, he contributed his own por- 
trait, which is now owned by the Buffalo Fine Art Academy. He 
exhibited a portrait of William G. Fargo in 1874, and was elected 
Academician. From 1862 to '76 he was Corresponding Secretary and 
Superintendent of the Buffalo Fine Art Academy, an institution which, 
with Le Clear, William H. Beard, and others, he was instrumental 
in founding. He was its President in 1876 and '77, and, from prefer- 
ence became again its Superintendent in 1878. Among Mr. Sellstedt's 
portraits may be mentioned those of Judge Verplanck and Mrs. Fargo 
(belonging to William G. Fargo), Millard Fillmore (belonging to the 
Buffalo Club), E. G. Spaulding and wife, Dr. William Shelton, George 
W. Clinton, LL. D., in the Natural Science Rooms, Buffalo, and 
others, including eleven " kit kat " portraits of distinguished citizens 
of Buffalo, — mayors, judges, lawyers, etc.., in the City Hall of that 
city. His u Abandoned," a marine picture, is in the possession of 
David Gray of Buffalo, and other genre and marine pictures of more 
M importance .are owned in Buffalo and elsewhere. 

" One of the very best portraits of the year is that of Mr. L. G. Sellstedt, painted by 
himself. It is not possible to conceive a more unaffected piece of realism."— New York 
Tribune, April, 1871. 

" The half-length of an artist — probably himself— by Mr. Sellstedt of Buffalo, turn- 
ing from hi* easel to 8|>eak to a friend or to look at a sitter, is the finest portrait in this 
year's Exhibition ; gravely strong in color, while the head is painted with wonderful 
roundness and reality." — New York Leader, April, 1871. 

Semper, Gottfried. (Ger.) Born at Hamburg, 1804. Professor 
of the Academy at Dresden. Member of the Academy of Marlborough 
House. Professor of Architecture at Zurich. Medal at Paris, 1867. 
This architect studied at Munich and Paris, and visited Italy, Sicily, 
and Greece. He acquired at Dresden a great reputation as an instruc- 
tor, and was charged with the decoration of the antique cabinet of the 
Royal Museum. He also superintended the construction of the Hos- 
11 * 



250 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

pital of the Ladies of Saint- Maternite, and in 1839, by order of the 
King, constructed the new theater, which proved a great success. He 
was also architect of the new synagogue, the Villa Oppenheim, and 
the new Royal Museum, commenced in 1847, which he conducted 
only to the first floor. It was finished after his designs, with the ex- 
ception of the cupola. He reconstructed the church of St. Nicolas 
at Hamburg. On account of political troubles he left Germany for 
England in 1848, and soon became a member of the Academy of 
Marlborough House. In 1856 he was called to Zurich, where he has 
been Professor of Architecture and Director of the School of Archi- 
tecture of the Polytechnic Academy of the Confederation. Semper 
has written some valuable works on architecture and kindred subjects. 

Settegast, Josef. (Ger.) Born at Coblenz, 1813. Studied in Dus- 
seldorf and Frankfort, and went to Rome. Upon his return to Ger- 
many he executed frescos in the Maximilian Church at Diisseldorf, 
which established his reputation as a painter. 

Shalders, George. (Brit.) (1825-1873.) Landscape-painter. 
He introduced animals into his pictures, and executed many pictures 
of the scenery of Surrey and Hampshire, besides views in Ireland. 

Shapleigh, F. H. (Am.) Born in Boston, 1842. He has spent 
his professional life in his native city, and was elected a member of 
the Boston Art Club in 1874, but received his art education in the 
studio of Lambinet in Paris. A landscape-painter. Among his more 
important pictures are, " Venice " (belonging to A. F. Harvey, Boston), 
French landscape (belonging to J. C. Howe), " Cathedral Rocks " (to 
C. O. Foster), "Mount Washington" (to W. F. Robinson), " Yo- 
semite Valley " (in the possession of Henry C. Bacon, San Francisco), 
" Mirror Lake " (owned by David Dudley Field, New York), " Co- 
hasset Harbor " (owned by Martin Bates), etc. 

" Shapleigh is engaged on a winter subject, already nearly finished, the composition 

of which is novel and decidedly pleasing The snow is represented with great 

fidelity, and the cold atmosphere of winter, the dark and brittle foliage, and so forth, 
are also rendered capitally." — Boston Post, March 14, 1878. 

Shattuck, Aaron D., N. A. (Am.) Born in the State of New 
Hampshire, in 1832. In 1850 he entered the studio of Alexander 
Ransom in Boston, and painted portraits. Later, he became a pupil 
of the National Academy of New York, settling finally in that city. 
He first exhibited, at the National Academy in 1856, a study of wild- 
flowers and grasses. In 1861 he was elected Academician. Among 
his earlier works are, " Glimpses of Lake Champlain," " Autumnal 
View of Androscoggin Scenery," " Sunset on the Lake," and others. 
In 1869 he sent to the National Academy, " Hillside, Lake Cham- 
plain" and " Morning Light" ; in 1870, " Lake Champlain" and "A 
Study of Rocks" ; in 1871, "The New England Farm" and "A 
Group of Sheep"; in 1872, "White Hills in October" ; in 1873, 
"Sheep" ; in 1874, "Sheep and Cattle in Landscape" (belonging to 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 251 

J. II. Sherwood); in 1875, "The Old Homestead" and "Haying- 
Time " ; in 1876, " The Road to Sinisbury, Ct." and " Autumn near 
Stockbridge, Mass."; in 1877, " Granbury Pastures" and "Cattle 
Grazing." His " Stockbridge Scenery " (25 by 42) brought $ 660 at 
the Johnston sale in 1876. 

" Shattuck is exact, graceful, and often effective ; there is a true pastoral vein in him. 
His best cattle and water scenes, with meadows and trees, are eloquent of repose and of 
nature." — TYckerman's Book of the Artists. 

Shaw, Richard Norman, A. R. A. (Brit.) Student of the Royal 
Academy. Received silver medal for architectural drawings in 1852, 
gold medal in 1853, and traveling studentship in 1854. He has fur- 
nished designs for many public and private buildings throughout 
Great Britain, turning his attention chiefly to country-houses. He 
was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1872, and Acad- 
emician in 1878. 

Shaw, Annie C. (Am.) Born at Troy, N. Y., 1852. She has 
lived for some years in Chicago, studying art under H. C. Ford of 
that city. She was elected an Associate of the Chicago Academy of 
Design in 1873, and Academician in 1876, the first woman upon 
whom the distinction has been conferred. Among her paintings are, 
" On the Calumet " (1874), belonging to J. H. Dole ; " Willow Island " 
(1875), belonging to C. L. Hutchinson ; " Keene Valley, N. Y." 
(1875), to A. A. Hunger ; " Ebb-Tide on the Coast of Haine" (1876), 
to William Butterfield ; "Head of a Jersey Bull" (1877), to Hrs. 
Jenny F. Kempton ; " Returning from the Fair " (1878), exhibited in 
Chicago, Boston, New York, and elsewhere. Her " Illinois Prairie " 
was at the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876. 

" Annie C. Shaw has steadily advanced in the profession, and has achieved decided 
success in painting landscapes, having studied from nature in successive summers at 
Mackinac, the Adirondacks, the Rock River region, the coast of Maine, and in the quiet 

nooks of Massachusetts Her latest painting is a study from life of an Alderney 

bull, which is a marked departure from her previous attempts, and is faithful to nature. 
It is a bold, strong picture, good in form, and filled with vigorous characteristics of 
animal life." — Milwaukee Evening Wisconsin, 1877. 

"Annie C. Shaw has finished her upright landscape, of medium size, combining the 
best results of her studies for many years. It bears the title ' Returning from the Fair,' 
from the group of Alderney cattle in the road curving through the forest. The eye of 
the sfjectator is struck with the rich mass of foliage passing from the light green of the 
birches in the foreground, where the light breaks through, to the dark green of the dense 
forest, shading into the brownish tints of the early September-tinged leaves. Farther 
on, the eye is carried back through a beautiful vista formed by the road leading through 
the center of the picture, giving a fine perspective and distance through a leafy archway 
of elms and other forest-trees, that gracefully mingle their branches overhead, through 
which one catches a glimpse of deep-blue sky. As the eye follows this roadway to its 
distant portion, the sun lights up the sky, tingeing with a mellow light the group of 
small trees and willows, contrasting beautifully with the almost somber tones of the 
dense forest in the middle distance." — Chicago Times, April, 1878. 

Shirlaw, Walter. (Am.) Born in Paisley, Scotland, 1837. He 
was taken to America in 1840, and has spent his professional 



252 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

life in Chicago, Munich (Bavaria), and New York, studying in 
Munich for some years under Professors Rabb, Wagner, Ramberg, 
and Lindenschmidi, eminent men of the various schools there. He 
was elected Academician of the Chicago Academy of Design in 1868, 
Associate of the National Academy, New York, in 1878, and is at 
present (1878) a professor in the Art Students' League in the latter 
city. His " Toning of the Bell," a number of " Heads," and minor 
works are owned in Chicago. To the Society of American Artists, 
of which he was one of the original members and first President, he 
sent, in 1878, " Good Morning," " The Young Patrician," " Sleep," 
and a study of a " Head/' To the National Academy, in 1877, he 
sent " Sheep-Shearing in the Bavarian Highlands " ; in 1878, " The 
Bather " and a portrait. 

His " Toning of the Bell" and " Feeding the Poultry " were at the 
Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876 ; " Sheep-Shearing in 
the Bavarian Highlands," at the Paris Exposition of 1878. 

" Mr. Slnrlaw, a student of Munich, exhibited two exceptionally strong and admirable 
■works, evincing remarkably dexterous powers of manipulation." — Prof. Weir's Official 
Report of the American Centennial Exhibition of 1876. 

Shumway, Henry C, N. A. {Am.) Born in Middletown, Ct., 
1807. He settled in New York at an early age, and during his long 
professional career has been a resident of that city. He was a stu- 
dent of the American Academy of Fine Arts in 1828 and '29, and 
one of the early members of the National Academy of Design, having 
been elected Academician in 1832. In 1829 he began his career as 
an artist by painting on ivory, exhibiting his work annually at the 
National Academy for many years. As a portrait-painter he was 
popular and successful, and has numbered among his sitters many 
prominent citizens of New York and other places. In 1838 he 
was commissioned to go to Washington, D. C, to paint Henry Clay, 
the picture being owned at present by Mrs. Gideon Lee of New 
York. 

Shurtleff, R. M. (Am.) Born at Rindge, N. H. After studying 
drawing at the Lowell Institute, Boston, and at the National Acad- 
emy, New York, he settled in the latter city, where most of his pro- 
fessional life has been spent. Among his pictures are, " A Race for 
Life," " The American Panther," " The Still Hunter" (belonging to 
George Dwight, Jr., of Springfield, Mass.), and the " Wolf at the 
Door," owned in Utica, N. Y. 

" ' A Race for Life ' [N. A., 1877] is the most remarkable animal picture in the Exhibi- 
tion. It will surprise every one who overlooked the artist's 'Panther' of last year, 
and who only remember him by his landscapes. Scene and subject are equally grim 
and terrific. A weird winter forest ; gleams of a coppery sunset burning low behind the 
trees ; prints of flying feet on the crisp, livid snow ; and a horde of ravenous gray wolves 
dashing forward in an animal frenzy of pursuit, the foremost seeming to spring bodily 

from the canvas The open, slavering mouths, the swift vigor of the legs and 

paws, the hair bristling into knotty points and rising along the back, are all repre- 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 253 

sented with a power which makes the sjKictator's flesh creep. It is rather a ghastly nul»- 
jei-t which Mr. Hhuittoff lias chosen, but he has succeeded in giving it the necessary 
tragic dignity." — -Veir York Tribune, April 2S, 1878. 
"Mr. Shurtleir has executed a grimly humorous painting, 'The Wolf at the Door,* 

representing an open studio door, with the easel and hand of the artist just dimly 
visible within, and hungrily waiting outside a lone gaunt wolf, evidently just at the point 
of starvation or he would not call at that unpromising abode." — Springfield Republican. 

Siegert, August. (Ger.) Born at Xeuwied, 1820. Studied at 
Diisseldorf and paints historical subjects, among which are, " The 
Entrance of Luther into Worms," " Frederick defending his Son 
pressed upon by the Soldiers of the Emperor," etc. lie also paints 
genre scenes, such as " Hospitality," " Children in an Artist's Studio/' 
and " The Service of Love," in the Museum of Hamburg. 

Siemiradsky, Henri. (Pole.) Born at Kharkow, 1843. Gold 
medal at St. Petersburg. Medal at Philadelphia. Pupil of the 
Academy of St. Petersburg. Prix de Rome. His picture of " The 
Confidence of Alexander the Great in his Physician" (1870) attracted 
much attention. At Philadelphia he exhibited " The Amulet Seller." 
His picture of " The Christians burning for Torches before Nero " 
excited an unusual interest in Rome. It combines remarkable effects 
of^ magnificence and horror. The architecture, the pomp of the Em- 
peror with his Empress, courtiers, and attendants, would well befit a 
scene of peace and happiness. But the horrible effect of placing in 
the midst of all this splendor these Christian martyrs, bound and 
ready for the burning, with the executioners waiting to apply the 
torches, can only be realized in seeing it ; for so well is the reality 
made to appear in this picture, that one feels by turns horror and 
pity, as fully as if in a life scene of the same character. The wonder 
is great that so young an artist could have grasped the thought or its 
execution. This picture is to be permanently in St. Petersburg. 

To the Paris Exposition (1878) he sent the above-described picture, 
M The Cup or the Woman," and " The Shipwrecked Beggar." 

Signol, Emile (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1804. Member of the In- 
stitute, and Officer of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Blondel, Gros, 
and l'£cole des Beaux- Arts. He gained the prix de Rome in 1830. 
Hit picture of "The Adulteress" (1840) is at the Luxembourg, and 
gained much fame for the artist by reproductions in engraving which 
are widely known. Several works by this master are at Versailles. 
His " Death of Sapphire " is at the Madeleine. He has executed much 
decorative work in other churches of Paris, the last of which was 
that of Saint-Auirustin. He has also painted many portraits. 

Silva, Francis A. (Am.) Born in New York, 1835. He in- 
herited his ftastfl i'<>r art from his grandfather, Col. Francois Jean of 
the French army, who was exiled during the first Revolution, went 
to Lisbon, devoted himself to his brush, and became Painter to the 
Spanish Court. Young Silva, whose father opposed his studying art, 
after trying several trades, was finally apprenticed to a sign-painter in 



254 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

New York, remaining until the outbreak of the Civil War. He served 
in the army as an officer until 1866, when he returned to his native 
city. In 1868 he began his professional career as an artist. He is 
entirely self-taught. He was elected a Member of the Water-Color 
Society in 1872, of the Artists' Fund Society in 1873. He devotes 
himself particularly to marine views. Among his more important 
works are, " Moonrise " (belonging to Eugene Van Kensselaer), " On 
the Hudson" (to Dr. Judson of St. Petersburg, Russia), "Sunrise in 
Boston Harbor " (to H. P. Cooper), " A Gray Day at Cape Ann " (to 
R. G. Dun), "Bass Rocks" (to George C. Waldo), "Sunset on the 
Coast " and " Moonrise, Hudson River " (to J. A. Jameson), " New 
London Light " (to Cortlandt Palmer), " The Twilight Hour " (to 
Jackson Schultz), "Hudson River" (to Cyrus Butler), "The Yacht 
Magic " (to W. T. Garner), and " Moonlight on the Chesapeake " (to 
W. J. Best). 

Simart, Pierre Charles. (Fr.) Born at Troves (1806-1857). 
Member of the Institute. He wished to be a sculptor from his earli- 
est years ; but he met with positive persecution from his family on 
account of this desire, and at seventeen he went to Paris with a pen- 
sion of only 300 francs a year from his native city. It is easy to see 
that on this sum he could only live in misery, and his trials had such 
an effect on him that one of his friends says of him, that he entered 
on life with a broken heart. He was always a prey to intense sad- 
ness, as may be seen from his letters (rttude sur sa vie et son ceuvre 
par M. Gustave Eyries). In 1833 Simart obtained the grand prix de 
Rome, and went there at about the same time as Ingres, who replaced 
Horace Vernet. His first notable work was the "Disk-Thrower," 
models of which, in plaster, are at the Louvre and at the Museum of 
Troyes. His " Orestes taking Refuge at the Altar of Pallas " was 
called by Ingres the most beautiful statue of modern times. It was 
seen at the Salon of 1840. The plaster model is at the chateau of 
Vendreuve, and the marble is at the Museum of Rouen. He next 
executed two bas-reliefs, "Sculpture" and "Architecture," which 
were placed on the right wing of the Hotel de Ville at Paris; two 
large figures, "Justice" and "Abundance," attached to the columns 
ot" the Barriere du Trone; the bust of a Prince of the House of Or- 
leans, at Versailles; "Philosophy," a marble statue in the library of 
the Luxembourg ; a bust of M. Jourdan at the Museum of Troyes ; 
and "An Angel consoling Tobias," belonging to Daguet, a molder 
at Paris. All these works were executed between 1840 and '43. In 
1841 Simart married, and from that time his life was happier. He 
then undertook a " Virgin and Child " for the altar of the Virgin in 
the Cathedral of Troyes. It is now in its place, — a marble group, — 
both figures are standing, but the position seems to separate too much 
the mother and child ; altogether, it is not satisfactory in sentiment. 
Simart next executed the bas-reliefs for the chateau of the Duke de 






ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 255 

Luynes at Dampierre ; they are among his best works. For several 
years previous to 1857 he was occupied with the decoration of the 
tomb of Napoleon I. at the Invalides, and the ceiling of the Salon 
Carre at the Louvre. These works are not likely to increase his 
fame. In 1857 he composed the charming group of "Art demanding 
Inspiration from Poesy" (in marble), in the Salle du Trone at the 
palace of the Luxembourg. This was completed from his model after 
hi3 death. At the Museum of Troyes is a collection of models' from 
his works. 

Simler, Friedrich Karl Josef. (Ger.) Born at Hanau (1801 - 
1872). Studied at Munich. Landscape and animal painter. He 
remained some time at Vienna, and traveled in Upper Austria and 
Stvria ; later, in France and Italy. He was for a time at Hanover, 
where he had been commissioned to paint a number of portraits. In 
1862 he settled at Aschaffenburg. At the National Gallery, Berlin, 
is his picture of a u Wild Bull." The three sons of Simler all studied 
art. 

Simmons, William Henry. (Brit.) Born in 1811. Received 
his art education in London, and gained a medal of the Society of 
Arts while still a young man. Among the more important of Sim- 
mons' plates are, " The Queen in the Highlands," after Landseer ; 
" The Marriage of the Prince of Wales," after Frith ; " A Wee Bit 
Fractious," " His Only Pair," " Daddy's Coming," "The Poor Man's 
Friend," " Baith Faither and Mither," and others, after Thomas Faed; 
" Christ and his Disciples " and " The Light of the World," after Hol- 
man Hunt; "The Proscribed Royalist" and "Rosalind and Celia," 
after Millais ; " Not Guilty," after Abraham Solomon ; " Both Puz- 
zled" and " Steady, Johnny !" after Erskine Nicol; " Luff Boy," after 
Hook ; " Great Expectations," after Henry Le Jeune ; " The Shep- 
herd of Jerusalem," after P. R. Morris ; and many more. 

Simmons, Franklin. (Am.) Born in Maine, 1841. He devoted 
his leisure time as a boy to drawing and painting, and finally to model- 
ing, executing portrait busts as soon as he graduated from college. 
In Washington, during the Civil War, he found ample employment 
in the cutting of busts of statesmen and soldiers, and the execution in 
bronze of several statues for public monuments. He settled in Rome 
about 1867. Among his works executed there are the statues of Roger 
Williams and Governor King, in Washington ; " Jochebed," for Mr. 
W. S. Appleton ; " Roger Williams," in bronze, in Providence, R. I., 
unveiled in 1877 ; and the Naval Monument in front of the National 
Capitol. 

" The general expression of the principal figure [Jochel>ed] is the union of mental ac- 
tivity with external repose. This is well contrasted with the restless pl.iyfulness of the 
smiling boy, Moses. The design of Joehebed's figure would almost amount to grandeur 
were not its simplicity lessened in a degree by the exuberance of the drapery, or rather 
by its being cut up into numberless folds.*' — Art Journal, October, 1873. 

" The story tells itself with all-sufficient completeness, but the merits of the statue 



256 ARTrSTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

[' Jochebed '] do not by any means exhaust themselves with a satisfactory exposition of 
the subject. The face is full of expression, and the draperies, while broadly massed, 
as draperies in sculpture always should be, are minutely and admirably studied in a 
manner that is suggestive of some of the best antique work." — Great American Sculptors. 

Simonetti, Cavaliere Attilio. (Jtal.) Born at Rome. Profes- 
sor at Naples. Pupil of Fortuny. At the Paris Salon of 1875 he 
exhibited " The First Fable" ; in 1876, "After the Ball" ; in 1878, at 
the Exposition, " Via Giuseppe Mancinelli, at Palazzolo." At the 
Johnston sale, New York, 1876, his " Proclamation in Front of the 
Pantheon " (32 by 63) sold for $ 2,725. 

Simonsen, Niels. (Dane.) Born in Copenhagen, 1807. Mem- 
ber of the Academy of Copenhagen. Studied first in Copenhagen 
under Professor Lund. Went then to Munich. He traveled in Al- 
geria, and, by a picture of " Lord Byron's Corsair," won considerable 
fame. His best works are sea- views, among which may be mentioned 
" Fishermen rescuing a Ship in the North Sea." " A Betrothal, Swe- 
den " may be commended for its representation of national customs. 

Simpson, William. (Brit.) Born in Glasgow. He commenced 
his career as an artist in his native city, where he was apprenticed to 
a firm of lithographers. Later, he removed to London, entering the 
employment of the Messrs. Day. He went to the Crimea in 1854, and 
during the Russian war sent home sketches which were published ill 
book form. He was in India in 1859, and has visited many countries 
on the staff of the Illustrated London News. He is a member of the 
Royal Geographical Society, and exhibits occasionally sketches in 
water-colors, as well as in black and white. 

Sinding, Otto. (Norwegian.) Medal at Philadelphia, where he 
exhibited " Ruth and Boaz," which Weir pronounced the most impor- 
tant work in the exhibit of Norway, and says, in his report, " This 
picture is a production of mature art, admirable in sentiment, in 
breadth and freedom of execution, and fine in color. The figures are 
thoroughly well drawn, and the landscape skillfully rendered." 

" Otto Sinding is a coast-painter who makes one actually hear the roar of the breakers 
as they chase each other in tumultuous masses, and lash the rocks with a power that 
may be felt." — Benjamin's Contemporary Art in Europe. 

Skill, F. John. (Brit.) Contemporary English water-color artist. 
Member of the Institute, living in London. Devotes himself to land- 
scape and marine views, with occasional figure-pieces. Among his 
works are, " Rising Tide," " By the Sea," « A Shrimper," " Thames 
Lock in June," " Sheep, South Devon," " Little Cow-Keeper," " Her 
First Ball," etc. To the Paris Exposition he contributed, " View on 
the Tiber " and " San Lorenzo, Genoa." 

" The tints are so delicately chosen, are so skillfully combined, that we must look 
upon this little sketch [F. J. Skill's 'Sunrise on the Grand Canal, Venice,* 1875] as 
equal in effect to anything in the Exhibition. It is conceived and executed in the true 
spirit of water-color art." — Art Journal, February, 1875. s 

Skovgaard, Peter Christian. (Dane.) (1817-1876.) Profes- 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 257 

sor at the Academy of Copenhagen, where he studied and won medals. 
He is one of the most celebrated landscape-painters of Denmark. Few 
northern artists have so nearly approached Claude Lorraine. His 
drawing is better than his color. His pictures of wood-scenes and of 
gently flowing streams are especially good. Several of his best works 
are at Christiansborg. His portraits are also good. Eight of his Dan- 
ish landscapes were exhibited at the Paris Exposition of 1878. 

Slingineyer, Ernest. (Belgian.) Born at Loochristi, 1823. Chev- 
alier of the Order of Leopold. He won several medals. Pupil of 
Wappers. He sent to the Brussels Exposition of 1842 "The Avenger," 
afterwards seen at Paris and The Hague, and sold in Cologne. His 
" Death of Classicus " was purchased by the King of Holland ; the 
" Death of Jacobsen," by the King of Belgium ; " Camoens," by the 
King of Portugal. He has painted several battle-pieces, which have 
been much praised. Among his other works are, " The Christian 
Martyr," " An Episode of St. Bartholomew's," and " The Physician 
Vesalius following the Army of Charles V.," a chef-d'oeuvre, now at 
the Museum of Brussels. 

Small, "William. (Brit.) Contemporary English landscape-artist, 
residing in London. Member of the Institute of Painters in Water- 
Colors. Among his works in that medium are, " The Fallen Monarch," 
" Going to Market," " Connemara," " Early Spring," " The Harvest- 
Field," " The Last Offer," " At Hampstead," etc. In oil he has ex- 
hibited of late years, at the Royal Academy, "After the Storm," 
"The Highland Harvest- Home," and others. To the Paris Expo- 
sition of 1878 he sent " The Wreck " (in oil), and " Beech-Trees " and 
" Poplars " (in water-colors). 

" 'The Wreck' [R. A., 1S76], by William Small, is a noble specimen of grandly painted 
seascape, certainly one of the masterpieces of the ye«r." — Art Journal, July, 1876. 

Smart, John. (Brit.) Born in Edinburgh. Educated in his 
native city, spending the greater part of his professional life there. A 
landscape-painter, he devotes himself particularly to the wild and 
barren scenery of the Highlands of Scotland, frequently introducing 
cattle into his pictures. For some years Associate of the Royal Scot- 
tish Academy, he was elected Academician in 1877. Among his later 
works may be noted, " Autumn, Glen Lyons," " Drumharry," " Head 
of Glen Ogle," "Hill Frank, — Clipping-Day," "A Feeding Storm," 
" In the Pass of Lyon," " Far from the Busy World," " When Hill- 
taps a J were White," " Halt of the Herd," etc., exhibited at the Royal 
Academy and the Royal Scottish Academy. His " Gloom of Glen 
Ogle" was at the Philadelphia Exhibition of 1876; "Among the 
Yellow Corn," at Paris in 1878. 

" Perhaps John Smart has risen more rapidly into deserved esteem than most of his 
compeers. He has certainly never achieved greater success than in ' The First of Win- 
ter's Snaws ' [R. S. A., 1S74]. The chill from the whitened hillside creeps into our 
blood, and we feel that none but a veritable scion of cauld Caledonia could have ex- 
pounded a theme of such thoroughly bleak nationality." — Art Journal, March, 1874. 

Q 



258 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Smillie, James. (Brit-Am.) Born at Edinburgh, 1807. When 
about eleven years old he was apprenticed to a silver-engraver. This 
master died soon, and Smillie was for a short time with Edward 
Mitchell, an engraver of pictures. When he was less than fourteen he 
was taken to America. His father and brothers established them- 
selves as jewelers m Quebec, and James worked for them. His skill 
attracted the notice of Lord Dalhousie, who gave him a passage to 
London, with letters of introduction. This proved an injury, for the 
engravers to whom he applied demanded large prices for his instruc- 
tion, supposing him to be a protege of Lord Dalhousie. He therefore 
went to Edinburgh, and remained five months with Andrew Wilson, 
and then returned to Quebec. He went to New York City in 1829, 
and has since resided there. He has been much connected with bank- 
note engraving. He was made a member of the National Academy in 
1851. His plate of " The Convent Gate," after R. W. Weir, first at- 
tracted public attention to his work. His series after Cole's " Voyage 
of Life " and Bierstadt's " Rocky Mountains " are too well known to 
require praise. Among his best plates are, " The Bay and Harbor of 
New York," after John J. Chapman ; " Dover Plains," after A. B. 
Durand ; " Evening, in the New York Highlands," after Weir ; 
" Mount Washington, from Conway Valley," after John F. Kensett ; 
"American Harvesting," after J. F. Cropsey ; "The Land of the 
Cypress," after D. Huntingdon ; etc. 

"James Smillie, conceded to be the best landscape engraver in America, is altogether 
a self-educated man, overcoming every obstacle by patient, persistent effort. His plates, 
the most important in this particular branch of the art yet produced in this country, 
executed with great taste and ability, are replete with fine artistic feeling, and are truth- 
ful translations of the originals." — W. S. Baker, American Engravers and their Works. 

Smillie, James D„ N. A. (Am.) Born in New York, 1833. Son 
of James Smillie, N. A., by whom he was educated as an engraver on 
steel, devoting all his time to that profession, until 1864, when he 
turned his attention to drawing and painting, without, however, the 
benefit of schools or masters. He has spent his professional life in New 
York, studying also among the great mountain-ranges of the United 
States, the Sierras, the Adirondacks, the Rocky, White, and Catskill 
Mountains. He made a short visit to Europe in 1862. He was elected 
an Associate of the National Academy in 1868, Academician in 1876, 
and member of the Council the next year. He was one of the original 
members of the American Society of Painters in Water-Colors, in 
1866, was its first Treasurer, and its President from 1873 to '78, con- 
tributing regularly to its exhibitions as well as to those of the Acad- 
emy of Design. Among the more important of his works may be 
mentioned, " Evening among the Sierras of California " (owned by 
S. T. Williams of New York), " The Lifting of the Clouds, White 
Mountains " (belonging to George Hearne of New York), and " Dark 
against Day's Golden Death " (belonging to William M. Smillie of 



ARTISTS OF TUE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 259 

New York), all in oil ; in water, " A Scrub-Race on the Western 
Prairies" (owned by W. Wilson of New York) and "The Track of 
the Torrent, Adirondack! " (in the collection of F. W. Lewis of Phila- 
delphia). tk The Scrub-Race " and " A Study from Nature, Ausable 
River" were at the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876. 
For Appletons' "Picturesque America" he illustrated "The Saguenay," 
and furnished the letter-press description as well as the illustration for 
the article on the Yosemite in the same work. 

'• In the coloring the tones on the mountain side, in shadow, are almost opalescent in 
effect, and are brought together and harmonized in the most artistic way ['Evening, 
High Sierras, Cal ,' X. A., IS16]." — Art Journal, June, 1876. 

Smillie, George H., A. N. A. (Am.) Born in the city of New 
York, 1840. Son of James Smillie, line-engraver, and younger brother 
of J. D. Smillie, N. A. He entered the studio of James M. Hart at 
an early age, spending the greater part of his professional life in New- 
York. In 1871 he made a trip to the Rocky Mountains and the 
V - mite Valley for the purpose of study and sketching, and in 1874 
he visited Florida. He was elected an Associate of the National Acad- 
emy in 1S64, and member of the American Water-Color Society in 
L868, contributing regularly to the annual exhibitions of both insti- 
tutions. Among his more important works are, " Boquet River and 
Hills " (N. A., 1869), belonging to A. Van Valkenburg, New York ; 
" Under the Pines of the Yosemite " (water-color, 1872), owned by 
James Smillie ; " A Lake in the Woods " (N. A., 1872), the property 
of Touro Robertson, New York ; " A Florida Lagoon " (N. A., 1875), 
owned in Utica. To the Centennial Exhibition he sent (in oil) his 
" Lake in the Woods " and (in water-color) "Sentinel Rock, Yosemite 
Valley " and " Study on the Ausable River, N. Y." 

" George H. Smillie's sketches do infinite credit to him in their carefully finished exe- 
cution and in the understanding of the subject A certain refinement runs through 

all his artistic work, no matter what be the subject. It enhances the charm of his more 
quiet scenes, and modifies, without losing the character of bolder, wilder views. His 
sketches in detail show a careful study which form most promising and valuable means 
for important works." — New York Herald, November, 1870. 

" There is a charming picture of good size by George H. Smillie, ' Under the Pines of 
the Yosemite.' Two large, brown pine trunks rise about thirty or forty feet to the top 

of the picture. Indians are camping beneath, etc The work is full of artistic 

Kkill and of poetical reeling, and gives us delightful associations with this romantic and 
unexplored region." — Atlantic Monthly, March, 1872. 

Smirke, Sir Robert, R. A. {Brit.) (1780-1867.) Son of Rob- 
ert Smirke. a prominent painter and member of the Royal Academy. 
He studied architecture in Italy, and elsewhere on the Continent, and 
upon his return to England was employed upon the British Museum 
and the new London Post-Office. He designed many buildings in 
• Britain, public and private, and was knighted by William IV. 
in 1831. He was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1813, 
Academician in 1823, and for many years was Treasurer to the Acad- 
emy, resigning that position in 1850. 



260 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Smirk e, Sydney, R. A. (Brit.) Born in the early part of the 
present century. Younger brother of Sir Robert Smirke. He en- 
tered the schools of the Royal Academy as a youth, gaining the gold 
medal in 1819. In 1848 he was elected an Associate of the Royal 
Academy, Academician in 1860, Professor of Architecture in 1861. 
Treasurer in 1862, Trustee in 1867, and was placed upon the list of 
Honorary Retired Academicians in 1877. Among the better known 
of the London buildings designed by Sydney Smirke are the Carleton 
Club, the Conservative Club, the Reading- Room and other portions 
of the British Museum, and the new Royal Academy, Burlington 
House, completed in 1874. He was also engaged in the restoration of 
the Temple Church, London, York Minster, Lichfield Cathedral, and 
many fine edifices throughout the kingdom. 

Smith, Colvin. (Brit.) (1793-1875.) Began his art career at 
an early age, entering the schools of the Royal Academy in London, 
and studying and painting in Italy. He settled in Edinburgh in 
1827, and became a member of the Scottish Academy in 1829. He 
exhibited as late as 1871. A portrait-painter, having many of his dis- 
tinguished fellow-countrymen for his subjects ; among these, Macken- 
zie (" The Man of Feeling "), Jeffrey, Sir Walter Scott, and others. 
His portrait of Scott was very successful, has been engraved, and it is 
said that over twenty copies of it were painted by the artist, for many 
of which Sir Walter gave sittings. 

Smith, T. L., A. N. A. (Am.) Born in Glasgow, 1825. He emi- 
grated to America at an early age, and studied for a short time under 
George H. Boughton, in Albany, N. Y. He opened a studio in that city 
in 1859, remaining there three years. In 1862 he removed to New 
York, where the rest of his professional life has been spent. He has 
been a frequent contributor to the exhibitions of the National Acad- 
emy, and was elected an Associate of that institution in 1870. He 
began his career as a painter of winter scenes, with a strong love for 
the season itself, and has devoted himself almost exclusively to the 
delineation of landscapes of that character, with marked success. 
Among his more important works are, " The Homestead in Winter," at 
the National Academy in 1871 ; "The Grove in Winter," at the National 
Academy in 1872 (owned in Albany, N. Y., by Captain Sweeney) ; 
a The Deserted House," at the National Academy in 1873 (now in the 
collection of W. H. Hamilton of New York) ; " The Eve of St. Agnes," 
exhibited at the Boston Art Club in 1873 (now in the Saville Collection 
of that city) ; and " Woods in Winter " and " Woods in Autumn," his 
two largest works, belonging to J. H. White of Boston. " The De- 
serted House " and " The Eve of St. Agnes " were at the Centennial 
Exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876. 

" Mr. Smith paints, conscientiously, winter trees and snow, a farmer's cosy home, out- 
buildings, and wood-piles ; the calm, warm glow of a winter sky and clouds, truly and 
faithfully, according to his own inspiration The merit of this picture ['Winter 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 261 

Homestead '], as far as style is concerned, is the art, which conceals art, an individuality 
of thought and expression by which we recognize and sympathize with a fresh local in- 
spiration from nature." — Xcw York Evening Post, April, 1870. 

Smith, George. (Brit.) Born in London, 1829. He entered the 
schools of the Royal Academy in 1845, and was also for some time a 
pupil of Cope. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy about 1850, 
and regularly since. Among his early works are, " The Launch " and 
" The Bird-trap." In 1861 he exhibited " The Seven Ages "; in 1862, 
"Searching for the Well"; in 1864, " Beware of the Dog"; in 1865, 
"Light and Darkness"; in 1867, "The Valentine"; in 1869, "A 
Game of Speculation "; in 1S70, " In the Study "; in 1872, " Paying 
the Legacies"; in 1873, "Who comes here ?"; in 1875, "A Scrap of 
Nature "; in 1876, " Out in the Cold World "; in 1878, " The Soldier's 
Wife." 

Smith, A. Cary. (Am.) Born in New York, 1837. He studied 
under M. F. H. De Haas, and has spent his professional life in his 
native city, devoting himself to marine views. He has been a frequent 
exhibitor at the National Academy for some years, sending, in 1867, 
" Off Little Gull "; " The Yacht Eva " (belonging to L. L. Lorillard), 
in 1868; " Sunrise," in 1869; "The Last of the Old Ship " and " Nor'- 
wester, Coast of Maine," in 1871; "Windy Day," in 1876 ; "The 
Yacht Dauntless " (belonging to Philip Schuyler), in 1877 ; and 
"Perils of the Sea," in 1878. He has also painted the yacht "Co- 
lumbia," for Lester Wallack; the " Sappho," for William P. Douglas; 
the " Wanderer," for James Stillman; and many more. 

Smith, F. Hopkinson. (Am.) Born in Baltimore, 1838. A self- 
educated artist, and prominent member of the Water-Color Society, of 
which he was elected member in 1871, and Treasurer in 1873, a posi- 
tion he still holds (1878). He is a constant contributor to its exhibi- 
tions, sending, in 1871, " Summer in the Woods, White Mountains"; 
in 1S74, "The Old Man of the Mountains"; in 1875, "Overlook 
Falls" and "Walker's Falls, Franconia Notch, N. H."; in 1876, "A 
Summer's Day" and "Grandfather's Home"; in 1877, "In the 
Darkling Woods " (belonging to William D. Irwin, Chicago)," Under 
the Leaves " (belonging to William D. Sloane, New York), and " De- 
l " (the property of Charles F. Havermeyer) ; in 1878, " The Old 
Smithy," " Looking Seaward," etc. His professional life has been 
spent in New York. His " Old Cedars, Franconia Mountains " and 
" In the Darkling Wood" were at the Centennial Exhibition of 1876. 
His " Profile; Notch " (in charcoal) is in the collection of Samuel V. 
Wright; "A Cool Spot" (in water-color), in the collection of John 
Jacob Astor. 

" ' Walker's Falls, Franconia Notch ' [N. A., 1875], by F. Hopkinson Smith, is remark- 
ably successful in the delineation of the falling water and the moss-covered rocks which 
line the ravine. Tlie tree foliage is fresh, and shows some clever gradations from the 
dark tones in shadow to the topmost branches, which are under the influence of the 
noonday sunlight." — Art Journal, March, 1S75. 



262 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

" Smith belongs much to the same set of landscapists as Bellows, Durand, and in cer- 
tain respects, Bristol and Whittredge ; painters who represent American scenes of cheerful 
vegetation, usually under bright skies. Mr. Smith is succeeding very well in water- 
colors, a branch that neither of the other men we have named, except Bellows, has 
affected much : and in the recent Water-Color Exhibition of the Academy, if the eye 
rested upon a clear brook, whose clean amber-colored bed reflected green forest-trees 
that nodded about it ; or if the visitor espied some rustic bridge that connected two 
sides of a country village, with gray-white church-steeple ; or where a couple of lovers 
reposed upon a bank thick grown with wild-flowers — it was quite probable that each of 

them was painted by this artist Mr. Smith's paintings are all of a summer-like 

character ; and, although the arrangement of his compositions is sometimes a little 
formal, the detailed objects are well handled ; and whether it be rocks, water, or wood- 
laud glades, all indicate a very genuine lover of Nature, and that a hard and enthusias- 
tic student is diligently seeking to transcribe her moods." — A rt Journal, March 11, 1876. 

Smith, Frank Hill. (Am.) Born in Boston, 1841. He received 
his early training in the schools of that city, and studied architecture 
there with Hammatt Billings. Later, he entered the Atelier Suisse 
in Paris, and was also a pupil of Bonnat, and other masters in Paris 
and Italy. His professional life has been spent largely abroad, in 
Belgium, Holland, Italy, the interior of France, and four or five 
years in Paris. For some time he has been a resident of Boston. He 
was a Judge of Fine Arts at the Philadelphia Exhibition of 1876, 
and is a Director of the School of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. 
He has painted portraits, figure-pieces, and landscapes ; and his 
works are in public and private collections in Boston and elsewhere 
in the United States. " Venice," one of the most important of his 
landscapes, belongs to the Boston Somerset Club ; another view of 
"Venice," to Hon. William Claflin of Massachusetts. Within the 
last two years Mr. Smith has given special attention to fine interior 
decoration, his study and observations in Europe being in some degree 
directed with a view to this work. He made many drawings and 
sketches of famous Continental interiors which he brought to America. 
He decorated the Windsor Hotel and Opera House, Holyoke, Mass., 
and several private and public buildings in Boston and Cambridge. 
In this work he has been assisted by a large corps of artists who have 
had more or less training under him, but the principal part of the 
labor he has performed himself. 

" Among the notable pictures at Doll and Richards' are the portraits of two children, 
by Frank H. Smith, which we think will prove more generally attractive than such pic- 
tures usually do ; inasmuch as, besides containing excellent likenesses of the originals, 
it is a charmingly arranged and painted interior, with figures such as any lover of good 

pictures might enjoy The painting of these accessories is worthy of much praise. 

The characteristics of the different materials, and particularly of the vase, are very 
skillfully and admirably rendered, while the values of color and tone are managed with 
fine artistic skill and feeling. Although we have spoken first of the painting of the 
accessories, they by no means occupy a place of undue prominence, but are subserved 
with much good taste and forbearance to the figures." — Boston Transcript, February 17, 
1S73. 

"Mr. Smith has by no means abandoned the production of oil-paintings, yet much of 
liia time is now occupied in drawing designs for the adorning of the walls of buildings, 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 263 

both public and private. The movement that he has had the honor of inaugurating in this 
city is now moving rapidly on to success, lie has recently completed the drawing- 
rooms of a residence on Commonwealth Avenue, giving to each detail a careful treatment 
that has made the walls veritable works of avt." — Boston Post, July 3, 1878. 

Smith, William Russell. (Am.) A native of Scotland. He was 
taken to America at an early age by his family, who settled in Pitts- 
burg, Pa,, and apprenticed the lad to Lambdin in Philadelphia, 
under whom he learned to draw. Returning to Pittsburg, he became 
a scene-painter in the theater there, and held a similar position in the 
Walnut Street Theater, Philadelphia, where he is said to have dis- 
played uncommon proficiency in the higher kinds of scenic art. Sub- 
sequently he became painter of landscapes of a smaller and more 
elaborate style in Philadelphia, where his 6tudio still is, and where 
his pictures are highly prized and many of them owned. His " Cave 
at Chelton Hills " was at the Centennial Exhibition of 1876. 

" We have seldom found landscaj>es more cherished by their owners or more enjoyed 
by those intimately acquainted with their authentic, charms than are Russell Smith's. 
.... In the happiest efforts of this artist we find the fresh and free impression of na- 
ture reproduced with singular vitality " — Tuckerman's Book of the Artists. 

Sohn, Karl Ferdinand. (Ger.) Born at Berlin (1805-1867). 
Professor at the Diisseldorf Academy. Studied at the Berlin Academy. 
In 1826 he followed Schadow to Diisseldorf. In 1830 he went to It- 
aly, and afterwards traveled in France, Belgium, and Holland. In 1832 
he became Professor at Diisseldorf, where he takes high rank among 
the artists of that school, and has instructed many of its best men. 
At the National Gallery, Berlin, are his " Lute-Players," " The Rape 
of Hylas," and " Portrait of a Woman." At the Leipsic Museum is 
his u Donna Diana." Among his other works are, " The Lorelei," 
"Vanity," "The Sisters," " Tasso and the Two Leonoras," "Romeo 
and Juliet," " The Judgment of Paris," " Diana at the Bath " (a chef- 
d'oeuvre), etc. At the Johnston sale, New York, 1876, " Diana sur- 
prised by Acteon" (28 by 23) sold for $575. 

Solomon, Abraham. (Brit.) Born in London (1824-1862). 
He entered the schools of the Royal Academy at the age of fifteen, 
and was considered a very promising pupil. His first work, "The 
Courtship of Ditchen " was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1843, 
followed by others in a similar vein. His best-known pictures, 
which have become popular on both sides of the Atlantic by means 
of the engravings of them, are, "Third Class, — the Parting "and 
"First Class, — the Return," exhibited in 1854; "Waiting for the 
Verdict, 7 ' in 1867 ; and "Not Guilty," in 1859. His last exhibited 
works were, "Le malaile imaginaire." and u Consolation," in 1881 ; 
and "The Lout, Found," in 1^02. the year of his (hath. 

Sonntag, "William Louis, N. A. (Am.) Born in Western Penn- 
sylvania, 1822. Hi- professional life has been spent in Cincinnati, 
Ohio, in Italy, where he studied and painted for some time, and in the 



264 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

city of New York, which has been his home during the last twenty 
years. He is a member of the Artists' Fund Society, and was in 
1861 elected a full member of the New York Academy of Design. 
As an artist he is entirely self-taught. His first work of importance 
was entitled "The Progress of Civilization," comprising four paint- 
ings ; his second, " Alastor, or the Spirit of Solitude," from Shelley ; 
his third, " The Eagle's Home," painted for Charles M. Stewart of 
Baltimore ; his fourth, " The Dream of Italy," property of Mr. 
Dinsmore of New York; his fifth, "The Spirit of the Alleghanies," a 
large canvas, purchased by the Marquis of Chandos, now Duke of 
Buckingham; sixth, "A View of the Shenandoah," lately in the 
possession of Jay Cooke of Philadelphia ; seventh, " Recollections of 
Italy," belonging to Abram Adams of Boston. Among his later 
works exhibited at the National Academy may be mentioned, " Sun- 
set near Bethlehem, N. H.," in 1871 ; " Sunset in the Swamp, near 
the Coast of Maine," in 1873; "The East River in February," in 
1874; "A View in Vermont," in 1875 ; "The Gulf " (belonging to 
John H. Sherwood), in 1876; "Deserted," in 1877 ; "A Passing 
Shower" and "Clement's Brook, N. H.," in 1878. His "Hour after 
Sunset " and " Hour before Sunrise," on the Susquehanna, com- 
panion pictures, belong to Mrs. E. D. Kimball of Salem ; and "A 
View near Harper's Ferry, Va.," to Mr. C. H. Miller of the same city. 
His " Sunset in the Wilderness " he sent to the Centennial Exhibition 
in Philadelphia in 1876. 

Sdrensen, C. F. (Dane.) Member of the Academy of Copenha- 
gen. Medal at Philadelphia, where he exhibited " Sunset on the 
Atlantic, — an Old Frigate in a Gale." To Paris, in 1878, he sent, 
" Vessels of War leaving the Faroe Islands," " Fishers on the Coast 
of Norway," and " Navigators passing Kinn Sound on the Way to 
Bergen." 

Soumy, Joseph-Paul-Marius. (Fr.) Born at Puy Amblay 
(1831-1863). Student at FEcole Imperiale at Lyons, where he 
gained the first prize. In 1852 he entered l'Ecole des Beaux- Arts at 
Paris, and studied under Henriquel Dupont. In 1854 he took the 
grand prix de Rome, and soon went to Italy. Not long after he 
painted the portrait called " La Carolina," at the Museum of Mar- 
seilles. He made designs after the masters ; one from a portrait by 
Giorgione in the Doria Palace, and from it he made an engraving. 
This was his chef-d'oeuvre. Could he have lived he would have had 
an influence on the engraving of his time. But his life was a sad one, 
and, after having become nearly blind, he threw himself from the 
window of a maison de sante, and was killed. 

Spangenberg, Gustav Adolf. (Ger.) Born at Hamburg, 1828. 
Royal Professor and member of the Berlin Academy, also member 
of Vienna and Hanau. Medals at Cologne, Berlin, and Vienna. 
Studied in Hanau under Peiissier. In 1849 went to the Antwerp 



, 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 265 

Academy for a short time. In 1851 went to Paris, where he remained 
six years ; he there studied a short time under Couture, and spent a 
year in the atelier of the Triqueti. He visited Italy, England, and 
Holland, and settled in Berlin. His subjects are principally illus- 
trative of German history and literature. At the National Gallery, 
Berlin, are his "Luther translating the Bible "and the "Procession 
of the Dead." His picture of " Luther with his Family" is at the 
Museum at Leipsic, and has become well known from the engraving 
by Louis Schulz. He occupied himself for some years in a series of 
pictures from the life of Luther, whom he has depicted with his com- 
panions and occupations in a very graphic manner. He has thor- 
oughly studied their habits and customs, he represents much in 
detail, and, in short, gives an elevated and charming idea of a 
cultured, pure, and refined life. One of these works, " Luther, his 
Wife, Children, and Melancthon," painted in 1867, is in the collec- 
tion of Mr. Probasco of Cincinnati, and is, perhaps, the only work by 
Spangenberg in the United States. His "Death and its Cortege" 
(belonging to the National Gallery, Berlin) was at the Paris Exposi- 
tion, 1878. 

Spartali, Marie (Mrs. William J. Stillman). (Brit.) Daugh- 
ter of a well-known Greek merchant, who has been for many years a 
resident of London. Miss Spartali was a pupil of Ford Madox 
Brown, and is one of the most prominent disciples of that artist's 
peculiar school. She exhibited, for the first time in public, at the 
Dudley Gallery in 1867, " Lady Pray's Desire," followed by " Chris- 
tiana," in 1868 ; " Burning the Love-Philter," in 1869. To the Royal 
Academy, in 1870, she sent " St. Barbara " and " The Mystic 
Tryst"; in 1873, "The Finding of Sir Launcelot disguised as a 
Fool " ; in 1875, " Mona Lisa" ; in 1876, " The Last Sight of Fiam- 
metta" ; in 1877, "Roses and Lilies." To the Exhibition of the 
Water-Color Society at the National Academy, New York, she sent 
" Lilacs and Roses," " Launcelot and Elaine," " On a Balcony," 
"Tristram and Isolde," in 1875 ; "Roses," in 1877 ; and "Bloom- 
Time," in 1878. To the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia in 
1876 she contributed, " Sir Tristram and Queen Yseult." " On the 
Balcony" belongs to Col. John Hay, and "Mona Lisa" to Mrs. 
Charles Fairchild of Boston. 

" Miss Spartali has a fine power of fusing the emotion of her subject into its color, 
and of giving aspiration to both ; beyond what is actually achieved one sees a reaching 
towards something ulterior. As one pauses before her work a film in that or in the mind 
lifts, or seems meant to lift, and a subtler essence from within the picture quickens the 
sense. In short, Miss Spartali, having a keen perception of the poetry which resides in 
beauty and in the means of art for embodying beauty, succeeds in infusing that per- 
ception into the spectator of her handiwork." — W. 31. Rossetti. in English Painters 
of the Present Day, 1S71. 

" ' The Finding of Sir Launcelot disguised as a Fool ' and ' Sir Tristram and La Belle 
Fonde ' [R. A., 1S73, both in water-color] are two illustrations of the * Mort d'Arthur' 
which have many commendable artistic qualities. Mrs. Stillman has brought imajnna- 
12* 



266 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

tion to her work. These vistas of garden landscape are conceived in the true spirit of 
romantic luxuriance, when the beauty of each separate flower was a delight. The 
figures, too, have a grace that belongs properly to art, and which has been well fitted to 
the condition of pictorial expression. The least satisfactory part of these clever draw- 
ings is their color. There is an evident feeling of harmony, but the effect is confused, 
and the prevailing tones are uncomfortably warm." — Art Journal, July, 1873. 

Spencer, Frederick R, N. A. (Am.) (1805-1875.) Studied 
without a master in his native village, Canistota, N. Y. ? where he 
practiced his profession as a portrait-painter until he settled in New 
York about 1830. He was elected Associate of the National Acad- 
emy in 1837, and Academician in 1846, painting the portraits of many 
distinguished men. He retired to Canistota in 1853. His name 
rarely appeared in the catalogues of the metropolitan exhibitions after 
that year, although he continued to paint until the time of his death. 

■ Mr. Spencer carried his work to a high degree of finish, and in his style resembled, 
in a measure, that of the late Henry Inman. He was generally successful in procuring 
the likeness of a sitter." — Art Journal, May, 1875. 

Spertini, Giovanni. (Ital.) Of Milan. At Philadelphia he 
exhibited a bas-relief in terra-cotta, " The Modern Cain," " Love's 
Messenger," and a portrait of Giuseppe Dassi, Vice-President of the 
Italian Centennial Commission. He received a medal. 

Spread, Henry F. (Brit. -Am.) Born at Kinsale, Ireland, 1844. 
He studied art for four or five years at the schools of South Kensington, 
gaining several prizes. Later, he studied painting in water-colors un- 
der Riviere and Warren. In 1863 he went to Brussels, and became 
a pupil of Slingineyer. The next year he visited Australia, settling in 
Melbourne, where he painted many portraits, making sketching-tours 
in New Zealand and Tasmania. He removed to the United States 
in 1870, spent a few months in New York, and settled in Chicago, 
where his studio now is. He is a member of the Chicago Academy 
of Design. Among his more important works are, " The Bard," in 
the collection of Mr. St. Clair, London ; " Thoughts of Home," now 
in Melbourne ; " Chicago rising from her Ashes," belonging to Mor- 
ris Martin ; " The Roman Honey-Girl," also owned in Chicago, and 
many portraits. 

Spring, Edward A. (Am.) Born in the city of New York in 
1837. His first visit to Europe was made in 1846-47, when, at the 
age of nine years, he modeled a head of " Medusa " in the studio of 
Hiram Powers. In 1852 he drew from casts in the studio of H. K. 
Brown, the winter of 1861-62 he spent in the studio of J. Q. A. 
Ward, and he studied under Dr. Rimmer in 1864 and '65. Besides 
these, he has spent five years in study in England and France. In 
1862 Mr. Spring occupied a large studio with William Page, N. A., at 
Eagleswood, N. J. In 1868 he discovered in the neighborhood fine 
modeling clay, peculiarly suitable for terra-cotta work, and turned his 
attention to that branch of art, establishing the Eagleswood Art Pot- 
tery Company in 1877. He exhibited at the National Academy, N. Y., 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 267 

l bust of Ma/zini in 1S73, and a number of terra-cotta works in 1878. 
In 1876 he exhibited over two hundred objects in clay in Washington, 
illustrating many branches of scientific and art study, which now 
belong to the National Museum of Education. Mr. Spring has been 
favorably known as a lecturer in different American cities, and is suc- 
cessful as an instructor. Of his lectures in Boston, in 1875, the Ad- 
vertiser of that city said : — 

" His genuine enthusiasm for art in every form, and generous aid in endeavoring 
to spread the art idea by his practical lectures on modeling and instructive conversa- 
tions, will be long remembered by those who have enjoyed them. We hope Mr. Spring 
may find it to his advantage to return to Boston and make it his home." 

Sprosse, Carl. (Gcr.) Born in Leipsic (1819 - 1874). He was 
a very poor boy, and struggled for the merest existence. Water- 
color painter of architectural subjects. His views at Venice and 
those of Roman ruins are among his best works. Later, he painted 
some Grecian views. At the Museum at Leipsic are, " The Interior 
of a Gothic Church," " View of an Ancient Cemetery," " View of the 
Cathedral at Re^ensburg." 

Stacquet, N. Lives at Brussels. We only know this artist by 
his small water-color pictures, exhibited in America of late by Mr. 
Daniel Cottier. Two of them, belonging to Mr. W. L. Andrews, 
were in the Exhibition of the Water-Color Society of New York, 
early in the winter of 1878. Mr. Clarence Cook spoke of them as 
worthy of the admiration they received, and said they were " expres- 
sive of the artist's love for what is tenderest and most evanescent in 
natural beauty." 

Staigg, Richard M., N. A. (Rrit.-Am.) Native of Leeds, England, 
but taken to America in his youth, having previously received no art 
education, except such as was gathered during a short season of em- 
ployment as a draughtsman in an architect's office, and a few evenings' 
instruction at the Leeds Mechanical Institute. He began the practice 
of art at Newport, R. I., as a miniaturist, receiving there encourage- 
ment and valuable assistance from Allston. His excellent miniatures 
of Allston, Everett, Webster, and others are well known through the 
engraved copies of them. Some of his portraits on ivory, exhibited 
at the Royal Academy, excited considerable attention from English 
art critics and connoisseurs. He was elected a member of the Na- 
tional Academy, N. Y., in 1861, and has been a member of the Boston 
Art Club for some years. He went to Paris in 1867, remaining until 
1869, and exhibiting at the Salon of 1868 portraits of the sons of 
John Munroe the banker and of the daughter of Richard Green- 
ough. He went to Europe again in 1872, and spent two years. 
Since his return he has painted portraits in Boston and Newport, with 
an occasional nnnre picture and landscape study. Among his earlier 
works are, " The Crossing-Sweeper," " The Sailor's Grave," " Cat's 
Cradle," « News from the War," " By the Sad Sea Waves," " Beach 



268 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

at Newport," " Moonlight," " Gathering Fagots," and " Going Home 
in the Snow." He exhibited at the National Academy, N. Y., in 
1870, " First Steps," « St. Jerome," " The Lesson," and several por- 
traits ; in 1875, "The Italian Chestnut-Gatherer" ; in 1876, "Ital- 
ian Peasant Knitting"; in 1877, " Italian Girl's Head"; in 1878, 
" Boy's Head " and " Margaret." His " Empty Nest " and " Cornice 
Road, Italy " were at the Philadelphia Exhibition of 1876. 

"Staigg has painted several remarkable portraits, wherein the character and tone are 

masterly, and the skill exhibited as delicate as it is truthful He has a fine feeling 

and delicate insight ; there is nothing crude or exaggerated in his style, and he compre- 
hends the refinements of his art, of which his ideal is exalted, and to which his devotion 
has been single and earnest." — Tuckerman's Book of the Artists. 

Stallaert, Joseph. (Belgian.) Medal at Philadelphia, where he 
exhibited " Palm Sunday, Albano, Italy," " The Fan," and " The Cel- 
lar of Diomede, — Scene at the Destruction of Pompeii." At Paris, in 
1877, was his " Polyxena sacrificed to the Manes of Achilles." To the 
Exposition of 1878 he sent "The Death of Dido," "The Sacrifice of 
Polyxena," and " The Last Combat of the Gladiators." 

Stanfield, Clarkson, R. A. (Brit.) (1793-1867.) Began life 
as a sailor. With a decided taste for art from his youth, and fondness 
for the drama, he became a scene-painter, exhibiting his first pictures 
of a smaller character in the galleries of the Society of British Artists, 
of which he was an original member in 1823. His "Wreckers off 
Fort Rouge," one of the earliest of his important works, was at the 
British Institute in 1827. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy 
about the same year, and was elected an Associate in 1832, and Acad- 
emician in 1835. He traveled extensively on the Continent, painting 
many landscapes, but his most successful works were his marine 
views, many of which have been engraved. His " Battle of Trafalgar" 
belongs to the United Service Club in London ; his " Wind against 
Tide " (in the Paris Exposition of 1855) was painted for Robert Ste- 
phenson. "The Victory towed into Gibraltar after Trafalgar" and 
the " Siege of St. Sebastian " were in the collection of Sir Morton 
Peto. In the National Gallery, London, are his " Entrance to the 
Zuyder Zee " (R. A., 1844), a sketch of his " Battle of Trafalgar," 
his "Lake of Como," and "The Canal of the Giudecca." His 
pictures are very popular and command very high prices. At the sale 
of the collection of Charles Dickens, in 1871, a thousand guineas were 
given for a view of " Eddystone Lighthouse," a scene painted by Stan- 
field in the course of a few hours for one of the famous amateur plays 
organized by Dickens and his friends. 

Stanfield, George C. (Brit.) Son of Clarkson Stanfield. Has ex- 
hibited frequently at the Royal Academy for some years, sending, in 
1860, " The Church of St. Michael, Ghent"; in 1861, "Saarburg Cas- 
tle "; in 1863, " On the Lahn " ; in 1864, " The Amphitheater, Verona"; 
in 1867, "At Luzern" ; in 1868, "Angers" ; in 1871, "A view in 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 2G9 

Brittany"; in 1S72, "Dunbar Castle, Scotland"; in 1873, "Holy 
Island, Northumberland" ; in 1875, "Entrance to the Harbor of La 
Rochelle, France''; in 187C, "On the Banks of the Nile, Upper 
Egypt." 

Stanhope, R. Spencer. (Brit.) An English artist, belonging to 
the pre-Raphaelite school. He first exhibited at the Royal Acad- 
emy about 1860. In 1862 he sent "The Flight into Egypt" ; in 
1864, ;< Rhtpah " ; in 1865, " Beauty and the Beast " ; in 1868, " The 
Footsteps of the Flock" ; in 1869, " The Rape of Proserpine ■ ; etc. 
The more important of his later works have appeared in the Grosvenor 
Gallery, including " Eve Tempted," " Love and the Maiden," and 
" On the Banks of the Styx," in 1877 ; and " Night," " Morning," 
" The Sulauiite," and " Cupid and Psyche," the following year. 
His " Water-Gate " and " On the Banks of the Styx" were at the Paris 
Exposition of 1878. 

Stebbins, Emma. (Am.) A native of New York, where, as an 
amateur, she distinguished herself by her drawings in black and 
white, and her paintings in oil. Going to Italy some years ago, she 
settled in Rome, where she worked and studied assiduously as a 
sculptor. Her earliest important work was a statuette of " Joseph," 
followed by " Columbus," " Satan descending to tempt Mankind," 
etc She executed for the Central Park, New York, a large fountain, 
the subject of which is " The Angel of the Waters." She is the 
author of the biography of her friend, Charlotte Cushman. 
[No response to circular.] 

Steell, Sir John. (Brit.) Born in Aberdeen in 1804. He 
studied art in Edinburgh, and later in Italy, remaining in Rome un- 
til 1833, when he opened a studio in Edinburgh, where he has since 
resided. His statue of Sir Walter Scott, in Carrara marble, in the 
well-known Scott monument, on Princess street, Edinburgh, first 
brought him into prominent notice as a sculptor. A duplicate in bronze 
of this figure, cast in 1873, is now in the Central Park, New York, and 
a companion statue of Robert Burns is at present (1878) in course of 
construction. Among the better known of Sir John Steell's works 
are the statues of Wellington, Professor Wilson, Allan Ramsay, and 
Thomas Chalmers, all in bronze, and in the public streets of Edin- 
burgh, and the statue of the Queen in the Royal Institution in the 
same city. He executed the monument to the 42d Highland Regi- 
ment at the Cathedral of Dunkeld ; the monument to the 93d High- 
landers in Glasgow Cathedral ; statues of Lord Melville and Jeffrey ; 
busts of the Queen, Prince All>ert, Duke of Wellington, Duke of 
Edinburgh, Florence Nightingale (the only portrait of any kind for 
which she ever sat), and many mora His last and perhaps most im- 
portant work is the Scottish National Memorial to the Prince Consort, 
in Charlotte Square, Edinburgh, upon the unveiling of which by the 
Queen, in the summer of 1876, the sculptor received the honor of 



270 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

knighthood. Early in his career he was appointed Her Majesty's 
Sculptor for Scotland ; he has been a member of the Royal Scottish 
Academy for many years. 

"The memorial has been for twelve years in course of design and construction. It 
was proposed soon after Prince Albert's death, and has been paid for by public subscrip- 
tion. It is a colossal equestrian statue in bronze, upon a pedestal of Aberdeen granite, 
the whole about thirty feet in height The Prince is in military costume, and his hand- 
some German face and figure are said by persons who knew him well to be faithfully 
portrayed. Horse and rider are gracefully and naturally posed, and the effect is artisti- 
cally fine." — New York Evening Post, September 2, 1876. 

Steell, Gourlay. (Brit.) Born in Edinburgh, where he was 
educated, and where his professional life has been spent. He is a 
younger brother of Sir John Steell. A painter of animals and of 
scenes in humble Scottish life. He is a member of the Royal Scot- 
tish Academy, exhibiting there and at the Royal Academy in London. 
On the death of Landseer, in 1873, he was appointed Animal Painter 
for Scotland to the Queen. Among his later works are, "A 
Challenge " (Highland bulls), * On the Trail of the Deer," " Noble, 
Waldman, and Corran " (favorite dogs of the Queen, to whom the 
picture belongs), "The Open Window" (water-color), "Rough Art- 
Critics," "When Greek meets Greek," " Death of Old Mortality," 
etc. His " Spring in the Highlands " belongs to J. H. Sherwood. 
His " Robbie Burns and the Field Mouse," " Visit of the Queen to a 
Highland Cottage," and others have been engraved. 

Steffeck, Karl Constantin Heinrich. (Ger.) Born at Berlin, 
1818. Professor and member of the Berlin Academy ; also member 
of the Vienna Academy. Medals at Berlin, Paris, and Philadelphia. 
Studied at Berlin Academy under Franz Kriiger and Karl Begas, and 
then at Paris under Delaroche. Visited Rome, and in 1842 returned 
to Berlin. At first he painted historical subjects ; later, animals and 
sporting scenes. He has executed a quantity of lithographs and etch- 
ings, — many of these are studies of horses. At the National Gal- 
lery, Berlin, is his " Albert Achilles in the Struggle with the Nurem- 
bergers, 1450," painted in 1848. At Berlin, in 1876, he exhibited a 
portrait of the Emperor and a " Gypsy Scene " ; and at Paris, in 1878, 
" Attrape ! ! " belonging to the Emperor of Germany, and " Chez 
l'accouchee," belonging to Baron von Arnim. 

Steinbriick, Eduard. (Ger.) Born at Magdebourg, 1802. Mem- 
ber and Professor of the Berlin Academy. Pupil of Wach. He has 
painted " Mary kneeling before her Son," for the church of St. 
Jacques at Magdebourg, and a few landscapes, but most of his sub- 
jects may be called romantic genre. At the Berlin National Gallery 
are, " Children Bathing " and " Marie with the Elves." Among his 
works are, " The Elves," " The Nymphs," " Red Riding-Hood," " Un- 
dine in a Boat," etc. 

Steinheil, Louis-Charles-Auguste. (Fr.) Born at Strasbourg, 
1814. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Decaisne. This 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 271 

artist has gained a large part of his reputation by his mural and glass 
painting. He has executed pictures in almost every kind of style, 
and works in water-colors as well as oils. In 1876 he received the 
commission to execute some frescos in the Cathedral of Strasbourg. 

Steinle, Eduard. Born at Vienna, 1810. Member of the Acad- 
emies of Berlin, Vienna, Munich, and Hanau. Medals at Berlin and 
Paris. Pupil of the Academy of Vienna and of Cornelius at Rome. 
Professor at Frankfort. His decorative paintings are at the Chateau 
Keineck, the Cathedral of Cologne, the Museum of Cologne, the Im- 
perial Hall of Frankfort, at Riga, in the church of Saint iEgidius at 
Mu nster, and in other places. The cartoons of the last named are in 
the Leipsic Museum. In the Berlin National Gallery there are also 
cartoons from the " World's History," and some scenes from Shaks- 
pere's " Twelfth Night " or " What You Will." To the Paris Exposi- 
tion, 1878, he sent " The Virgin and Child," in water-color, belonging 
to the Princess Marie de Lichtenstein, and cartoons of nine frescos in 
the chapel of the Princes of Lowenstein at Heubach-sur-Mein, and 
ten others from frescos at the Museum of Cologne. 

Stephens, Edward B., A. R. A. (Brit.) A native of Exeter. 
He entered the schools of the Royal Academy at an early age, and in 
1843 gained the gold medal for a work in alto-relievo. Later, he went 
to the Continent, remaining three years in the study of sculpture at 
Rome. To the Great Exhibition in London, in 1851, he sent " Satan 
Vanquished " and " Satan tempting Eve." Among his earlier works 
are, "Eve contemplating Death," " Angel of the Resurrection," etc. 
To the Royal Academy, in 1861, he contributed, "Evening, — Going 
to the Bath," a group in marble ; in 1863, " Alfred the Great in the 
Neatherd's Cottage " (purchased by the Corporation of the City of 
London, and now in the Mansion House) ; in 1865, when he was 
elected an Associate of the Royal Academy, " Euphrosyne and Cu- 
pid " ; in 1867, "Lady Godiva" ; in 1868, "Coaxing"; in 1869, 
" Saved from the Wreck " ; in 1871, " Zingari " ; in 1873, "A Deer- 
Stalker " ; in 1874, "Leander"; in 1875, " Evening " and "Morn- 
ing" ; in 1876, "The Bathers" ; in 1878, "The Little Carpenter." 
He has also executed many statues and busts. 

Stevens, John. (Brit.) Born in Ayr (about 1793-1868). En- 
tered the schools of the Royal Academy in London in 1815, gaining 
in 1818 two silver medals. He practiced portrait-painting in his 
native town for a few years, when he went to Italy, settling in Rome, 
and making that city his home for many winters. He was a member 
of the Royal Scottish Academy. His " Standard-Bearer " is in the 
Scottish National Gallery. 

Stevens, Alfred. (Brit.) Born in Blandford, Dorsetshire (1817 — 
1875). He displayed marked talent for painting as a child, and 
at the age of sixteen he went to Italy, studying the works of Sal- 
vator Rosa in Florence. Later, he entered the studio of Thorwaldsen 



272 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

in Rome, turning his attention to plastic art, and remaining with that 
master for some years. He returned to England in 1843, when he 
settled in London, and connected himself with the Art Schools of 
Somerset House. In 1850 he removed to Sheffield, executing what is 
known as " decorative work," in iron and silver, for manufacturing 
firms of that city. He received in 1857 the commission from govern- 
ment for the great work of his life, the monument to the Duke of 
Wellington in St. Paul's Cathedral, London. The sum voted by Par- 
liament (£ 14,000) for the execution of this commission was utterly 
insufficient and exhausted long before its completion. He expended 
upon it much of his private means, was censured for his delays in the 
work, and suffered much grief and disappointment during its progress, 
leaving it unfinished at his death, eighteen years after the commission 
was given him. It has nevertheless added greatly to his fame as a 
sculptor. He was the author of several admirable portrait busts of 
the members of the family of his friend, Mr. Collman, and others. 
He executed the mosaic " Isaiah " in the arch of the dome of St. 
Paul's, turning his attention also to painting and architecture. 

"Stevens' figures were always (like nearly all first-rate sculpture in the best times) 
part and parcel of something else. Sculpture was to him as intimately related to archi- 
tecture as was his own flesh to his own bones, and so we find that his noblest sculptured 
works, — the life-sized marble figures in Dorchester House, and the bronze figures of the 
Wellington memorial, —are, like the best sculpture of which the world knows, integral 
and essential jiarts of architectural compositions. Since Michael Angelo made the 
monument to Lorenzo de Medici, no stronger nor more vigorous work has been made in 
marble than these Dorchester House figures. The pose of them, the manner in which 
the heads and shoulders are related to the cornice over them, the modeling of the flesh, 
all speak of an artist greater than our modern scale of measurement can by any possi- 
bility gauge. These figures belong to the culminating period of Stevens' career, and 
are contemporary with the groups of the Wellington monument, his last and crowning 
work."— -Edward W. Godwin, F. S. A., Art Monthly Review. 

" Those interested in such matters, however, were well aware that Stevens had de- 
signed some of the finest works of the day ; innumerable decorative objects of daily use, 
distinguished by the finest taste, decorations proper in metal, stone, and marble, to say 
nothing of works of higher pretensions, with which the names of manufacturers, rather 
than of the real designer, were associated. A fine example of his peculiar skill is seen 
by those who pass the British Museum, and admire, probably without knowing to whom 
they are indebted for them, the excellent designs of the little sejant lions on the iron 
posts before the grille, and, we believe, the very handsome grille itself. In fact, his 
works are numerous, yet they rarely bear his name." — Athenceum, May S, 1875. 

Stevens, Joseph. (Belgian.) Born at Brussels, 1819. Chevalier 
of the Orders of Leopold and of the Legion of Honor. After studying 
at Paris, be made his debut at the Salon at Brussels in 1844 and at 
Paris in 1847. He continued to exhibit at Paris until 1863, since 
which time he has appeared at but one Salon, that of 1870, with " The 
Intervention." He paints genre subjects, very frequently with ani- 
mals, and holds a high rank among artists of this type. Among his 
works are, "The Surprise," "An Episode in the Dog- Market at Paris," 
" The Dog and the Fly " (at Paris in 1878), " A Philosopher without 
knowing it," " The Kitchen," « The Corner of the Fire," etc. 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 273 

"Rarely have the Dutch or Flemish artists done better than Joseph Stevens in his 
' Kitchen.' It is an interior animated by no figure ; no interesting cook paring the vege- 
tables while listening to a lover leaning on the window-sill ; no scullion in a white cap 
licking the sauce from his lingers, Joseph Stevens has disdained these vulgar artifices ; 
he has painted, with masterly dexterity, the chimney in brown tones, the stove backed 
with faience, without other objects than the great iron fire-dogs, the toothed turnspit, 
the stewpans polished like antique shields, the kettles glittering, the coffee-pots prat- 
tling ; all this is of a color so true, strong, and beautiful, and so broadly and at the same 
time so exactly rendered, that we arrest ourselves before the ' Kitchen ' as before a Peter 
de Hooge." — TuEorniLE Gautier, Abecedaire du Salon de 1SC1. 

Stevens, Alfred. (Belgian.) Born at Brussels, 1828. Officer of the 
Order of Leopold. Commander of the Order of St. Michael of Bavaria, 
Commander of the Order of Ferdinand of Austria, and Officer of the 
Legion of Honor. Pupil of Navez in Belgium, and of Roqueplan at 
Paris. This painter represents scenes from modern life, and repro- 
duces with great exactness the costumes, furniture, etc., of the time. 
He has exhibited his works in Brussels and Paris since 1849, and in 
reality belongs to the schools of two countries. Stevens sent eighteen 
pictures to the Exposition of 1867 ; among them were, " The Visit " 
(purchased by the King of Belgium), "La Dame Rose" (purchased for 
the Museum at Brussels), " Consolation," " Innocence," " Ophelia," 
"A Duchess," "A Morning in the Country," "A Good Letter," etc. 
At a sale in Brussels, in 1874, "The New Year's Gift" sold for 
£840. Among his later works are " The Bath " and " The Japanese 
Woman." At the Latham sale, New York, 1878, " Springtime of 
Life " (49 by 19) sold for $ 1,050. 

" We have been able to follow this painter (who has grown in France, and who belongs 
to two schools) since his debut. With pleasure we have seen him abandon, little by 
little, his tirst manner, in which solidity degenerated into heaviness, in which the strong 
tones too nearly approached black. Stevens has been transformed under our eyes, and, 
while remaining earnest, he has become one of the best of the painters of modern elegan- 
ces In 'La dame rose,' in ' Une bonne lettre,' the faces of the charming little 

women painted by Stevens are veiled by an obscure tint, which threatens, by the action 
of time, to become darker. To tell the truth, it is the only fault which troubles us in 
these pictures, so well done, so charming to see, and which, taking in the daily realities 
of modern life, will always tell of its costumes, furniture, and elegances." — Paul 
Mantz, Gazette des Beaux-Arts, July, 1867. 

Stever, Gustav Curt. (Russian.) Born at Riga (1823-1877). 
Honorary Cross of the Order of the House of Mecklenburg. Studied 
at the Academy of Berlin. In 1850 he went to Stockholm to paint 
portraits and execute other commissions. In 1854 he went to Paris 
and studied under Couture. Among his works are, "The Death of 
Gottschalk, King of the Wendens," " King David and Abishag, the 
Shunamite," " The Angel of Prayer," " The Last Supper," and " The 
Transfiguration." In 1859 he settled at Hamburg, where he was much 
employed. In 1805 he removed to Diisseldorf, and there painted more 
religious pictures as well as genre subjects, such as u Vandyck at his 
Easel," " Jean Mabuse painting his Dead Child," etc. He was a suc- 
cessful instructor, and executed some excellent portraits. His picture 
12* B 



274 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

of " Master Adam van Noort surprising his Pupil Rubens at his Secret 
Studies" attracted much attention at the Exposition at Berlin in 
1871. 

Stocks, Lumb, R. A. (Brit.) Born in 1812. He began his ca- 
reer as a line-engraver when about twenty-one years of age, furnish- 
ing illustrations for fine editions of English books ; and, later, plates 
of a larger and more important character, such as Webster's " Dame 
School," Paton's " Olivia and Viola," Maclise's " Fitting Moses for the 
Fair " and the " Meeting of Wellington and Blucher on the Field of 
Waterloo," Wilkie's " Gentle Shepherd," T. Faed's " Silken Gown," 
Mulready's " Fight Interrupted," Horsley's " Deserted," E. M. Ward's 
" Marie Antoinette in Prison " and " Charlotte Corday in the Concier- 
gerie." He was elected an Associate Engraver of the Royal Academy 
in 1853, and Academician in 1872. 

Stone, Frank, A. R. A. (Brit.) Born in Manchester (1800- 
1859). He had no instruction in art, and did not adopt it as a pro- 
fession until 1825, devoting himself in the beginning of his career to 
water-color drawing. He joined the Old Water-Color Society in Lon- 
don in 1832, remaining a member about fifteen years. His first pic- 
ture appeared on the walls of the Royal Academy in 1837. In 1840 
he exhibited " The Legend of Montrose," his first important work in 
oil, followed by the " Stolen Interview between Prince Charles and 
the Infanta of Spain," in 1841 ; " The Last Appeal," in 1843 ; " The 
Course of True Love," in 1844 ; "Ophelia and the Queen," in 1845 ; 
" The Impending Mate " and " Mated," in 1847 ; " The Gardener's 
Daughter," in 1850; "A Scene from the Merchant of Venice," in 
1851, when he was elected Associate of the Royal Academy ; " The 
Old Old Story," in 1854 ; " Bon jour, messieurs," in 1857 ; and the 
" Missing Boat," in 1858 : many of which have been engraved. 

" Frank Stone was one of the most graceful of English genre painters. His subjects 
are commonly of a sentimental character, and distinguished for their delicate allusions 
to the ' gentle passion,' and his young women certainly seem very lovable persons. In 
later years he turned his attention much to French subjects, illustrating local manners 
and customs." — Wornum's Epochs of Painting. 

Stone, Horatio. (Am.) (1810-1875.) He was a native of New 
England, and a practicing physician in New York for some time. 
He went to Washington about 1848, devoting, after that period, his 
entire attention to sculpture, executing several statues and busts of 
public men, — Chief Justice Taney, Thomas Jefferson, John Hancock 
(in the Senate Chamber), Thomas Benton, and others. About 1856 
he made his first visit to Italy, remaining several years. 

" Dr. Stone was very enthusiastic in his nature, and had he given his attention earlier 
to the study of art, under a competent master, he might have achieved lasting fame." — 
Art Journal. November, 1875. 

Stone, William Oliver, N. A. (Am.) Born at Derby, Ct. 
(1830-1875). Studied art in New Haven, and painted portraits 
there, as a young man, with considerable success. He settled in New 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 275 

York about 1858, and was made a member of the Academy of Design 
in I860, exhibiting annually until the year of his death. As a por- 
trait-painter he was very popular, and among his eittera have been 
Howell L. Williams (in the Union Club, New York), Daniel Le Roy, 
Mrs. Hoev, James Gordon Bennett, and others. 

"Mr. Stone was an admirable painter of women and children, and some of his pictures 
of this class have never been equaled in America In his hMdHng of these sub- 
jects he threw around them an expression of ideality which was artistic in the highest 
degree, and raised his art far above the level usually attained in portrait pictures. He 
was a prolific painter, and one year sent nine pictures to the Academy." — Art Journal, 
November. 11 

Stone, Marcus, A. R. A. (Brit.) Son of Frank Stone, A. R. A., 
an artist of much repute. Marcus Stone was born in London in 
1840. He worked in his father's studio, inheriting some of his 
father's genius, but receiving little instruction in art. He exhibited 
his first picture, "Rest," at the Royal Academy in 1858. In 1859 he 
sent "Silent Pleadings"; in 1860, "The Sword of the Lord and 
Gideon " ; in 1861, " Claude accuses Hero " ; in 1862, " The Painter's 
First Work" ; in 1863, " On the Road from Waterloo to Paris" (a 
picture containing a portrait of Bonaparte, which attracted some at- 
tention). In 1864 he exhibited "Working and Shirking" ; in 1865, 
" Old Letters " ; in 1866, " Stealing " and " Nell Gwynn" ; in 1868, 
"The Interrupted Duel" ; in 1870, " Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn 
observed by Queen Katherine" ; in 1871, "The Royal Nursery in 
1838" ; in"l872, "Edward II. and Piers Gaveston " ; in 1874, " My 
Lady is a Widow and Childless " ; in 1875, " Sain et Sauf " ; in 1876, 
"Rejected" ; in 1877 (when he was elected an Associate of the 
Roval Academv), " The Sacrifice " and u Waiting at the Gate " ; in 
-. " The Post-Boy " and " The Time of Roses." His " Childless 
Widow" was at Philadelphia in 1876, and at Paris in 1878. 

"This picture ['Claude accuses Hero,' R. A., 1861], instead of looking like the work 
of a very young man, has rather the appearance of being painted with a decision and 
breadth of touch bespeaking one who has painted on from vigorous style into facile 
manner. The ripe facility of pencil is at least equaled by adroit dexterity of grouping 
and disposition of color, so that, as a whole, this is a most winning and attractive pic- 
ture." — Art Journal, June, 1861. 

'• Marcus Stone stands at the head of his craft as a skillful designer and admirable 
painter of pieces of historic genre." —Art Journal, April, 1877. 

Stone, J. M. (Am.) Born in Dana, Mass., 1841. He received 
his art education in Munich, under Professor Seitz and Professor 
Lindenschmidt. lb- has spent his professional life in Boston, where 
he is an instructor in tl <f the Museum of Fine Arts. He 

was elected a member of the Boston Art Club in 1876, exhibiting 
there his " Tuning of the Violin," the same year, considered his most 
important work. Among his portraits are those of Frank Dengler 
the sculptor, belonging to F. X. Dengler, Covington, Ky., and of F. 
W. Tilton of Newport, painted for Phillip- Academy at Andover. 



276 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

" The portrait of Mr. Tilton is not only an admirable likeness, but the best portrait 
Mr. Stone has yet done, and ought to rank him among the first portrait-painters of 
Boston. The artist's thorough knowledge of drawing is shown in the certainty of the 
lines and the firm, vigorous modeling. The execution manifests both strength and nice 
perception ; not a feature is neglected or slurred over, and, at the same time, there is 

no suggestion of higgling The expression and pose are finely conceived, having 

that quality which in portraiture is most difficult to catch, — action. This is partic- 
ularly evident in the rendering of the eyes, which are not set or fixed in gaze, which 
have a peculiarly animated and, at the same time, contemplative glance, ~ a striking 
something which may be expressed in the word 'intelligence.'" — Boston Advertiser, 
June, 1S78. 

Storelli, Felix-Marie-Ferdinand. (Ital.) Born at Turin (1778 — 
1854). Medal at Paris. This landscape-painter exhibited works at 
Paris many times. Some of them were at the palace of Saint-Cloud ; 
others are at the Trianon ; and his portrait of Marshal Schomberg is at 
Versailles. 

Storey, George Adolphus, A. R. A. (Brit.) Born in London, 
1834. Displayed a love of art as a child, and won a prize at school 
for painting in oil when not more than twelve years of age. Between 
1848 and '50 he studied mathematics in Paris, painting in the Louvre 
in his leisure moments. Later, he studied art in London, entering the 
Royal Academy in 1854. In 1852, however, he had sent to the Royal 
Academy his first picture, " A Family Portrait " ; in 1853, " Madonna 
and Child" ; in 1854, "Holy Family," which attracted considerable 
attention. He visited Spain for the purpose of painting and study in 
1863. Among his earlier works are, " Sacred Music," " The Widowed 
Bride " (1858), " The Bride's Burial," and " The Annunciation." His 
" Meeting of William Seymour and Lady Arabella Stuart in 1609 " 
(which first brought him prominently into public notice) was exhib- 
ited in 1864. In 1865 he sent "The Royal Challenge"; in 1867, 
" After You ! "; in 1868, " The Shy Pupil " and " Saying Grace "; in 
1869, "Going to School" and "The Old Soldier" ; in 1870, "The 
Duet " and " Only a Rabbit " ; in 1871, " Rosy Cheeks " and " Lessons "; 
in 1872, " Little Buttercups " and " The Course of True Love " ; in 
1878, " Love in a Maze " and " Mistress Dorothy " ; in 1874, " Grand- 
ma's Christmas Visitors " ; in 1875, " Caught " and " The Whip- 
hand " ; in 1876 (when he was elected Associate of the Academy), 
"A Dancing-Lesson" and "My Lady Belle"; in 1877, "The Old 
Pump-Room at Bath," " The Judgment of Paris," and " Christmas 
Eve " ; in 1878, " Sweet Margery." He sent to the Paris Exposition 
of 1878, "Scandal" and "The Old Soldier." 

"George A. Storey has still to acquire more finish, delicacy, and completeness of exe- 
cution to fit his pleasant class of subjects ; and he will then fill a place of his own in 

which he will not find many competitors Mr. Storey, too, may for the moment 

almost claim a monopoly of pretty, playful vaudeville. His portraits of children and 
girls are particularly pleasing and happy in arrangement." — Tom Taylor, in English 
Artists of the Present Day. 

" Among the younger men of our living school of painters we cannot point to a more 
conscientious worker than Mr. Storey. His principal characters arenas they should be, 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 277 

his chief study, but the accessories are not neglected His canvases arc never 

Overloaded, and on the Other hand they are never wanting in subject-matter of more or 
less interest The domestic life of a past generation affords him an ample Held for the 
display of many of the beet qualities one desires to see in a picture." — Art Journal, 
J line, 1S75. 

Story, William W. (.4 m.) Born at Salem, Mass., 1819. Grad- 
uated at Harvard College, 1844. Studied law, and published several 

law treatises considered valuable in that profession. He published 
a volume of Poems in 1847, a Life of his father, Judge Story, in 
1851, and a second volume of Poems in 185G. Adopting sculpture as 
a profession, he went to Rome, one of his earliest works being a statue 
of his father, now at Mount Auburn Cemetery, in Cambridge, Mass. 
His " Cleopatra " (bought by John T. Johnston), and his " Sibyl," ex- 
hibited at the London International Exhibition of 1862, were highly 
praised by critics and connoisseurs. Among his works are, "Saul," 
" Sappho'," " Delilah," " Moses," "Judith," " Infant Bacchus," " Little 
Red Riding-Hood," and " Jerusalem in her Desolation " (presented 
by the purchasers of it to the Academy of Arts in Philadelphia). His 
"Medea" was at the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition in 1876. 
He is the author of the statues of George Peabody, in London, and of 
Edward Everett, in the Public Garden at Boston, both in bronze. At 
present (1878) he is engaged on a National Monument to be placed 
in Independence Square, Philadelphia. 

" 'Jerusalem in her Desolation ' is the title given by W. W. Story to a colossal statue 
[exhibited in London in 1S73]. It is a noble female figure clad in flowing drapery ; the 
head, crowned with a kind of phylactery, is finely modeled, the Hebrew face having an 

expression of mingled distress and contempt The general impression of the 

design is that of majestic, sorrow, and the execution of the work throughout is most care- 
ful. "—Art Journal, August. 1S73. 

'* The two conceptions, ' Cleopatra ' and the ' Libyan Sibyl,' have placed Mr. Story in 
European estimation at the head of American sculptors Profiting by the knowl- 
edge of the old masters, and forming his tastes upon the best styles, Story has had the 
independence to seek out an unused field. In this he confers honor on our school, and 
gives it an impetuses new as it is refreshing." — Jarves, Art Idea. 

" In a word, all Cleopatra — fierce, voluptuous, passionate, tender, wicked, terrible, and 
full of poisonous and rapturous enchantment — was kneaded into what, only a week or 
two before, had been a lump of wet clay from the Tiber. Soon apotheosized in an inde- 
structible materia], she would be ore of the images that men keep forever, finding a heat 
in them that does not cool down through the centuries." — Hawthorne, in The Marble 
Faun. 

Story, George H., A. X. A. (Am.) Born in New Haven, Ct, 
1835. He began Ids art studies, at the age of fifteen, under Professor 
Bail of New Haven ; later, spending two years in the studio of Charles 
Hine, a portrait-painter, in that city. Going to the Continent of 
Europe, he passed ■ year in general observation and study. He then 
resided two years in Portland, Me., gaining, in 1858, the State Medal 
of Maine for the best oil-painting. He painted for two years in 
Washington, I> 1 a year in Cuba, and for some time has 

been a resident of New York. In 1875 he was elected an Associate 



278 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

of the National Academy, and is a member of the Artists' Fund So- 
ciety. His pictures are exhibited frequently in New York and else- 
where. Among the better known of them are, " The Testy Old 
Squire's Complaint " (the property of Charles Rogers), " The Young 
Mother " (owned by J. F. Nash, Yonkers), " The Student of Nature " 
(owned by E. B. Warren, Philadelphia), "The Young Student" 
(owned by David Grosbeck, SufFern, N. Y.), a full-length life-sized 
portrait of H. J. Kimball, a portrait of Whitelaw Reid (belonging to the 
Lotus Club), "The Winter School," " Uncle Peter in his Castle," 
" The Return of the Forager," " Freeing the Butterfly," " Prayer," 
11 A New England Professor of Psalmody," " Making his Mark," 
" The Clock-Tinkers," a large portrait group of the Governor of Villa- 
Clara, in his gallery at Madrid, Spain, and others. His "Young 
Mother," "Echoes of the Sea," and "The Young Student" were at 
the Centennial Exhibition of Philadelphia in 1876. 

"No artist in this country has made such a decided advance in his profession during 
the last five years as George H. Story ; and he invests his works with so much refine- 
ment of feeling that they at once arrest attention in whatever position they may be 
placed." — Art Journal, May, 1875. 

Strazza, Giovanni. (Ital.) Born at Milan (1818 - 1875). Pro- 
fessor in the Academy of the Brera. He received many medals. When 
but twenty years old he had modeled, in Rome, his statue of " Ish- 
mael," which won him much fame. His works are seen in many 
cities. His bust of Manzoni was greatly admired at Vienna in 1873. 
One of his last works was the statue of Donizetti placed in the atrium 
of the Theater of the Scala at Milan in 1874. 

Street, George Edmund, R. A. (Brit.) Born in Essex, 1824. 
He studied architecture for some years under Sir George G. Scott. 
In 1866 he was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy, Academi- 
cian in 1871, and Auditor in 1873. He has designed many important 
buildings throughout Great Britain, particularly turning his attention 
to country-houses and church edifices. He was instrumental in the 
restoration of Bristol Cathedral and Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin, 
among others, and was appointed Architect to the new Courts of Jus- 
tice, London. 

Stroebel, J. A. B. (Dutch.) Of The Hague. Medal at Philadel- 
phia, where he exhibited " The Deacons of the Silversmiths' Guild 
conferring a Certificate," of which John F. Weir says, " while tending 
towards the conventional it is nevertheless admirable in many estima- 
ble qualities, broad and simple in treatment, and pure in tone." 

Stroobant, Francois. (Belgian.) Born at Brussels, 1819. Chev- 
alier of the Order of Leopold. Medal at Paris, 1855. Pupil of Lau- 
ters. An artist of good reputation as a landscape-painter. He used 
water-colors and pastels, and made numerous lithographs. 

Sturm, Friedrich Ludwig Christian. (Ger.) Born at Rostock, 
1834. Medal at London. Pupil of Berlin Academy under Eschky; later, 



ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 279 

under Professor Guile, at Carlsruhe, he finished his studies. Traveled 
in the North of Europe and Italy. At the National Gallery, Berlin, 
are his pictures of the " Baltic Sea " and the " Mediterranean Sea." 

Sully, Thomas. (Am.) Born in England (1783 - 1872). Taken 
to America at the age of nine years, he studied art in Charleston, 
S. C, where he began the practice of his profession as a portrait- 
painter. He lived for some time in Richmond, Va., and in New York, 
settling finally in Philadelphia. He made several visits to Europe ; 
in 1838 painting from life a portrait of Queen Victoria, now in the pos- 
session of the St. George's Society of Philadelphia. Among his por- 
traits are those of Lafayette, in Independence Hall ; Fanny Kemble ; 
Charles Kemble ; George Frederick Cooke, and others, in the Acad- 
emy of Fine Arts. Philadelphia. His portrait of Jefferson belongs to 
the Military Academy at West Point ; that of Commodore Decatur 
(at Philadelphia Exhibition in 1876) is in the City Hall, New York ; 
those of Reverdy Johnson and Charles Carroll are in Baltimore. His 
u Washington crossing the Delaware " (so familiar in America by the 
engraving) is in the Boston Museum. In the gallery of M. O. Rob- 
erts are his " Woman at the Well " and " A Girl offering Flowers at a 
Shrine." 

"Sully's organization fits him to sympathize with the fair and lovely rather than the 
grand or comic. He is keenly alive to the more refined phases of life and nature. His 
pencil follows with instinctive truth the principles of genuine taste. His forte is the 
graceful. Whatever faults the critics may detect in his works they are never those of 
awkwardness or constraint. He exhibits the freedom of touch and the airiness of out- 
line which belong to spontaneous emanations The series of illustrations that 

Sully commenced are happily, but not forcibly conceived. Portia is fair and dignified, 
but not sufficiently vigorous. Isabella is as chaste and nun-like as Shakspere made her, 
but her dormant and high enthusiasm does not enough appear; Miranda, a character 
better adapted than either to Sully's pencil, has an arch .simplicity caught from Nature 
herself." — Tixkf.rman's Book of the Artists. 

Sunol, Geronimo. (Sjmn.) Medal at Paris in 1867. At Phila- 
delphia he exhibited " Dante," in bronze, and received a medal. [No 
further authoritative information could be obtained.] 

Sussmann, Hellborn Louis. (Ger.) Born at Berlin, 1828. Mem- 
ber of the Academy of Rotterdam. Medals at Berlin, Brussels, 
Munich, Paris, and the Bavarian medal of Louis. Pupil of Berlin 
Academy and of Professor Wredow. He has spent much time in 
Italy, and has traveled considerably in Europe. Among his impor- 
tant works are the statues of " Frederick the Great " and " Frederick 
William III.," lor the grand salon of the Berlin Rathhaus ; a statue of 
" Frederick the Great in Youth," and a copy of " Frederick William 
III.," for the city of Breslau ; and a statue of " Frederick the Great as 
a Warrior," in bronze, for Brieg (erected in 1878). His " Drunken 
Faun" is at the National Gallery, Berlin. To the Paris Exposition, 
1878, he contributed a group, in marble, called "Lyric Poetry and 
Popular Song." 

Suydam, James A., X. A. (Am.) Born in New York (1817- 



280 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

1865). He traveled through Greece, Turkey, and other parts of the 
East with Minor C. Kellogg, and from him received the first rudi- 
ments of art. On his return to America he painted for some time 
with Kellogg, and later with Durand and Kensett, executing in the 
studio of the last named some of his best pictures. The most satis- 
factory of his works were coast views, although at times he was very 
happy in his views of the White Mountains, etc. He was a full mem- 
ber of the Academy of Design, elected about 1856. When the build- 
ing of the present Academy in New York was projected Mr. Suydam 
was instrumental in procuring large subscriptions towards that object, 
and took a very prominent part in its construction. He was made 
Treasurer of the Academy, a position he held until his death. He 
bequeathed to it the pictures now in its possession, known as the 
" Suydam Collection," as well as a large sum of money. He was de- 
voted to his art. One of his most agreeable pictures was a twilight 
with the New London lighthouse in the distance (in the Olyphant 
Collection). A " View on Long Island," with harvesting of salt hay, 
(one of his most important works), is now in the possession of his 
nephew, William A. Reese. His " Hook Mountain on the Hudson " 
belongs to S. Clift. 

Swertchkow, Nicolas. (Russian.) Born at St. Petersburg. 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Professor at the Academy of St. 
Petersburg. Studied in his native city, and paints genre subjects and 
animals, such as " The Kabitka in the Snow," " The Village Wed- 
ding," " Travelers Astray," " Landscape in Winter," etc. This artist 
has exhibited his works in Paris, London, and Brussels. In 1863, the 
year of his decoration, he sent to Paris, " A Horse Fair in the Interior 
of Russia," " Station for Post-Horses," and " The Return from the 
Bear-Hunt"; in 1864, "A Child fallen from a Sleigh during the 
Night, found in the Morning safe and well, in the midst of Wolves " 
and " Russian Travelers in Sleighs meeting in the midst of the Woods." 

Sylvestre, Joseph-Noel. (Fr.) Born at Beziers, 1847. Medals, 
1875 and '76. Prix du Salon, 1876. Pupil of Cabanel. In 1876 he 
exhibited a very remarkable picture of " Loeuste testing, in the Pres- 
ence of Nero, the Poison prepared for Britannicus." Much has been 
written and said of this picture. It is called " horrible," " wonderful," 
" magnificent," and " detestable," and all these epithets may be legiti- 
mately used. It is, in a word, a powerful, realistic representation of 
a scene without a trace of anything good or pleasing, but a scene 
which gives an opportunity for the display of artistic skill and knowl- 
edge. It is in the Luxembourg. In 1875 Sylvester exhibited " The 
Death of Seneca" ; in 1873, " Jeu de Bergers" ; in 1878, " The Last 
Moments of Vitellus Caesar." 

Tadolini, Adam Scipione. (Ital.) Born at Bologna (1789- 
1870). Professor of the Academy of Bologna. Pupil of Canova, 
Among the works of this celebrated sculptor are, u Venus and Love," 






ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 281 

for Prince Hercolani ; " The Rape of Ganymede," for Prince Ester- 
hazy ; the Tomb of Cardinal Laute, for the city of Bologna ; statue 
of M St. Francis de Salea," for St. Peter's at Rome ; a colossal " St. 
Michael," for the late Mr. Gardner Brewer of Boston (for which Va- 
peieau says the artist received 200,000 francs). 

Signora Tadolini, wife of this artist, made a reputation as an en- 
graver of cameos. 

Tait, Arthur F., X. A. (Brit-Am.) Born in Liverpool, 1819. In 1850 
he removed to America, settling in New York, where his professional life 
baa been spent. He has studied from nature in the Adirondack regions 
and elsewhere during the summer months, but has had no regular in- 
struction in art from any teacher, and belongs to no school of painting. 
He is a member of the Artists' Fund Society, and was elected mem- 
ber of the National Academy in 1858. He spent four months in Eu- 
rope in 1874, never painting professionally out of America. To the 
National Academy, in 1868, he contributed " A Duck and her Young " ; 
in 1869, "Ruffled Grouse"; in 1870, "Our Pets" (painted in part 
by James M. Hart) ; in 1S71, "Woodcock Shooting" (belonging to 
John C. Force) and " The Halt on the Carry " (belonging to Henry 
D. Polhemus) ; in 1873, "Racquette Lake" ; in 1874, "The Bogert 
Homestead, Eagleswood, N. J." ; in 1876, " There 's a Good Time 
coming" ; in 1878, "A Good Point" and " Lake Trout" (belonging 
to John E. Sichuan). To the Centennial at Philadelphia, in 1876, he 
sent " The Portage, — Waiting for the Boats," also painted in conjunc- 
tion with James M. Hart. His " Snowed In " is owned by Judge 
Hilton of New York, and other works are in the possession of John 
Osborn, James B. Blossom, Charles Blossom of Brooklyn, and others. 

Tait, John R. (Am.) Born in Cincinnati, 1834. He displayed 
artistic talents as a child, but did not follow painting as a profession 
until somewhat advanced in manhood. He went abroad in 1852, 
painting as an amateur in Florence and Rome for a few years, but 
devoting himself chiefly to literature, publishing a book of travels, 
and later, in 1859, a volume of poems entitled " Dolce Far Niente," 
both of which were very favorably received. He went again to Eu- 
rope in 1859, and spent some twelve years in Diisseldorf, broken by 
occasional visits to America, and by sketching-tours in nearly every 
country of Europe, In Diisseldorf and Munich his teachers were 
Professors A. Weber and Andreas Achenbach, but since 1870 he has 
pursued his studies independently in a direction diverging from the 
eldorf school. In 1871 and '72 he received the first-class medals 
of the Art Department of the Cincinnati Industrial Exhibition. Com- 
paratively few of Mr. Tait's picture- have found their way to America. 
They have been exhibited in the Saloni of Pari-, in London, Vienna, 
Berlin, etc., and have been sold in those cities. His first picture was 
_:it by Major, afterwards General, Philip Kearney, U. S. A. His 
"Waterfall, Pyrenees" is in the collection of Jamei Caird, Gourock 



282 ARTISTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

House, near Greenock on the Clyde ; his u Meyringen " belongs to 
James Staats Forbes, Wickenham Hall, Kent ; Prince Heinrich XVIII. 
of Reuss owns his " Waterfall " ; Hon. William S. Groesbeck of Cin- 
cinnati, his " Lake of Wallenstadt " ; Hon. George Vickers of Balti- 
more, his " Solitude." His " Evening on the Lake " and " Tyrolese 
Idyl " were at the Paris Salon of 1876 ; to the Centennial Exhibition, 
Philadelphia, 1876, he sent " Summer." Recently he has been a resi- 
dent of Baltimore, Md. 

"John R. Tait exhibits a large landscape with cattle whioh reminds one of the best 
examples of the old Dutch painters, without any sacrifice, however, of the artist's indi- 
viduality. Foliage, water, air, and the figures are treated with equal success, and a 
breath of the most charming lyric poetry pervades the whole, so that the picture belongs 
among the best of the present Exhibition." — Munich News (Bavaria), April, 1873. 

" Mr. Tait exhibited here, several years ago, a few pictures which showed a decided 
force and originality ; but they were touched with a savage gloom which rendered them 
not altogether pleasing. In his more recent style he has chosen the sweeter and gentler 

moods of nature The landscapes are in the main well drawn. In color they are not 

brilliant ; we should say that the aim of Mr. Tait is chiaroscuro rather than color. His 
skies are nearly